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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331497/dietary-antioxidant-micronutrients-alter-mucosal-inflammatory-risk-in-a-murine-model-of-genetic-and-microbial-susceptibility
#1
Joseph F Pierre, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Romain Bouziat, Nathan A Hubert, Vanessa Leone, Jun Miyoshi, Bana Jabri, Eugene B Chang
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by the convergence of microbial, environmental, and genetic factors. Diet significantly alters these interactions by affecting both the host and microbiome. Using a mucosal inflammatory model that resembles the human condition of ileal pouchitis, we investigated the effects of Control (CONT) or Antioxidant (AOX) diet, containing pharmacologically relevant levels of 4 micronutrients, on disease risk in wild-type and IL-10-/- animals following surgical self-filling (SF) ileal blind loop placement...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328869/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-fermentable-oligosaccharides-disaccharides-monosaccharides-and-polyols-an-overview
#2
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Ana Luíza de Carvalho Aranão, Pamela Grazielle Correa de Oliveira
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are mainly represented by ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and the increase in the incidence tends to follow the rapid industrialization and lifestyle of modern societies. FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) consist of molecules that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and are fermented by bacteria in the colon leading to symptoms such as bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Reduction of the ingestion of FODMAP could reduce the symptoms and improve the quality of life...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317503/er-stress-mobilization-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-1-dependent-xenophagy-counteracts-mitochondria-stress-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#3
Fernando Lopes, Åsa V Keita, Alpana Saxena, Jose Luis Reyes, Nicole Mancini, Ala Al Rajabi, Arthur Wang, Cristiane Baggio, Michael Dicay, Rob van Dalen, Younghee Ahn, Matheus Carneiro, Nathan Peters, Jong M Rho, Wallace MacNaughton, Stephan E Girardin, Humberto Jijon, Dana J Philpott, Johan D Söderholm, Derek M McKay
The gut microbiome contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which bacteria can be present within the epithelium. Epithelial barrier function is decreased in IBD, and dysfunctional epithelial mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been individually associated with IBD. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of ER and mitochondrial stresses significantly disrupt epithelial barrier function. Here, we treated human colonic biopsies, epithelial colonoids, and epithelial cells with an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP), with or without the ER stressor tunicamycin, and assessed epithelial barrier function by monitoring internalization and translocation of commensal bacteria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311644/dynamics-of-metatranscription-in-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-gut-microbiome
#4
Melanie Schirmer, Eric A Franzosa, Jason Lloyd-Price, Lauren J McIver, Randall Schwager, Tiffany W Poon, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Elizabeth Andrews, Gildardo Barron, Kathleen Lake, Mahadev Prasad, Jenny Sauk, Betsy Stevens, Robin G Wilson, Jonathan Braun, Lee A Denson, Subra Kugathasan, Dermot P B McGovern, Hera Vlamakis, Ramnik J Xavier, Curtis Huttenhower
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic diseases of the digestive tract that affects millions of people worldwide. Genetic, environmental and microbial factors have been implicated in the onset and exacerbation of IBD. However, the mechanisms associating gut microbial dysbioses and aberrant immune responses remain largely unknown. The integrative Human Microbiome Project seeks to close these gaps by examining the dynamics of microbiome functionality in disease by profiling the gut microbiomes of >100 individuals sampled over a 1-year period...
January 8, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183332/a-novel-ruminococcus-gnavus-clade-enriched-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#5
Andrew Brantley Hall, Moran Yassour, Jenny Sauk, Ashley Garner, Xiaofang Jiang, Timothy Arthur, Georgia K Lagoudas, Tommi Vatanen, Nadine Fornelos, Robin Wilson, Madeline Bertha, Melissa Cohen, John Garber, Hamed Khalili, Dirk Gevers, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Subra Kugathasan, Eric S Lander, Paul Blainey, Hera Vlamakis, Ramnik J Xavier, Curtis Huttenhower
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that is associated with changes in the gut microbiome. Here, we sought to identify strain-specific functional correlates with IBD outcomes. METHODS: We performed metagenomic sequencing of monthly stool samples from 20 IBD patients and 12 controls (266 total samples). These were taxonomically profiled with MetaPhlAn2 and functionally profiled using HUMAnN2...
November 28, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180726/intergenerational-transfer-of-antibiotic-perturbed-microbiota-enhances-colitis-in-susceptible-mice
#6
Anjelique F Schulfer, Thomas Battaglia, Yelina Alvarez, Luc Bijnens, Victoria E Ruiz, Melody Ho, Serina Robinson, Tonya Ward, Laura M Cox, Arlin B Rogers, Dan Knights, R Balfour Sartor, Martin J Blaser
Antibiotic exposure in children has been associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Antibiotic use in children or in their pregnant mother can affect how the intestinal microbiome develops, so we asked whether the transfer of an antibiotic-perturbed microbiota from mothers to their children could affect their risk of developing IBD. Here we demonstrate that germ-free adult pregnant mice inoculated with a gut microbial community shaped by antibiotic exposure transmitted their perturbed microbiota to their offspring with high fidelity...
November 27, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176472/the-omes-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-primer-for-clinicians
#7
Joseph A Picoraro, Neal S LeLeiko
Recent advances in high-throughput laboratory technologies and bioinformatics tools are redefining how we view inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Instead of two diseases we now see a diverse set of molecular subtypes. Large scale investigation of the genome, exome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, microbiome, and epigenome are providing transformative insights into the pathophysiology of IBD, with the promise of accurately predicting prognosis and targeting therapy. Understanding these tools and their application is crucial to navigating the molecular era of IBD...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173525/the-brain-gut-axis-and-stress-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Charles N Bernstein
The brain-gut axis serves as a circuit that incorporates the human experience, the state of mind, the gut microbiome, and the immune response that ultimately drives the phenotypic expression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are several biological pathways through which stress can play a deleterious role, including through increasing intestinal permeability, which can facilitate intestinal translocation of bacteria. Stress has an impact on symptoms in IBD; however, there is limited evidence that stress triggers increased intestinal inflammation...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173524/fecal-transplant-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
Alexander S Browne, Colleen R Kelly
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have differences in their gastrointestinal microbiome compared with healthy individuals, although it is unclear whether this is a cause or consequence of chronic inflammation. There is hope that manipulation of the gut microbiome through fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), commonly used to treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection, may also be an effective therapy in IBD. This article reviews the evidence supporting FMT in IBD, including case reports, case series, and randomized controlled trials...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173517/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-strategies-for-therapeutic-gut-microbiota-modulation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-their-next-generation-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Abigail R Basson, Minh Lam, Fabio Cominelli
The human gut microbiome exerts a major impact on human health and disease, and therapeutic gut microbiota modulation is now a well-advocated strategy in the management of many diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Scientific and clinical evidence in support of complementary and alternative medicine, in targeting intestinal dysbiosis among patients with IBD, or other disorders, has increased dramatically over the past years. Delivery of "artificial" stool replacements for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could provide an effective, safer alternative to that of human donor stool...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155234/survivin-and-autoimmunity-the-ins-and-outs
#11
REVIEW
Hamidreza Ebrahimiyan, Saeed Aslani, Nima Rezaei, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Mahdi Mahmoudi
Autoimmunity is a status that immune mechanisms react against self-structure. The immune mechanisms, including cellular and molecular elements have been developed to immune body against foreign invades. Multiple factors such as genetic and epigenetic background, hormonal status, microbiome, and other factors can cause launching the autoreactive responses, in which the immune tolerance breaks and immune mechanisms are against self-antigens. Apoptosis is one of the important mechanisms in maintaining the tolerance and eliminating the autoreactive lymphocyte clones...
November 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145572/difference-in-clinical-course-genetics-and-the-microbiome-between-familial-and-sporadic-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#12
Nienke Z Borren, Grace Conway, John J Garber, Hamed Khalili, Shrish Budree, Himel Mallick, Vijay Yajnik, Ramnik J Xavier, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
Objective: Family history is the strongest risk factor for developing Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated whether the proximity of relationship with the affected relative and concordance for type of IBD modifies the effect of family history on phenotype and disease severity. Design: This cross-sectional study included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IBD in a clinical registry. Family history of IBD was assessed by a questionnaire ascertaining presence of disease in a 1 st degree, 2 nd degree or a distant relative...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141957/adherent-invasive-escherichia-coli-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Carolina Palmela, Caroline Chevarin, Zhilu Xu, Joana Torres, Gwladys Sevrin, Robert Hirten, Nicolas Barnich, Siew C Ng, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Intestinal microbiome dysbiosis has been consistently described in patients with IBD. In the last decades, Escherichia coli, and the adherent-invasive E coli (AIEC) pathotype in particular, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. Since the discovery of AIEC, two decades ago, progress has been made in unravelling these bacteria characteristics and its interaction with the gut immune system. The mechanisms of adhesion of AIEC to intestinal epithelial cells (via FimH and cell adhesion molecule 6) and its ability to escape autophagy when inside macrophages are reviewed here...
November 15, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126501/overview-of-paediatric-ibd
#14
David C Wilson, Richard K Russell
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic complex disease of children and adults requiring a range of medications and surgical techniques to induce and maintain remission. In common with other immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, it has shown an ever-increasing rise in incidence worldwide over the last 50 years. The cause of IBD arises from interactions between the microbiome in the gut and the gastrointestinal and systemic immune system in genetically susceptible persons, and with environmental triggers to both develop IBD and have relapses of IBD...
December 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112157/vitamin-d-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-role-current-uses-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Rita Del Pinto, Claudio Ferri, Fabio Cominelli
Increasing evidence supports the concept that the vitamin D axis possesses immunoregulatory functions, with vitamin D receptor (VDR) status representing the major determinant of vitamin D's pleiotropic effects. Vitamin D promotes the production of anti-microbial peptides, including β-defensins and cathelicidins, the shift towards Th2 immune responses, and regulates autophagy and epithelial barrier integrity. Impairment of vitamin D-mediated pathways are associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094792/dietary-therapies-for-functional-bowel-symptoms-recent-advances-challenges-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
C J Tuck, S J Vanner
BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cause significant morbidity and a reduction in quality of life. Multiple dietary therapies are now available to treat these symptoms, but supporting evidence for many is limited. In addition to a further need for studies demonstrating efficacy and mechanism of action of dietary therapies, the risk of nutritional inadequacy, alterations to the microbiome and changes in quality of life are key concerns requiring elucidation...
November 2, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034981/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-avenues-for-microbial-management
#17
REVIEW
J McIlroy, G Ianiro, I Mukhopadhya, R Hansen, G L Hold
BACKGROUND: The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics. AIM: To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021788/micrornas-based-inter-domain-communication-between-the-host-and-members-of-the-gut-microbiome
#18
REVIEW
Maggie R Williams, Robert D Stedtfeld, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
The gut microbiome is an important modulator of host gene expression, impacting important functions such as the innate immune response. Recent evidence suggests that the inter-domain communication between the gut microbiome and host may in part occur via microRNAs (small, non-coding RNA molecules) which are often differentially expressed in the presence of bacteria and can even be released and taken up by bacteria. The role of microRNAs in microbiome-host communication in intestinal diseases is not fully understood, particularly in diseases impacted by exposure to environmental toxicants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019427/management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-related-anemia-and-iron-deficiency-with-specific-reference-to-the-role-of-intravenous-iron-in-current-practice
#19
Jürgen Stein, Ayşegül Aksan, Karima Farrag, Axel Dignass, Heinfried H Radeke
Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, impacting disease prognosis, morbidity, hospitalization rates and time lost from work. While iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic inflammation predominate, combinations of hematimetric and biochemical markers facilitate the diagnosis and targeted therapy of other etiologies according to their underlying pathophysiological causes. Intravenous iron replacement is currently recommended in IBD patients with moderate to severe anemia or intolerance to oral iron...
November 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993566/fecal-microbiome-in-dogs-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-intestinal-lymphoma
#20
Marie Omori, Shingo Maeda, Hirotaka Igarashi, Koichi Ohno, Kosei Sakai, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Ayako Horigome, Toshitaka Odamaki, Naoaki Matsuki
Although alteration of commensal microbiota is associated with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs, the microbiota composition in intestinal lymphoma, an important differential diagnosis of canine IBD, has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota in dogs with IBD, dogs with intestinal lymphoma, and healthy dogs. Eight dogs with IBD, eight dogs with intestinal lymphoma, and fifteen healthy dogs were included in the study...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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