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Crohn microbiome bioinformatics

Sahil Khanna, Laura E Raffals
Individuals with a genetic predisposition to Crohn's disease develop aberrant immune responses to environmental triggers. The gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized to play an important role in the development of Crohn's disease. Decrease in global gut microbial diversity and specific bacterial alterations have been implicated in Crohn's disease. Advances in sequencing techniques and bioinformatics and correlation with host genetics continue to improve insight into the structure and function of the microbial community and interactions with the host immune system...
September 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Francesco Beghini, Edoardo Pasolli, Tin Duy Truong, Lorenza Putignani, Simone M Cacciò, Nicola Segata
The influence of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms on human gut health and disease is still largely unexplored. Blastocystis spp. commonly colonize the gut, but its clinical significance and ecological role are currently unsettled. We have developed a high-sensitivity bioinformatic pipeline to detect Blastocystis subtypes (STs) from shotgun metagenomics, and applied it to 12 large data sets, comprising 1689 subjects of different geographic origin, disease status and lifestyle. We confirmed and extended previous observations on the high prevalence the microrganism in the population (14...
December 2017: ISME Journal
Heitor S P de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi, Dimitrios Iliopoulos
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are prototypical complex diseases characterized by chronic and heterogeneous manifestations, induced by interacting environmental, genomic, microbial and immunological factors. These interactions result in an overwhelming complexity that cannot be tackled by studying the totality of each pathological component (an '-ome') in isolation without consideration of the interaction among all relevant -omes that yield an overall 'network effect'. The outcome of this effect is the 'IBD interactome', defined as a disease network in which dysregulation of individual -omes causes intestinal inflammation mediated by dysfunctional molecular modules...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Robert Häsler, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Anupam Sinha, Matthias Barann, Ateequr Rehman, Daniela Esser, Konrad Aden, Carolin Knecht, Berenice Brandt, Susanna Nikolaus, Sascha Schäuble, Christoph Kaleta, Andre Franke, Christoph Fretter, Werner Müller, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Michael Krawczak, Stefan Schreiber, Philip Rosenstiel
OBJECTIVE: An inadequate host response to the intestinal microbiota likely contributes to the manifestation and progression of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, molecular approaches to unravelling the nature of the defective crosstalk and its consequences for intestinal metabolic and immunological networks are lacking. We assessed the mucosal transcript levels, splicing architecture and mucosa-attached microbial communities of patients with IBD to obtain a comprehensive view of the underlying, hitherto poorly characterised interactions, and how these are altered in IBD...
December 2017: Gut
Weiwei Wang, Juan Jovel, Brendan Halloran, Eytan Wine, Jordan Patterson, Glenn Ford, Sandra OʼKeefe, Bo Meng, Deyong Song, Yong Zhang, Zhijian Tian, Shawn T Wasilenko, Mandana Rahbari, Salman Reza, Troy Mitchell, Tracy Jordan, Eric Carpenter, Karen Madsen, Richard Fedorak, Levinus A Dielemann, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Andrew L Mason
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are poorly understood disorders affecting the intestinal tract. The current model for disease suggests that genetically susceptible patients develop intolerance to gut microflora, and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental insults. Although interest has mainly focused on studying genetic variants and gut bacterial flora, little is known about the potential of viral infection to contribute to disease. Accordingly, we conducted a metagenomic analysis to document the baseline virome in colonic biopsy samples from patients with IBD in order to assess the contribution of viral infection to IBD...
June 2015: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Claudio Fiocchi
The complexity of IBD is well recognized as are the putative four major components of its pathogenesis, i.e. environment, genetic makeup, gut microbiota and mucosal immune response. Each of these components is extremely complex on its own, and at present should be more appropriately defined by the terms 'exposome', 'genome', 'microbiome' and 'immunome', respectively, based on the 'ome' suffix that refers to a totality of some sort. None of these 'omes' is apparently capable of causing IBD by itself; it is instead the intricate and reciprocal interaction among them, through the so-called 'IBD interactome', that results in the emergence of IBD, or more appropriately the 'IBD integrome'...
2014: Digestive Diseases
Hu Huang, Pajau Vangay, Christopher E McKinlay, Dan Knights
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, known together as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are severe autoimmune disorders now causing gut inflammation and ulceration, among other symptoms, in up to 1 in 250 people worldwide. Incidence and prevalence of IBD have been increasing dramatically over the past several decades, although the causes for this increase are still unknown. IBD has both a complex genotype and a complex phenotype, and although it has received substantial attention from the medical research community over recent years, much of the etiology remains unexplained...
December 2014: Immunology Letters
Timothy E Sweeney, John M Morton
Recent advances in parallel genomic processing and computational mapping have been applied to the native human microbial environment to provide a new understanding of the role of the microbiome in health and disease. In particular, studies of the distal gut microbiome have proposed that changes in gut microbiota are related to obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and Western diet. We examined the changes in the distal gut microbiome composition as it relates to the lean and obese phenotypes, particularly after surgical weight loss...
June 2013: JAMA Surgery
Lynnette R Ferguson
Crohn's disease is a chronic relapsing condition that has no certain cure. Both genetic susceptibility and nutrition have key roles, but their level of involvement varies between patients. Interacting gene pathways influence the probability of disease development, but these are affected by stress and various environmental factors, including diet. In addition, the role of the gut microbiome must not be underestimated, as it is substantially altered in patients with Crohn's disease. Although an elemental diet might lead to disease remission, reintroducing real foods and sustainable diets in patients with Crohn's disease is currently difficult, and would benefit from the sensitivity and rapid feedback provided by the field of nutrigenomics...
May 2012: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
S Mondot, S Kang, J P Furet, D Aguirre de Carcer, C McSweeney, M Morrison, P Marteau, J Doré, M Leclerc
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that gastrointestinal (GI) microbes play a part in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 16 healthy individuals and 16 CD patients (age- and sex-matched). The DNA extracted from these samples were subjected to two different methods of microbiome analysis. Specific bacterial groups were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods using primers designed using a high-throughput in-house bioinformatics pipeline...
January 2011: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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