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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106820/development-and-function-of-the-mucosal-immune-system-in-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-neonatal-calves
#1
Rahwa Osman, Nilusha Malmuthuge, Patricia Gonzalez-Cano, Philip Griebel
Respiratory infections remain the second most common cause of clinical disease and mortality in newborn calves, which has led to increased interest in using vaccines early in life to mitigate this risk. Intranasal vaccination of neonatal calves can be an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibody, but this raises questions regarding onset of immune competence in the upper respiratory tract (URT) following birth. Little is known, however, about the development and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the URT of newborn calves and what factors, including the commensal microbiome, contribute to this early development...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104426/popmarker-identifying-phylogenetic-markers-at-the-population-level
#2
REVIEW
Huei-Mien Ke, Chun-Ping Yu, Yu-Ching Liu, Isheng J Tsai
As phylogenomic approach becomes a common practice for constructing true bacterial phylogenies, it has become apparent that single molecular markers such as 16S ribosomal DNA often lead to misclassification of species. In this study, we present a program called Popmarker that uses the true species phylogeny and identifies a minimum set of molecular markers reflecting the bacterial evolution history and phylogenetic relationship at the resolution of populations. Popmarker ranks the proteome according to the correlation of whole species tree or subtree branch length against orthologous sequence distances...
2017: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083070/breastfeeding-and-autoimmunity-programing-health-from-the-beginning
#3
REVIEW
Vânia Vieira Borba, Kassem Sharif, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Breast milk is not only a completely adapted nutrition source for the newborn but also an impressive array of immune-active molecules that afford protection against infections and shape mucosal immune responses. Decisive imprinting events might be modulated during the first months of life with potential health long-term effects, enhancing the importance of breastfeeding as a major influence on the immune system correct development and modifying disease susceptibility. The aim of this review was to clarify the link between breastfeeding and autoimmune diseases, inquiring the related mechanisms, based on data available in the literature...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033938/early-life-nutritional-factors-and-mucosal-immunity-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Wouter R P H van de Worp, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease with a strong genetic basis but might be influenced by non-genetic factors such as microbiome development that "programs" the immune system during early life as well. Factors influencing pathogenesis, including a leaky intestinal mucosal barrier, an aberrant gut microbiota composition, and altered immune responsiveness, offer potential targets for prevention and/or treatment of T1D through nutritional or pharmacologic means. In this review, nutritional approaches during early life in order to protect against T1D development have been discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980268/processing-and-analyzing-human-microbiome-data
#5
Xuan Zhu, Jian Wang, Cielito Reyes-Gibby, Sanjay Shete
The human microbiome is associated with complex disorders such as diabetes, cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disorders. Recent technological developments have allowed researchers to fully quantify the composition of the microbiome using culture-independent approaches, resulting in a large amount of microbiome data, which provide invaluable opportunities to assess the important contributions of the microbiome to human health and disease. In this chapter, we discuss and evaluate multiple statistical approaches for processing, summarizing, and analyzing microbiome data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920414/metagenomic-analysis-of-bacterial-community-structure-and-diversity-of-lignocellulolytic-bacteria-in-vietnamese-native-goat-rumen
#6
Huyen Thi Do, Khoa Trong Dao, Viet Khanh Hoang Nguyen, Giang Ngoc Le, Phuong Thi Mai Nguyen, Lam Tung Le, Nguyet Thu Phung, Nico van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Hai Nam Truong
Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. Methods: The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (NR) sequence database...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901864/prenatal-stress-enhances-susceptibility-to-allergic-diseases-of-offspring
#7
Maria Moustaki, Sophia Tsabouri, Kostas Priftis, Konstantinos Douros
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal prenatal stress (MPS) may result in a range of long-term consequences in the offspring among which is susceptibility to allergic diseases. This review presents the current knowledge on the pathways through which MPS may affect the fetus, and the existing evidence regarding the association between MPS and development of allergy in the offspring. RESULT AND DISCUSSION: A pivotal mediator triggered in response to stress is the release of glucocorticoids (GC)...
September 12, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894921/structural-and-functional-variability-in-root-associated-bacterial-microbiomes-of-cd-zn-hyperaccumulator-sedum-alfredii
#8
Jipeng Luo, Qi Tao, Keren Wu, Jinxing Li, Jie Qian, Yongchao Liang, Xiaoe Yang, Tingqiang Li
Interactions between roots and microbes affect plant's resistance to abiotic stress. However, the structural and functional variation of root-associated microbiomes and their effects on metal accumulation in hyperaccumulators remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the root-associated microbiota of a hyperaccumulating (HP) and a non-hyperaccumulating (NHP) genotype of Sedum alfredii by 16S ribosomal RNA gene profiling. We show that distinct microbiomes are observed in four spatially separable compartments: the bulk soil, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and endosphere...
November 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889823/epigenetics-and-dohad-from-basics-to-birth-and-beyond
#9
T Bianco-Miotto, J M Craig, Y P Gasser, S J van Dijk, S E Ozanne
Developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is the study of how the early life environment can impact the risk of chronic diseases from childhood to adulthood and the mechanisms involved. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs are involved in mediating how early life environment impacts later health. This review is a summary of the Epigenetics and DOHaD workshop held at the 2016 DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand Conference. Our extensive knowledge of how the early life environment impacts later risk for chronic disease would not have been possible without animal models...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879172/epigenetic-matters-the-link-between-early-nutrition-microbiome-and-long-term-health-development
#10
REVIEW
Flavia Indrio, Silvia Martini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Luigi Corvaglia, Fernanda Cristofori, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Josef Neu, Samuli Rautava, Giovanna Russo Spena, Francesco Raimondi, Giuseppe Loverro
Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875499/the-intestinal-microbiota-determines-the-colitis-inducing-potential-of-t-bet-deficient-th-cells-in-mice
#11
Jakob Zimmermann, Pawel Durek, Anja A Kühl, Florian Schattenberg, Patrick Maschmeyer, Francesco Siracusa, Katrin Lehmann, Kerstin Westendorf, Melanie Weber, René Riedel, Susann Müller, Andreas Radbruch, Hyun-Dong Chang
Conflicting evidence has been provided as to whether induction of intestinal inflammation by adoptive transfer of naïve T cells into Rag(-/-) mice requires expression of the transcription factor T-bet by the T cells. Here, we formally show that the intestinal microbiota composition of the Rag(-/-) recipient determines whether or not T-bet-deficient Th cells can induce colitis and we have resolved the differences of the two microbiomes, permissive or non-permissive to T-bet-independent colitis. Our data highlight the dominance of the microbiota over particular T cell differentiation programs in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855974/the-skin-microbiome-impact-of-modern-environments-on-skin-ecology-barrier-integrity-and-systemic-immune-programming
#12
REVIEW
Susan L Prescott, Danica-Lea Larcombe, Alan C Logan, Christina West, Wesley Burks, Luis Caraballo, Michael Levin, Eddie Van Etten, Pierre Horwitz, Anita Kozyrskyj, Dianne E Campbell
Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#13
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
October 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815459/a-roadmap-for-reducing-cardiac-device-infections-a-review-of-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-actionable-risk-factors-to-guide-the-development-of-an-infection-prevention-program-for-the-electrophysiology-laboratory
#14
REVIEW
Westyn Branch-Elliman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are highly morbid, common, and costly, and rates are increasing (Sohail et al. Arch Intern Med 171(20):1821-8 2011; Voigt et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 48(3):590-1 2006). Factors that contribute to the development of CIED infections include patient factors (comorbid conditions, self-care, microbiome), procedural details (repeat procedure, contamination during procedure, appropriate pre-procedural prep, and antimicrobial use), environmental and organizational factors (patient safety culture, facility barriers, such as lack of space to store essential supplies, quality of environmental cleaning), and microbial factors (type of organism, virulence of organism)...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811339/heritable-bovine-rumen-bacteria-are-phylogenetically-related-and-correlated-with-the-cow-s-capacity-to-harvest-energy-from-its-feed
#15
Goor Sasson, Sheerli Kruger Ben-Shabat, Eyal Seroussi, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Naama Shterzer, Shamay Yaacoby, Margret E Berg Miller, Bryan A White, Eran Halperin, Itzhak Mizrahi
Ruminants sustain a long-lasting obligatory relationship with their rumen microbiome dating back 50 million years. In this unique host-microbiome relationship, the host's ability to digest its feed is completely dependent on its coevolved microbiome. This extraordinary alliance raises questions regarding the dependent relationship between ruminants' genetics and physiology and the rumen microbiome structure, composition, and metabolism. To elucidate this relationship, we examined the association of host genetics with the phylogenetic and functional composition of the rumen microbiome...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789673/gene-and-transcript-abundances-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-from-the-rumen-microbiome-are-correlated-with-methane-yield-in-sheep
#16
Janine Kamke, Priya Soni, Yang Li, Siva Ganesh, William J Kelly, Sinead C Leahy, Weibing Shi, Jeff Froula, Edward M Rubin, Graeme T Attwood
BACKGROUND: Ruminants are important contributors to global methane emissions via microbial fermentation in their reticulo-rumens. This study is part of a larger program, characterising the rumen microbiomes of sheep which vary naturally in methane yield (g CH4/kg DM/day) and aims to define differences in microbial communities, and in gene and transcript abundances that can explain the animal methane phenotype. METHODS: Rumen microbiome metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were analysed by Gene Set Enrichment, sparse partial least squares regression and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test to estimate correlations between specific KEGG bacterial pathways/genes and high methane yield in sheep...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767318/the-gut-microbiome-and-mental-health-implications-for-anxiety-and-trauma-related-disorders
#17
Stefanie Malan-Muller, Mireia Valles-Colomer, Jeroen Raes, Christopher A Lowry, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings
Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. This review challenges this assumption and suggests that the gut microbiome and its interactome also deserve attention to understand brain disorders and develop innovative treatments and diagnostics in the 21st century. The recent, in-depth characterization of the human microbiome spurred a paradigm shift in human health and disease. Animal models strongly suggest a role for the gut microbiome in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders...
August 2, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760826/commensal-microbiota-induced-microrna-modulates-intestinal-epithelial-permeability-through-the-small-gtpase-arf4
#18
Kazuaki Nakata, Yutaka Sugi, Hikari Narabayashi, Tetsuro Kobayakawa, Yusuke Nakanishi, Masato Tsuda, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Kyoko Takahashi
The intestinal tract contains many commensal bacteria that modulate various physiological host functions. Dysbiosis of commensal bacteria triggers dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier, leading to the induction or aggravation of intestinal inflammation. To elucidate whether microRNA plays a role in commensal microbiome-dependent intestinal epithelial barrier regulation, we compared transcripts in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from conventional and germ-free mice and found that commensal bacteria induced the expression of miR-21-5p in IECs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735809/antibiotic-stewardship-in-perinatal-and-neonatal-care
#19
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu, Tetsuya Kawakita
The spread of antibiotic resistance due to the use and misuse of antibiotics around the world is now a major health crisis. Neonates are exposed to antibiotics both before and after birth, often empirically because of risk factors for infection, or for non-specific signs which may or may not indicate sepsis. There is increasing evidence that, apart from antibiotic resistance, the use of antibiotics in pregnancy and in the neonatal period alters the microbiome in the fetus and neonate with an increased risk of immediate and long-term adverse effects...
October 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727206/the-mother-offspring-dyad-microbial-transmission-immune-interactions-and-allergy-development
#20
REVIEW
M C Jenmalm
The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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