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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279200/the-benefits-of-early-book-sharing-bebs-for-child-cognitive-and-socio-emotional-development-in-south-africa-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Nicholas Dowdall, Peter J Cooper, Mark Tomlinson, Sarah Skeen, Frances Gardner, Lynne Murray
BACKGROUND: Children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are at risk for problems in their cognitive, social and behavioural development. Factors such as a lack of cognitive stimulation, harsh parenting practices, and severe and persistent aggression in early childhood are central to the genesis of these problems. Interventions that target the intersection between early childhood development, parenting, and early violence prevention are required in order to meaningfully address these problems...
March 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278738/evidence-for-a-relationship-between-trait-gratitude-and-prosocial-behaviour
#2
Rachel Yost-Dubrow, Yarrow Dunham
Prosocial behaviour towards unrelated others is communally beneficial but can be individually costly. The emotion of gratitude mitigates this cost by encouraging direct as well as "upstream" reciprocity, thereby facilitating cooperation. A widely used method for measuring trait gratitude is the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ6) [McCullough, M., Emmons, R., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127. Retrieved from http://dx...
February 16, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250046/behavioural-disorders-in-6-year-old-children-and-pyrethroid-insecticide-exposure-the-pelagie-mother-child-cohort
#3
Jean-François Viel, Florence Rouget, Charline Warembourg, Christine Monfort, Gwendolina Limon, Sylvaine Cordier, Cécile Chevrier
OBJECTIVE: The potential impact of environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides on child neurodevelopment has only just started to receive attention despite their widespread use. We investigated the associations between prenatal and childhood exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and behavioural skills in 6-year-olds. METHODS: The PELAGIE cohort enrolled 3421 pregnant women from Brittany, France between 2002 and 2006. 428 mothers were randomly selected for the study when their children turned 6, and 287 (67%) agreed to participate...
March 1, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237296/frontal-subcortical-circuitry-in-social-attachment-and-relationships-a-cross-sectional-fmri-ale-meta-analysis
#4
Shu-Hui Lee, Zachary M Walker, James B Hale, S H Annabel Chen
Researchers have explored the concept of attachment in multiple ways, from animal studies examining imprinting to abnormal attachment in psychopathology. However, until recently, few have considered how neural circuitry develops the effective social bonds that are subsequently replicated in relationships across the lifespan. This current cross-sectional study undertook a fMRI Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to examine the neurocircuitry that governs emotional and behavioural functions critical for building effective social relationships in children and adults...
February 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207165/birth-order-and-preschool-children-s-cooperative-abilities-a-within-family-analysis
#5
Heather Prime, André Plamondon, Jennifer M Jenkins
There is evidence for a laterborn sibling advantage in some social skills, although this has not been investigated in children's early capacities for cooperation. Using a within-family design, this study compared firstborn and laterborn (i.e., middle and youngest) siblings on their cooperative abilities when they were aged around 3 years. Further, the study investigated whether the association between children's birth order and cooperative abilities was dependent on the prosocial behaviour of other siblings in the home...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167396/musical-friends-and-foes-the-social-cognition-of-affiliation-and-control-in-improvised-interactions
#6
Jean-Julien Aucouturier, Clément Canonne
A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention...
February 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167313/prosociality-from-early-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-a-longitudinal-study-of-individuals-with-a-history-of-language-impairment
#7
Umar Toseeb, Andrew Pickles, Kevin Durkin, Nicola Botting, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal research into the development of prosociality contributes vitally to understanding of individual differences in psychosocial outcomes. Most of the research to date has been concerned with prosocial behaviour in typically developing young people; much less has been directed to the course of development in individuals with developmental disorders. AIMS: This study reports a longitudinal investigation of prosocial behaviour in young people with language impairment (LI), and compares trajectories of development to typically developing age-matched peers (AMPs)...
March 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112065/measuring-adolescent-mental-health-around-the-globe-psychometric-properties-of-the-self-report-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-in-south-africa-and-comparison-with-uk-australian-and-chinese-data
#8
P J de Vries, E L Davids, C Mathews, L E Aarø
AIMS: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Self-Report (SDQ-S) in South African adolescents, and compared findings with data from the UK, Australia and China. METHODS: A sample of 3451 South African adolescents in grade 8, the first year of secondary school (M age = 13.7 years), completed the SDQ-S in Afrikaans, English or isiXhosa. Means, group differences and internal consistency were analysed using SPSS V22, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using MPlus V7...
January 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094811/brain-connectivity-changes-occurring-following-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis-predict-long-term-recovery
#9
L Mason, E Peters, S C Williams, V Kumari
Little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and which specific processes are key in predicting favourable long-term outcomes. Following theoretical models of psychosis, this proof-of-concept study investigated whether the long-term recovery path of CBTp completers can be predicted by the neural changes in threat-based social affective processing that occur during CBTp. We followed up 22 participants who had undergone a social affective processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging along with self-report and clinician-administered symptom measures, before and after receiving CBTp...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073033/situating-violent-ideations-within-the-landscape-of-mental-health-associations-between-violent-ideations-and-dimensions-of-mental-health
#10
Aja Louise Murray, Manuel Eisner, Ingrid Obsuth, Denis Ribeaud
Violent ideations occur more frequently in individuals with mental health problems. They may be of interest in clinical contexts as possible indicators of dangerousness, as corollaries of mental health problems, as candidate treatment targets and as potentially playing a role in perpetuation or onset of symptoms. In spite of their relevance to mental health, some fundamental questions about their place within the broader landscape of mental health problems remain unanswered. To provide a basic characterisation of the relations between violent ideations and dimensions of mental health and provide a foundation for future research in this area we factor analysed a measure of violent ideations and an omnibus measure of mental health dimensions in a normative sample of 1306 youth (at age 17)...
March 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053282/psychological-adjustment-of-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-hong-kong
#11
J Yn Chan, K Yc Lai
OBJECTIVES: Findings about the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been inconsistent in western literature and little is known among non-western societies. This study explored the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. METHODS: A total of 116 families with siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders co-morbid with learning disability were included in the study...
December 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002432/task-differences-and-prosociality-investigating-pet-dogs-prosocial-preferences-in-a-token-choice-paradigm
#12
Rachel Dale, Mylène Quervel-Chaumette, Ludwig Huber, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Prosociality has received increasing interest by non-human animal researchers since the initial discoveries that suggested it is not a uniquely human trait. However, thus far studies, even within the same species, have not garnered conclusive results. A prominent suggestion for this disparity is the effect methodology can have on prosocial responses in animals. We recently found evidence of prosociality in domestic dogs towards familiar conspecifics using a bar-pulling paradigm, in which a subject could pull a rope to deliver food to its partner...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996969/the-nature-of-prosociality-in-chimpanzees
#13
Claudio Tennie, Keith Jensen, Josep Call
An important debate centres around the nature of prosociality in nonhuman primates. Chimpanzees help other individuals in some experimental settings, yet they do not readily share food. One solution to this paradox is that they are motivated to help others provided there are no competing interests. However, benefits to recipients could arise as by-products of testing. Here we report two studies that separate by-product from intended helping in chimpanzees using a GO/NO-GO paradigm. Actors in one group could help a recipient by releasing a food box, but the same action for another group prevented a recipient from being able to get food...
December 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978597/the-role-of-emotion-regulation-in-situational-empathy-related-responding-and-prosocial-behaviour-in-the-presence-of-negative-affect
#14
Sascha Hein, Mandy Röder, Michael Fingerle
Empathy and prosocial behaviour are crucial factors for children's positive social adjustment. Contemporary models of empathy highlight the capacity to regulate vicariously experienced emotions as a precursor to empathy-related responses (e.g., prosocial behaviour). The goal of this study was to examine the role of emotion regulation (ER) in situational empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour. A sample of 157 children (76 boys and 81 girls; Mage = 9.94 years) participated in a two-tiered interview procedure that utilised vignettes to assess empathy and prosocial behaviour...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913921/language-difficulty-at-school-entry-and-the-trajectories-of-hyperactivity-inattention-problems-from-ages-4-to-11-evidence-from-a-population-representative-cohort-study
#15
Shaun Goh Kok Yew, Richard O'Kearney
Latent growth curve modelling was used to contrast the developmental trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention (H-I) problems across childhood for children with a language difficulty at the start of school and those with typical language and to examine if the presence of a language difficulty moderates the associations of child, parent and peer predictors with these trajectories. Unconditional and language-status conditional latent growth curves of H-I problems were estimated for a large nationally representative cohort of children, comprising 1627 boys (280 - language difficulty) and 1609 girls (159 - language difficulty) measured at age 4 to 5, 6 to 7, 8 to 9 and 10 to 11...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865227/behavioural-emotional-and-social-development-of-children-who-stutter
#16
Jan McAllister
PURPOSE: Developmental stuttering may be associated with diminished psychological well-being which has been documented from late childhood onwards. It is important to establish the point at which behavioural, emotional and social problems emerge in children who stutter. METHODS: The study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, whose initial cohort comprised 18,818 children. Analysis involved data collected when the cohort members were 3, 5 and 11 years old...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863460/the-effects-of-a-three-year-integrated-olympic-education-programme-on-adolescents-prosocial-behaviours
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Saulius Sukys, Daiva Majauskiene, Audrone Dumciene
The concept of Olympic education and its use of moral education to shape the development of personality have received insufficient empirical support. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated Olympic education programme on the development of prosocial behaviour in adolescents. A natural experimental research design was applied in this study. The pre-test sample included 411 adolescents (aged 13-14) who were randomly selected from schools that had begun to apply an integrated Olympic education programme, along with 430 adolescents from schools without an Olympic education programme...
April 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853533/no-evidence-that-a-range-of-artificial-monitoring-cues-influence-online-donations-to-charity-in-an-mturk-sample
#18
Timothy J Saunders, Alex H Taylor, Quentin D Atkinson
Monitoring cues, such as an image of a face or pair of eyes, have been found to increase prosocial behaviour in several studies. However, other studies have found little or no support for this effect. Here, we examined whether monitoring cues affect online donations to charity while manipulating the emotion displayed, the number of watchers and the cue type. We also include as statistical controls a range of likely covariates of prosocial behaviour. Using the crowdsourcing Internet marketplace, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 1535 participants completed our survey and were given the opportunity to donate to charity while being shown an image prime...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822641/the-relationship-between-screen-time-nighttime-sleep-duration-and-behavioural-problems-in-preschool-children-in-china
#19
Xiaoyan Wu, Shuman Tao, Erigene Rutayisire, Yunxiao Chen, Kun Huang, Fangbiao Tao
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between screen time (ST), nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in a sample of preschool children in China. A sample of 8900 children aged 3-6 years was enrolled from 35 kindergartens, in four cities, in two provinces, in China to evaluate the relationships between ST, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems. Children's ST and nighttime sleep duration were assessed by questionnaires completed by parents or guardians. Behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Clancy Autism Behaviour Scale (CABS)...
November 7, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790784/psychosis-risk-screening-validation-of-the-youth-psychosis-at-risk-questionnaire-brief-in-a-community-derived-sample-of-adolescents
#20
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Edurne Chocarro, Felix Inchausti, Martin Debbané, Julio Bobes
There have been several attempts to identify individuals potentially at high risk for psychotic-spectrum disorders using brief screening measures. However, relatively few studies have tested the psychometric properties of the psychosis screening measures in representative samples of adolescents. The main purpose of the present study was to analyse the prevalence, factorial structure, measurement invariance across gender, and reliability of the Youth Psychosis At-Risk Questionnaire - Brief (YPARQ-B) in a community-derived sample of adolescents...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
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