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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058011/fecal-microbial-transplant-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
REVIEW
Alice Yuxin Wang, Jelena Popov, Nikhil Pai
The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) in the treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal disease has become increasingly popular among pediatric practitioners, patients, and parents. The success of FMT for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) has bolstered interest in its potential application to other disease states, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FMT has particular interest in pediatrics, given the concerns of patients and parents about rates of adverse events with existing therapeutic options, and the greater cumulative medication burden associated with childhood-onset disease...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057210/epigenetic-changes-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#2
O Fogel, C Richard-Miceli, J Tost
The number of people diagnosed with chronic inflammatory diseases has increased noteworthy in the last 40 years. Spondyloarthritis (SpA), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and psoriasis are the most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small and long noncoding RNAs. They are influenced by environmental exposure, life-style, and aging and have recently been shown to be altered in many complex diseases including inflammatory diseases...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052195/quantitative-metaproteomics-and-activity-based-probe-enrichment-reveals-significant-alterations-in-protein-expression-from-a-mouse-model-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Michael D Mayers, Clara Moon, Gregory S Stupp, Andrew I Su, Dennis W Wolan
Tandem mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics of distal gut microbiomes is exceedingly difficult due to the inherent complexity and taxonomic diversity of the samples. We introduce two new methodologies to improve metaproteomic studies of microbiome samples. These methods include the stable isotope labeling in mammals to permit protein quantitation across two mouse cohorts, as well as the application of activity-based probes to enrich and analyze both host and microbial proteins with specific functionalities...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#4
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034915/early-life-antibiotic-treatment-enhances-the-pathogenicity-of-cd4-t-cells-during-intestinal-inflammation
#5
Sebastian Scheer, Tiago S Medina, Alex Murison, Matthew D Taves, Frann Antignano, Alistair Chenery, Kiran K Soma, Georgia Perona-Wright, Mathieu Lupien, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Daniel D De Carvalho, Colby Zaph
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has steadily increased in recent decades-a phenomenon that cannot be explained by genetic mutations alone. Other factors, including the composition of the intestinal microbiome, are potentially important contributors to the increased occurrence of this group of diseases. Previous reports have shown a correlation between early-life antibiotic (Abx) treatment and an increased incidence of IBD. In this report, we investigated the effects of early-life Abx treatments on the pathogenicity of CD4(+) T cells using an experimental T cell transfer model of IBD...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030510/clinical-and-fecal-microbial-changes-with-diet-therapy-in-active-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
David L Suskind, Stanley A Cohen, Mitchell J Brittnacher, Ghassan Wahbeh, Dale Lee, Michele L Shaffer, Kimberly Braly, Hillary S Hayden, Jani Klein, Benjamin Gold, Matthew Giefer, Angela Stallworth, Samuel I Miller
GOAL: To determine the effect of the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) on active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). BACKGROUND: IBD is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory intestinal disorder associated with fecal dysbiosis. Diet is a potential therapeutic option for IBD based on the hypothesis that changing the fecal dysbiosis could decrease intestinal inflammation. STUDY: Pediatric patients with mild to moderate IBD defined by pediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI 10-45) or pediatric ulcerative colitis activity index (PUCAI 10-65) were enrolled into a prospective study of the SCD...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981307/microbiota-small-rnas-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Anca T Filip, Ovidiu Balacescu, Catalin Marian, Andrei Anghel
MiRNAs are a class of potential gene regulators of critical importance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). This review aims to present the connection between gut microbiota, probiotics administration and microRNA (miRNA) expression in IBD. It also brings into question cross-kingdom RNAi (RNA interference). Not only that gut host cells garden the intestinal microbiome via miRNA, but also strong evidence supports the idea that different species of bacteria have an impact on the intestinal immune response by modulating miRNA expression...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980034/qsec-inhibition-as-an-antivirulence-approach-for-colitis-associated-bacteria
#8
Michelle G Rooks, Patrick Veiga, Analise Z Reeves, Sydney Lavoie, Koji Yasuda, Yasunari Asano, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Monia Michaud, Leslie Wardwell-Scott, Carey Ann Gallini, Jonathan N Glickman, Nobuyuki Sudo, Curtis Huttenhower, Cammie F Lesser, Wendy S Garrett
Hosts and their microbes have established a sophisticated communication system over many millennia. Within mammalian hosts, this dynamic cross-talk is essential for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In a genetically susceptible host, dysbiosis of the gut microbiome and dysregulated immune responses are central to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous surveys of stool from the T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) IBD mouse model revealed microbial features that discriminate between health and disease states...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915988/vitamin-d-vdr-probiotics-and-gastrointestinal-diseases
#9
Mei Shang, Jun Sun
Vitamin D is an important factor in regulating inflammation, immune responses, and carcinoma inhibition via action of its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D/VDR in regulating host-bacterial interactions. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria with the power of supporting or favoring life on the host. In the current review, we will discuss the recent progress on the roles of vitamin D/VDR in gut microbiome and inflammation. We will summarize evidence of probiotics in modulating vitamin D/VDR and balancing gut microbiota in health and gastrointestinal diseases...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884149/sasa-quelpaertensis-leaf-extract-regulates-microbial-dysbiosis-by-modulating-the-composition-and-diversity-of-the-microbiota-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-mice
#10
Yiseul Yeom, Bong-Soo Kim, Se-Jae Kim, Yuri Kim
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are related to a dysfunction of the mucosal immune system and they result from complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle, diet, and the gut microbiome. Therefore, the effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on gut microbiota in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was investigated with pyrosequencing of fecal samples. METHODS: Three groups of animals were examined: i) a control group, ii) a group that was received 2...
November 25, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874308/microbial-metabolomic-and-immunologic-dynamics-in-a-relapsing-genetic-mouse-model-of-colitis-induced-by-t-synthase-deficiency
#11
Jonathan P Jacobs, Lin Lin, Maryam Goudarzi, Paul Ruegger, Dermot P B McGovern, Albert J Fornace, James Borneman, Lijun Xia, Jonathan Braun
Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to confer susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unknown whether dynamic changes in the microbiome contribute to fluctuations in disease activity. We explored this question using mice with intestine-specific deletion of C1galt1 (also known as T-synthase) (Tsyn mice). These mice develop spontaneous microbiota-dependent colitis with a remitting/relapsing course due to loss of mucin core-1 derived O-glycans. 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics demonstrated age-specific perturbations in the intestinal microbiome and metabolome of Tsyn mice compare with littermate controls at weeks 3 (disease onset), 5 (during remission), and 9 (after relapse)...
November 22, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824648/fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome-in-a-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-chronic-colitis-relevance-to-human-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Ainsley M Robinson, Shakuntla V Gondalia, Avinash V Karpe, Rajaraman Eri, David J Beale, Paul D Morrison, Enzo A Palombo, Kulmira Nurgali
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of the intestinal microbiome and metabolome in IBD onset and its alteration during active treatment and recovery remain unknown. Animal models of chronic intestinal inflammation with similar microbial and metabolomic profiles would enable investigation of these mechanisms and development of more effective treatments. Recently, the Winnie mouse model of colitis closely representing the clinical symptoms and characteristics of human IBD has been developed...
December 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821485/dietary-emulsifier-induced-low-grade-inflammation-promotes-colon-carcinogenesis
#13
Emilie Viennois, Didier Merlin, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
The increased risks conferred by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to the development of colorectal cancer gave rise to the term "colitis-associated cancer" and the concept that inflammation promotes colon tumorigenesis. A condition more common than IBD is low-grade inflammation, which correlates with altered gut microbiota composition and metabolic syndrome, both present in many cases of colorectal cancer. Recent findings suggest that low-grade inflammation in the intestine is promoted by consumption of dietary emulsifiers, a ubiquitous component of processed foods, which alter the composition of gut microbiota...
January 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795980/functional-characterization-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-gut-dysbiosis-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#14
Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Andrew B Shreiner, Merritt G Gillilland, Sho Kitamoto, Chiharu Ishii, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Peter Kuffa, Mohamad El-Zaatari, Helmut Grasberger, Anna M Seekatz, Peter D R Higgins, Vincent B Young, Shinji Fukuda, John Y Kao, Nobuhiko Kamada
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gut dysbiosis is closely involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear whether IBD-associated gut dysbiosis contributes to disease pathogenesis or is merely secondary to intestinal inflammation. We established a humanized gnotobiotic (hGB) mouse system to assess the functional role of gut dysbiosis associated with 2 types of IBD: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Germ-free mice were colonized by the gut microbiota isolated from patients with CD and UC, and healthy controls...
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793607/understanding-and-preventing-the-global-increase-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Gilaad G Kaplan, Siew C Ng
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are contemporary conditions of industrialized societies. The prevalence of IBD continues to increase steadily in Western countries, and newly industrialized countries have a rapidly increasing incidence. The global spread of IBD appears to associate with Westernization of diets and environments, which affects the intestinal microbiome and increases the risk of IBD in genetically susceptible individuals. It is important to increase our understanding of these events to slow progression of IBD...
February 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785786/the-genetic-background-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-correlation-to-causality
#16
REVIEW
Werna Tc Uniken Venema, Michiel D Voskuil, Gerard Dijkstra, Rinse K Weersma, Eleonora Am Festen
Recent studies have greatly improved our insight into the genetic background of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New high-throughput technologies and large-scale international collaborations have contributed to the identification of 200 independent genetic risk loci for IBD. However, in most of these loci, it is unclear which gene conveys the risk for IBD. More importantly, it is unclear which variant within or near the gene is causal to the disease. Using targeted GWAS, imputation, resequencing of risk loci, and in silico fine-mapping of densely typed loci, several causal variants have been identified in IBD risk genes, and various pathological pathways have been uncovered...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779499/an-overview-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Matthew C Choy, Kumar Visvanathan, Peter De Cruz
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are thought to develop as a result of complex interactions between host genetics, the immune system and the environment including the gut microbiome. Although an improved knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of IBDs has led to great advances in therapy such as the highly effective anti-tumor necrosis factor class of medications, a significant proportion of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis do not respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies. Further understanding of the different immune pathways involved in the genesis of chronic intestinal inflammation is required to help find effective treatments for IBDs...
January 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769810/roles-for-intestinal-bacteria-viruses-and-fungi-in-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-therapeutic-approaches
#18
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
February 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760077/the-gut-microbiome-of-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-patients-differs-from-healthy-controls-in-genes-that-can-influence-the-balance-between-a-healthy-and-dysregulated-immune-response
#19
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a first-line therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) thought to induce remission through changes in the gut microbiome. With microbiome assessment largely focused on microbial taxonomy and diversity, it remains unclear to what extent EEN induces functional changes that thereby contribute to its therapeutic effect. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 15 pediatric CD patients prior to and after EEN treatment, as well as from 5 healthy controls...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743467/therapeutic-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-ibd-more-questions-to-be-answered
#20
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
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