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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904997/development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-linked-to-a-longitudinal-restructuring-of-the-gut-metagenome-in-mice
#1
Thomas Sharpton, Svetlana Lyalina, Julie Luong, Joey Pham, Emily M Deal, Courtney Armour, Christopher Gaulke, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Katherine S Pollard
The gut microbiome is linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) severity and altered in late-stage disease. However, it is unclear how gut microbial communities change over the course of IBD development, especially in regard to function. To investigate microbiome-mediated disease mechanisms and discover early biomarkers of IBD, we conducted a longitudinal metagenomic investigation in an established mouse model of IBD, where damped transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in T cells leads to peripheral immune activation, weight loss, and severe colitis...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877044/novel-insights-into-microbiome-in-colitis-and-colorectal-cancer
#2
Ye Yang, Christian Jobin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbiota is a major player in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we summarize the key advances achieved in the past 18 months (ending June 2017) toward a better understanding of the role of microbiota in colitis and CRC development. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence shows the essential role of intestinal barrier function (e.g. mucus, IgA, LCN2, LYPD8) in protecting against bacteria-induced inflammation and tumor development...
September 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867793/diet-gut-microbiome-and-epigenetics-emerging-links-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-prospects-for-management-and-prevention
#3
REVIEW
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Beatriz Romero-Mosquera, Vicent Hernandez
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent a growing public health concern due to increasing incidence worldwide. The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers. Among the environmental factors associated with IBD, diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiome, influencing epigenetic changes, and, therefore, could be applied as a therapeutic tool to improve the disease course...
August 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859695/learning-microbial-community-structures-with-supervised-and-unsupervised-non-negative-matrix-factorization
#4
Yun Cai, Hong Gu, Toby Kenney
BACKGROUND: Learning the structure of microbial communities is critical in understanding the different community structures and functions of microbes in distinct individuals. We view microbial communities as consisting of many subcommunities which are formed by certain groups of microbes functionally dependent on each other. The focus of this paper is on methods for extracting the subcommunities from the data, in particular Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Our methods can be applied to both OTU data and functional metagenomic data...
August 31, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858073/the-current-landscape-and-lessons-from-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-past-present-and-future
#5
Jessica Allegretti, Lindsay M Eysenbach, Najwa El-Nachef, Monika Fischer, Colleen Kelly, Zain Kassam
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has changed the standard of care for Clostridium difficile infection. However, there is limited data focusing on efficacy and safety profile of FMT in patients with C. difficile infection with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including the risk of IBD flare. Recently, there is also emerging evidence supporting the role of FMT to treat IBD including promising randomized trials in ulcerative colitis. However, with heterogeneity across these studies, the clinical application of this emerging therapy has yet to be fully elucidated...
August 29, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852861/analysis-of-endoscopic-brush-samples-identified-mucosa-associated-dysbiosis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Kyohei Nishino, Atsushi Nishida, Ryo Inoue, Yuki Kawada, Masashi Ohno, Shigeki Sakai, Osamu Inatomi, Shigeki Bamba, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Masahiro Kawahara, Yuji Naito, Akira Andoh
BACKGROUND: The mucosa-associated gut microbiota directly modulates epithelial and mucosal function. In this study, we investigated the mucosa-associated microbial community in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), using endoscopic brush samples. METHODS: A total of 174 mucus samples from 43 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 26 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 14 non-IBD controls were obtained by gentle brushing of mucosal surfaces using endoscopic cytology brushes...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842640/cross-sectional-evaluation-of-the-gut-microbiome-metabolome-axis-in-an-italian-cohort-of-ibd-patients
#7
Maria Laura Santoru, Cristina Piras, Antonio Murgia, Vanessa Palmas, Tania Camboni, Sonia Liggi, Ivan Ibba, Maria Antonia Lai, Sandro Orrù, Anna Lisa Loizedda, Julian Leether Griffin, Paolo Usai, Pierluigi Caboni, Luigi Atzori, Aldo Manzin
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract of uncertain origin, which includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The composition of gut microbiota may change in IBD affected individuals, but whether dysbiosis is the cause or the consequence of inflammatory processes in the intestinal tissue is still unclear. Here, the composition of the microbiota and the metabolites in stool of 183 subjects (82 UC, 50 CD, and 51 healthy controls) were determined...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831186/the-ibd-interactome-an-integrated-view-of-aetiology-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Heitor S P de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi, Dimitrios Iliopoulos
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are prototypical complex diseases characterized by chronic and heterogeneous manifestations, induced by interacting environmental, genomic, microbial and immunological factors. These interactions result in an overwhelming complexity that cannot be tackled by studying the totality of each pathological component (an '-ome') in isolation without consideration of the interaction among all relevant -omes that yield an overall 'network effect'. The outcome of this effect is the 'IBD interactome', defined as a disease network in which dysregulation of individual -omes causes intestinal inflammation mediated by dysfunctional molecular modules...
August 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827258/protocol-for-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-pilot-study-for-assessing-feasibility-and-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-paediatric-ulcerative-colitis-population-pedifetch-trial
#9
Nikhil Pai, Jelena Popov
INTRODUCTION: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing condition characterised by colonic inflammation. Increasing prevalence in early-age diagnosis provides opportunities for additional complications in later life as a result of prolonged exposure to inflammatory and therapeutic insults, necessitating novel avenues for therapeutics which may result in fewer side effects. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has previously demonstrated potential therapeutic benefit in an adult randomised-controlled trial and several recurrent Clostridium difficile infection studies...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827067/increased-tryptophan-metabolism-is-associated-with-activity-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#10
Susanna Nikolaus, Berenice Schulte, Natalie Al-Massad, Florian Thieme, Dominik M Schulte, Johannes Bethge, Ateequr Rehman, Florian Tran, Konrad Aden, Robert Häsler, Natalie Moll, Gregor Schütze, Markus J Schwarz, Georg H Waetzig, Philip Rosenstiel, Michael Krawczak, Silke Szymczak, Stefan Schreiber
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Administration of tryptophan, and some of its metabolites, reduces the severity of colitis in mice, whereas removing tryptophan from the diet increases susceptibility to colitis. Transfer of the intestinal microbiome can increase susceptibility of mice to colitis. We aimed to systematically evaluate serum levels of tryptophan and its metabolites in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and study their association with clinical and serologic features. METHODS: We studied 535 consecutive patients with IBD (211 with ulcerative colitis [UC], 234 with Crohn's disease [CD]; 236 male), enrolled in Germany from August 2013 through April 2014 and followed until July 2016...
August 18, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826742/a-comprehensive-review-and-update-on-crohn-s-disease
#11
Mahesh Gajendran, Priyadarshini Loganathan, Anthony P Catinella, Jana G Hashash
The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers principally to two major categories of chronic relapsing inflammatory intestinal disorders: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In the United States, it is currently estimated that about 1.5 million people suffer from IBD, causing considerable suffering, mortality and economic loss every year. Yet the cause of IBD is unknown, and until we understand more, prevention or cure will not be possible. There is a lot of variation in the incidence and prevalence of CD based on geographic region, environment, immigrant population, and ethnic groups...
August 18, 2017: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764868/modeling-new-immunoregulatory-therapeutics-as-antimicrobial-alternatives-for-treating-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Vida Abedi, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Caroline Stewart, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
The current treatment paradigm in Clostridium difficile infection is the administration of antibiotics contributing to the high rates of recurrent infections. Recent alternative strategies, such as fecal microbiome transplantation and anti-toxin antibodies, have shown similar efficacy in the treatment of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD). However, barriers exist for either treatment or other novel treatments to displace antibiotics as the standard of care. To aid in the comparison of these and future treatments in CDAD, we developed an in silico pipeline to predict clinical efficacy with nonclinical results...
May 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706774/are-dominant-strictures-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-risk-factor-for-cholangiocarcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Roger W Chapman, Kate D Williamson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating, unpredictable complication of large duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), which occurs in 5-15% of patients. The aim of this review is to discuss whether dominant strictures (DS) occurring in the larger bile ducts in PSC are a risk factor for the development of cholangiocarcinoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of DS is related to specific genetic polymorphisms affecting the innate immune system and the microbiome...
2017: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700948/peripartum-antibiotics-promote-gut-dysbiosis-loss-of-immune-tolerance-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-genetically-prone-offspring
#14
Jun Miyoshi, Alexandria M Bobe, Sawako Miyoshi, Yong Huang, Nathaniel Hubert, Tom O Delmont, A Murat Eren, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Factors affecting the developing neonatal gut microbiome and immune networks may increase the risk of developing complex immune disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In particular, peripartum antibiotics have been suggested as risk factors for human IBD, although direct evidence is lacking. Therefore, we examined the temporal impact of the commonly used antibiotic cefoperazone on both maternal and offspring microbiota when administered to dams during the peripartum period in the IL-10-deficient murine colitis model...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696041/the-contribution-of-microbial-biotechnology-to-sustainable-development-goals-microbiome-therapies
#15
Paul W O'Toole, Max Paoli
Complex communities of microbes live on and in plants, humans and other animals. These communities are collectively referred to as the microbiota or microbiome. Plants and animals evolved to co-exist with these microbes. In mammals, particular kinds of alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) are associated with loss of health, most likely due to loss of microbial metabolites, signalling molecules, or regulators of host pathways. Modern life-style diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome have been linked to dysbiosis...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692320/the-probiotic-vsl-3-modulates-colonic-macrophages-inflammation-and-microflora-in-acute-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-colitis
#16
Raymond A Isidro, Abdon Lopez, Myrella L Cruz, Mayra I Gonzalez Torres, Gladys Chompre, Angel A Isidro, Caroline B Appleyard
The probiotic mixture VSL#3 attenuates colitis in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and in animal models of this condition, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. VSL#3 alters macrophage morphology and secretory profile in vitro in a polarization-dependent manner. We examined the effect of VSL#3 on macrophages in acute trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Rats were randomized to normal, colitis, or colitis+VSL#3 groups. After sacrifice, the colons were evaluated for macroscopic and microscopic damage...
August 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658154/16s-sequencing-and-functional-analysis-of-the-fecal-microbiome-during-treatment-of-newly-diagnosed-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
James J Ashton, Catherine M Colquhoun, David W Cleary, Tracy Coelho, Rachel Haggarty, Imke Mulder, Akshay Batra, Nadeem A Afzal, R Mark Beattie, Karen P Scott, Sarah Ennis
The human microbiome is of considerable interest to pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) researchers with 1 potential mechanism for disease development being aberrant immune handling of the intestinal bacteria. This study analyses the fecal microbiome through treatment in newly diagnosed PIBD patients and compares to cohabiting siblings where possible. Patients were recruited on clinical suspicion of PIBD before diagnosis. Treatment-naïve fecal samples were collected, with further samples at 2 and 6 weeks into treatment...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633443/nod2-genetic-variants-predispose-one-of-two-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-siblings-to-pouchitis-through-microbiome-dysbiosis
#18
Kathleen M Schieffer, Justin R Wright, Leonard R Harris, Sue Deiling, Zhaohai Yang, Regina Lamendella, Gregory S Yochum, Walter A Koltun
Background and Aims: Individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) may undergo a total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) to surgically treat their disease. Inflammation of the ileal pouch, termed pouchitis, is uncommon in FAP patients but prevalent in patients who received IPAA for ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods and Results: We report on two FAP siblings, living in the same household, who underwent IPAA surgery within one week of each other...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632755/potassium-is-a-key-signal-in-host-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-periodontitis
#19
Susan Yost, Ana E Duran-Pinedo, Keerthana Krishnan, Jorge Frias-Lopez
Dysbiosis, or the imbalance in the structural and/or functional properties of the microbiome, is at the origin of important infectious inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontal disease. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that affects a large proportion of the world's population and has been associated with a wide variety of systemic health conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Dysbiosis has been identified as a key element in the development of the disease...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546791/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-from-clostridium-difficile-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved from a case report in the medical literature to the basis of major innovations in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and, potentially, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the clinical setting, FMT was noted to significantly lower the risk of recurrent CDI, likely by increasing microbial diversity and altering the metabolic environment in the intestinal tract of recipients. In parallel, advances in the ability to quantify and characterize microbial communities in fecal samples led to the association of IBD with a state of intestinal dysbiosis...
April 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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