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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154488/can-interpersonal-contact-help-improve-attitudes-toward-soldiers-with-intellectual-disability-an-israeli-study
#1
S Werner
BACKGROUND: It has been argued that interpersonal contact is the best intervention for reducing negative attitudes and discrimination toward individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). In Israel, the Equal in Uniform project makes it possible for individuals with ID to serve alongside soldiers without ID in ordinary military units in the Israeli Defense Forces. The project provided the opportunity to examine the effect of contact on the attitudes of soldiers without ID. METHODS: Data analyses are based on data collected from 220 soldiers without ID via a self-administered questionnaire based on the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale...
December 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058105/disentangling-the-relations-between-social-identity-and-prosocial-and-antisocial-behavior-in-competitive-youth-sport
#2
Mark W Bruner, Ian D Boardley, Alex J Benson, Kathleen S Wilson, Zachary Root, Jennifer Turnnidge, Jordan Sutcliffe, Jean Côté
The social identities formed through membership on extracurricular activity groups may contribute to the frequency with which youth engage in prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, researchers have yet to disentangle the individual- and group-level processes social identification effects operate through; sex and perceived norms may also moderate such effects. Thus, we investigated the hierarchical and conditional relations between three dimensions of social identity (i.e., ingroup ties, cognitive centrality, ingroup affect) and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth ice hockey players (N = 376; 33% female)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993543/psychiatric-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-and-adolescents-with-epilepsy
#3
K A Salayev, B Sanne, R Salayev
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychiatric and behavioural symptoms in children and adolescents with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy and aged 4 to 16 years were recruited from a medical centre in Azerbaijan during January 2012 to December 2013. A community sample was drawn from 3 schools as the comparison group. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was administered to parents of both patients with epilepsy and children in the comparison group...
September 2017: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989731/learning-of-efficient-behaviour-in-spatial-exploration-through-observation-of-behaviour-of-conspecific-in-laboratory-rats
#4
Yuji Takano, Masatoshi Ukezono, Satoshi F Nakashima, Nobuaki Takahashi, Naoyuki Hironaka
Recent studies have suggested that rodent behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of surrounding conspecifics (e.g. emotional contagion and prosocial behaviour). However, little is known about deferred imitation and complex observational learning in rats. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether rats can learn from another rat's experiences. In a maze, observer rats watched the foraging behaviour of other rats (demonstrators) and then foraged in turn. The results showed that demonstrators explored inefficiently, but observers explored more efficiently after observing inefficient exploration by the demonstrators...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967980/insecurity-distress-and-mental-health-experimental-and-randomized-controlled-trials-of-a-psychosocial-intervention-for-youth-affected-by-the-syrian-crisis
#5
Catherine Panter-Brick, Rana Dajani, Mark Eggerman, Sabrina Hermosilla, Amelia Sancilio, Alastair Ager
BACKGROUND: Strengthening the evidence base for humanitarian interventions that provide psychosocial support to war-affected youth is a key priority. We tested the impacts of an 8-week programme of structured activities informed by a profound stress attunement (PSA) framework (Advancing Adolescents), delivered in group-format to 12-18 year-olds in communities heavily affected by the Syrian crisis. We included both Syrian refugee and Jordanian youth. METHODS: We followed an experimental design, comparing treatment youth and wait-list controls over two programme implementation cycles, randomizing to study arm in cycle 2 (ClinicalTrials...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954904/helping-in-humans-and-other-animals-a-fruitful-interdisciplinary-dialogue
#6
REVIEW
Redouan Bshary, Nichola J Raihani
Humans are arguably unique in the extent and scale of cooperation with unrelated individuals. While pairwise interactions among non-relatives occur in some non-human species, there is scant evidence of the large-scale, often unconditional prosociality that characterizes human social behaviour. Consequently, one may ask whether research on cooperation in humans can offer general insights to researchers working on similar questions in non-human species, and whether research on humans should be published in biology journals...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948669/media-use-and-psychosocial-adjustment-in-children-and-adolescents
#7
Nicha Limtrakul, Orawan Louthrenoo, Atsawin Narkpongphun, Nonglak Boonchooduang, Weerasak Chonchaiya
AIMS: Currently, television and new forms of media are readily available to children and adolescents in their daily lives. Excessive use of media can lead to negative physical and psychosocial health effects. This study aimed to describe children's media use, including media multitasking, as well as the associations between media use and their psychosocial adjustment. METHODS: This study recruited 339 participants aged 10-15 years from an international school. The children and their care givers were asked to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire independently to evaluate the psychosocial problems of the children...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931829/peer-punishment-promotes-enforcement-of-bad-social-norms
#8
Klaus Abbink, Lata Gangadharan, Toby Handfield, John Thrasher
Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888489/mental-health-and-quality-of-life-among-spanish-born-and-immigrant-children-in-years-2006-and-2012
#9
Nazaret Alonso-Fernández, Rodrigo Jiménez-García, Leticia Alonso-Fernández, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Domingo Palacios-Ceña
BACKGROUND: One of every five children and adolescents in the European Union suffers from behavioural, and emotional disturbances. OBJECTIVES: To compare factors associated with the quality of life and mental health of immigrant and Spanish children aged 4-14years both during the years 2006 and 2012 and to evaluate changes over this time period. DESIGN AND METHODS: An epidemiologic age and sex matched case-control study (1:2) was conducted...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888184/early-prosocial-development-across-cultures
#10
REVIEW
Tara Callaghan, John Corbit
Human prosociality is ubiquitous, even though it may be manifested differently across cultures. Low cost helping and sharing emerge early in development, and at similar levels, across cultures having vastly different sociocultural niches. Developmental trajectories for costly sharing diverge across cultures around middle childhood, in line with differences in the sociocultural niches that children experience. Cultural developmental research has focussed primarily on the emergence and development of prosocial behaviour, and would benefit from an examination of the interplay between psychological (cognitive, motivational) and sociocultural (norms, developmental niche) foundations over ontogeny...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878976/the-nature-and-distribution-of-affiliative-behaviour-during-exposure-to-mild-threat
#11
Guillaume Dezecache, Julie Grèzes, Christoph D Dahl
Individual reactions to danger in humans are often characterized as antisocial and self-preservative. Yet, more than 50 years of research have shown that humans often seek social partners and behave prosocially when confronted by danger. This research has relied on post hoc verbal reports, which fall short of capturing the more spontaneous reactions to danger and determine their social nature. Real-world responses to danger are difficult to observe, due to their evanescent nature. Here, we took advantage of a series of photographs freely accessible online and provided by a haunted house attraction, which enabled us to examine the more immediate reactions to mild threat...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831367/correlates-of-children-s-independent-outdoor-play-cross-sectional-analyses-from-the-millennium-cohort-study
#12
Daniel Aggio, Benjamin Gardner, Justin Roberts, James Johnstone, Brendon Stubbs, Genevieve Williams, Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez, Lee Smith
Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play. Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no) as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819649/prosocial-apathy-for-helping-others-when-effort-is-required
#13
Patricia L Lockwood, Mathilde Hamonet, Samuel H Zhang, Anya Ratnavel, Florentine U Salmony, Masud Husain, Matthew A J Apps
Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves...
July 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815382/spontaneous-cross-species-imitation-in-interactions-between-chimpanzees-and-zoo-visitors
#14
Tomas Persson, Gabriela-Alina Sauciuc, Elainie Alenkær Madsen
Imitation is a cornerstone of human development, serving both a cognitive function (e.g. in the acquisition and transmission of skills and knowledge) and a social-communicative function, whereby the imitation of familiar actions serves to maintain social interaction and promote prosociality. In nonhuman primates, this latter function is poorly understood, or even claimed to be absent. In this observational study, we documented interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors and found that the two species imitated each other at a similar rate, corresponding to almost 10% of all produced actions...
August 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782292/risk-factors-for-neck-and-shoulder-pain-among-schoolchildren-and-adolescents
#15
Iman Dianat, Arezou Alipour, Mohammad Asgari Jafarabadi
AIM: To evaluate the potential risk factors for neck and shoulder pain among schoolchildren. METHODS: Demographic, physical/leisure activity, school-related and psychosocial factors for neck/shoulder pain were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1611 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. RESULTS: Neck and shoulder complaints were reported in 27.9 and 19.0% of the sample, respectively. According to multivariate logistic regression models, high desk height (odds ratio (OR) = 2...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752588/psychological-adjustment-and-behaviours-in-children-of-migrant-workers-in-china
#16
F Wang, X Zhou, T Hesketh
BACKGROUND: In China, there are around 274 million rural-urban migrants, an estimated 61 million children left behind in rural areas by parents, and 29 million children who accompany their parents to cities. The aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial adjustment and behaviours of left-behind children and migrant children. METHODS: Full data were available for 761 left-behind children and 1,392 migrant children aged 11 to 17 in Zhejiang Province, eastern China...
July 28, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751486/profiles-of-children-s-social-emotional-health-at-school-entry-and-associated-income-gender-and-language-inequalities-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study-in-british-columbia-canada
#17
Kimberly C Thomson, Martin Guhn, Chris G Richardson, Tavinder K Ark, Jean Shoveller
OBJECTIVES: Early identification of distinct patterns of child social-emotional strengths and vulnerabilities has the potential to improve our understanding of child mental health and well-being; however, few studies have explored natural groupings of indicators of child vulnerability and strengths at a population level. The purpose of this study was to examine heterogeneity in the patterns of young children's social and emotional health and investigate the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics were associated...
July 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736940/seven-year-olds-aggressive-choices-in-a-computer-game-can-be-predicted-in-infancy
#18
Dale F Hay, Mark K Johansen, Peter Daly, Salim Hashmi, Charlotte Robinson, Stephan Collishaw, Stephanie van Goozen
Concerns about the relationship between computer games and children's aggression have been expressed for decades, but it is not yet clear whether the content of such games evokes aggression or a prior history of aggression promotes children's interest in aggressive games. Two hundred and sixty-six 7-year-old children from a nationally representative longitudinal sample in the UK played a novel computer game (CAMGAME) in which the child's avatar encountered a series of social challenges that might evoke aggressive, prosocial or neutral behaviour...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665327/green-mind-theory-how-brain-body-behaviour-links-into-natural-and-social-environments-for-healthy-habits
#19
Jules Pretty, Mike Rogerson, Jo Barton
We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT) to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662455/borderline-personality-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-traits-in-childhood-are-associated-with-hypomanic-features-in-early-adulthood
#20
Sumit Mistry, Stanley Zammit, Valentina-Escott Price, Hannah J Jones, Daniel J Smith
BACKGROUND: There is limited understanding of the symptomatic development of bipolar disorder from childhood to early adulthood. AIMS: We assessed whether borderline personality disorder traits, ADHD, and emotional, behavioural and social difficulties during childhood were associated with hypomania assessed in young adulthood. METHOD: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), to examine associations between measures of childhood psychopathology and lifetime hypomanic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n = 3372)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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