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prosocial behaviour

Lizanne Schweren, Pieter Hoekstra, Marloes van Lieshout, Jaap Oosterlaan, Nanda Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Catharina Hartman
BACKGROUND: Methodological and ethical constraints have hampered studies into long-term lasting outcomes of stimulant treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lasting effects may be beneficial (i.e. improved functioning even when treatment is temporarily ceased) or detrimental (i.e. worse functioning while off medication), but both hypotheses currently lack empirical support. Here we investigate whether stimulant treatment history predicts long-term development of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning or cognition, measured after medication wash-out...
March 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Yanyan Qi, Haiyan Wu, Xun Liu
Social value orientation (SVO) is a personality trait that is closely associated with social comparison preference. However, little is known about how the different types of SVO (i.e., proself vs. prosocial) modulate the behaviour and neural underpinnings of its interaction with social context. In the present study, we examined electrophysiological correlates captured when individuals with different SVOs engaged in a gambling game with two other players (a socially disliking player, person A, vs. a socially liking player, person B)...
March 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Daehyun Jung, Sunhae Sul, Minwoo Lee, Hackjin Kim
Although it is now well documented that observation by others can be a powerful elicitor of prosocial behaviour, the underlying neural mechanism is yet to be explored. In the present fMRI study, we replicated the previously reported observer effect in ethical consumption, in that participants were more likely to purchase social products that are sold to support people in need than non-social products when being observed by others. fMRI data revealed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) encoded subject-specific value parameters of purchase decisions for social and non-social products, respectively, under social observation...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
U Toelch, A Pooresmaeili, R J Dolan
Societal norms exert a powerful influence on our decisions. Behaviours motivated by norms, however, do not always concur with the responses mandated by decision relevant information potentially generating a conflict. To probe the interplay between normative and informational influences, we examined how prosocial norms impact on perceptual decisions subjects made in the context of a simultaneous presentation of social information. Participants displayed a bias in their perceptual decisions towards that mandated by social information...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrea Mastinu, Marika Premoli, Giuseppina Maccarinelli, Mariagrazia Grilli, Maurizio Memo, Sara Anna Bonini
Several studies on humans and mice support oxytocin's role in improving social behaviour, but its use in pharmacotherapy presents some important limiting factors. To date, it is emerging a pharmacological potential for melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) agonism in social deficits treatment. Recently, we demonstrated that the deletion of the NFKB1 gene, which encodes the p50 NF-κB subunit, causes impairment in social behaviours, with reductions in social interactions in mice. In this work, we tested the acute effects of THIQ, a selective melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) agonist...
February 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
E Ferguson, C Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The design of effective donor recruitment campaigns requires an accurate understanding of donor motivations. This requires cross-validation of theoretically derived, psychometrically assessed motivations with behavioural preferences. Theoretical models suggest that blood donors should be more sensitive than nondonors to violations of fairness norms. Specifically, active blood donors, compared to nondonors, should endorse beliefs of reciprocal fairness, norms of both positive and negative reciprocity and reject more unfair offers in a behavioural economic game (the ultimatum game)...
February 9, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
Belén Mesurado, Elisabeth Malonda Vidal, Anna Llorca Mestre
The objective of this study is to test a longitudinal model that analyses the direct effect of negative emotions (anger, depression and anxiety, wave 1) on prosocial and aggressive behaviour (wave 2) in adolescents. And the indirect effect of negative emotions (wave 1) on prosocial and aggressive behaviour (wave 2) through regulatory emotional self-efficacy. Data was obtained from 417 adolescents in a two-wave longitudinal study (225 girls, M age = 14.70 years) from schools located in Valencia, Spain. SEM was employed to explore longitudinal models...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Zsofia Margittai, Marijn van Wingerden, Alfons Schnitzler, Marian Joëls, Tobias Kalenscher
People often exhibit prosocial tendencies towards close kin and friends, but generosity decreases as a function of increasing social distance between donor and recipient, a phenomenon called social discounting. Evidence suggests that acute stress affects prosocial behaviour in general and social discounting in particular. We tested the causal role of the important stress neuromodulators cortisol (CORT) and noradrenaline (NA) in this effect by considering two competing hypotheses. On the one hand, it is possible that CORT and NA act in concert to increase generosity towards socially close others by reducing the aversiveness of the cost component in costly altruism and enhancing the emotional salience of vicarious reward...
January 31, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ute Kreplin, Miguel Farias, Inti A Brazil
Many individuals believe that meditation has the capacity to not only alleviate mental-illness but to improve prosociality. This article systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the effects of meditation interventions on prosociality in randomized controlled trials of healthy adults. Five types of social behaviours were identified: compassion, empathy, aggression, connectedness and prejudice. Although we found a moderate increase in prosociality following meditation, further analysis indicated that this effect was qualified by two factors: type of prosociality and methodological quality...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anoek M Oerlemans, Nanda N J Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Catharina A Hartman
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and reduced prosocial behaviour are strongly intertwined. However, social interactions with peers may be increasingly practiced over the course of development and may instigate a reduction in ASD symptoms and vice versa. We, therefore, sought to determine if, during adolescence, possible improvements in prosocial behaviours and ASD symptoms may benefit one another over time. Participants were 2773 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohorts...
January 30, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Larisa Heiphetz, Jonathan D Lane, Adam Waytz, Liane L Young
Extending prior research on belief attributions, we investigated the extent to which 5- to 8-year-olds and adults distinguish their beliefs and other humans' beliefs from God's beliefs. In Study 1, children reported that all agents held the same beliefs, whereas adults drew greater distinctions among agents. For example, adults reported that God was less likely than humans to view behaviors as morally acceptable. Study 2 additionally investigated attributions of beliefs about controversial behaviours (e.g., telling prosocial lies) and belief stability...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Georg Primes, Martin Fieder
In humans, prosocial behaviour is essential for social functioning. Twin studies suggest this distinct human trait to be partly hardwired. In the last decade research on the genetics of prosocial behaviour focused on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as oxytocin, dopamine, and their respective pathways. Recent trends towards large scale medical studies targeting the genetic basis of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia pave the way for new directions also in behavioural genetics...
2018: PloS One
Sandra Weltzien, Lauren E Marsh, Bruce Hood
By 7-to 8-years of age, most children readily adhere to prosocial norms aimed at benefiting others through giving up time and effort (helping) or resources (sharing). Two studies explored whether sharing and helping by 7-to 8-year olds (N = 180) could be influenced by priming children's attention on themselves or their friends through a semi-structured interview. Results revealed that self-priming led to reductions in both sharing and helping compared to friendship-priming or a control condition. These findings are considered as indicative of the fragile state of prosocial behaviours at this age that can be easily shifted towards more selfish biases by simple priming...
2018: PloS One
Ying Yang, Wenqi Li, Kennon M Sheldon, Yu Kou
This study aims to investigate the relationship between social dominance orientation (SDO) and subjective well-being among Chinese adolescents (N = 4246), and to examine the mediating role of prosocial behaviour in this relationship. The structural equation model's results showed that SDO was negatively associated with prosocial behaviour and subjective well-being, that prosocial behaviour was positively associated with subjective well-being, and also that (low) prosocial behaviour partially mediated the negative relationship between SDO and subjective well-being...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Joshua Conrad Jackson, Jonathan Jong, David Bilkey, Harvey Whitehouse, Stefanie Zollmann, Craig McNaughton, Jamin Halberstadt
Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal - and potentially interactive - effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a sports stadium...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Meta van den Heuvel, Wieger Voskuijl, Kate Chidzalo, Marko Kerac, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Robert Bandsma, Melissa Gladstone
Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Particularly an important research gap exists in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is a high prevalence of SAM and a high rate of co-occurring HIV (human immune deficiency virus) infection...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
Jill C Hoxmeier
Institutions of higher education increasingly offer training programmes to engage students' as pro-social bystanders who can intervene in situations related to sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to assess the usage of a bystander behaviour measurement tool that captures both students' intervention opportunities and frequency of prosocial response. University undergraduate students in the Northwestern USA (n=474) completed online surveys in the Fall of 2016. Results show that students have opportunities to intervene in a variety of situations at the three levels of prevention for campus sexual violence and they do not always intervene...
December 27, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Daniel Ehlebracht, Olga Stavrova, Detlef Fetchenhauer, Daniel Farrelly
Mate selection requires a prioritization and joint evaluation of different traits present or absent in potential mates. Herein, we focus on two such traits - physical attractiveness and prosociality - and examine how they jointly shape impressions of overall desirability. We report on two related experiments which make use of an innovative methodology combining large samples of raters and target persons (i.e., stimuli) and information on targets' behaviour in economic games representing altruistic behaviour (Experiment 1) and trustworthiness (Experiment 2), two important facets of prosociality...
December 17, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
Elizabeth Worswick, Sara Dimic, Christiane Wildgrube, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped...
2018: Psychopathology
Tiago Bortolini, Patrícia Bado, Sebastian Hoefle, Annerose Engel, Roland Zahn, Ricardo de Oliveira Souza, Jean-Claude Dreher, Jorge Moll
Humans have a strong need to belong to social groups and a natural inclination to benefit ingroup members. Although the psychological mechanisms behind human prosociality have extensively been studied, the specific neural systems bridging group belongingness and altruistic motivation remain to be identified. Here, we used soccer fandom as an ecological framing of group membership to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying ingroup altruistic behaviour in male fans using event-related functional magnetic resonance...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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