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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336032/my-mind-your-mind-and-god-s-mind-how-children-and-adults-conceive-of-different-agents-moral-beliefs
#1
Larisa Heiphetz, Jonathan D Lane, Adam Waytz, Liane L Young
Extending prior research on belief attributions, we investigated the extent to which 5- to 8-year-olds and adults distinguish their beliefs and other humans' beliefs from God's beliefs. In Study 1, children reported that all agents held the same beliefs, whereas adults drew greater distinctions among agents. For example, adults reported that God was less likely than humans to view behaviors as morally acceptable. Study 2 additionally investigated attributions of beliefs about controversial behaviours (e.g., telling prosocial lies) and belief stability...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324852/real-life-helping-behaviours-in-north-america-a-genome-wide-association-approach
#2
Georg Primes, Martin Fieder
In humans, prosocial behaviour is essential for social functioning. Twin studies suggest this distinct human trait to be partly hardwired. In the last decade research on the genetics of prosocial behaviour focused on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as oxytocin, dopamine, and their respective pathways. Recent trends towards large scale medical studies targeting the genetic basis of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia pave the way for new directions also in behavioural genetics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320506/thinking-of-me-self-focus-reduces-sharing-and-helping-in-seven-to-eight-year-olds
#3
Sandra Weltzien, Lauren E Marsh, Bruce Hood
By 7-to 8-years of age, most children readily adhere to prosocial norms aimed at benefiting others through giving up time and effort (helping) or resources (sharing). Two studies explored whether sharing and helping by 7-to 8-year olds (N = 180) could be influenced by priming children's attention on themselves or their friends through a semi-structured interview. Results revealed that self-priming led to reductions in both sharing and helping compared to friendship-priming or a control condition. These findings are considered as indicative of the fragile state of prosocial behaviours at this age that can be easily shifted towards more selfish biases by simple priming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318618/chinese-adolescents-with-higher-social-dominance-orientation-are-less-prosocial-and-less-happy-a-value-environment-fit-analysis
#4
Ying Yang, Wenqi Li, Kennon M Sheldon, Yu Kou
This study aims to investigate the relationship between social dominance orientation (SDO) and subjective well-being among Chinese adolescents (N = 4246), and to examine the mediating role of prosocial behaviour in this relationship. The structural equation model's results showed that SDO was negatively associated with prosocial behaviour and subjective well-being, that prosocial behaviour was positively associated with subjective well-being, and also that (low) prosocial behaviour partially mediated the negative relationship between SDO and subjective well-being...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317675/synchrony-and-physiological-arousal-increase-cohesion-and-cooperation-in-large-naturalistic-groups
#5
Joshua Conrad Jackson, Jonathan Jong, David Bilkey, Harvey Whitehouse, Stefanie Zollmann, Craig McNaughton, Jamin Halberstadt
Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal - and potentially interactive - effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a sports stadium...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302321/developmental-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-malawi-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Meta van den Heuvel, Wieger Voskuijl, Kate Chidzalo, Marko Kerac, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Robert Bandsma, Melissa Gladstone
Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Particularly an important research gap exists in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is a high prevalence of SAM and a high rate of co-occurring HIV (human immune deficiency virus) infection...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282214/revising-existing-instruments-for-measuring-bystander-intervention-opportunity-and-frequency-of-prosocial-response-for-the-prevention-of-sexual-violence
#7
Jill C Hoxmeier
Institutions of higher education increasingly offer training programmes to engage students' as pro-social bystanders who can intervene in situations related to sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to assess the usage of a bystander behaviour measurement tool that captures both students' intervention opportunities and frequency of prosocial response. University undergraduate students in the Northwestern USA (n=474) completed online surveys in the Fall of 2016. Results show that students have opportunities to intervene in a variety of situations at the three levels of prevention for campus sexual violence and they do not always intervene...
December 27, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250771/the-synergistic-effect-of-prosociality-and-physical-attractiveness-on-mate-desirability
#8
Daniel Ehlebracht, Olga Stavrova, Detlef Fetchenhauer, Daniel Farrelly
Mate selection requires a prioritization and joint evaluation of different traits present or absent in potential mates. Herein, we focus on two such traits - physical attractiveness and prosociality - and examine how they jointly shape impressions of overall desirability. We report on two related experiments which make use of an innovative methodology combining large samples of raters and target persons (i.e., stimuli) and information on targets' behaviour in economic games representing altruistic behaviour (Experiment 1) and trustworthiness (Experiment 2), two important facets of prosociality...
December 17, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224023/negative-symptoms-and-avoidance-of-social-interaction-a-study-of-non-verbal-behaviour
#9
Elizabeth Worswick, Sara Dimic, Christiane Wildgrube, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped...
December 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170383/neural-bases-of-ingroup-altruistic-motivation-in-soccer-fans
#10
Tiago Bortolini, Patrícia Bado, Sebastian Hoefle, Annerose Engel, Roland Zahn, Ricardo de Oliveira Souza, Jean-Claude Dreher, Jorge Moll
Humans have a strong need to belong to social groups and a natural inclination to benefit ingroup members. Although the psychological mechanisms behind human prosociality have extensively been studied, the specific neural systems bridging group belongingness and altruistic motivation remain to be identified. Here, we used soccer fandom as an ecological framing of group membership to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying ingroup altruistic behaviour in male fans using event-related functional magnetic resonance...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154488/can-interpersonal-contact-help-improve-attitudes-toward-soldiers-with-intellectual-disability-an-israeli-study
#11
S Werner
BACKGROUND: It has been argued that interpersonal contact is the best intervention for reducing negative attitudes and discrimination toward individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). In Israel, the Equal in Uniform project makes it possible for individuals with ID to serve alongside soldiers without ID in ordinary military units in the Israeli Defense Forces. The project provided the opportunity to examine the effect of contact on the attitudes of soldiers without ID. METHODS: Data analyses are based on data collected from 220 soldiers without ID via a self-administered questionnaire based on the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale...
December 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058105/disentangling-the-relations-between-social-identity-and-prosocial-and-antisocial-behavior-in-competitive-youth-sport
#12
Mark W Bruner, Ian D Boardley, Alex J Benson, Kathleen S Wilson, Zachary Root, Jennifer Turnnidge, Jordan Sutcliffe, Jean Côté
The social identities formed through membership on extracurricular activity groups may contribute to the frequency with which youth engage in prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, researchers have yet to disentangle the individual- and group-level processes social identification effects operate through; sex and perceived norms may also moderate such effects. Thus, we investigated the hierarchical and conditional relations between three dimensions of social identity (i.e., ingroup ties, cognitive centrality, ingroup affect) and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth ice hockey players (N = 376; 33% female)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993543/psychiatric-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-and-adolescents-with-epilepsy
#13
K A Salayev, B Sanne, R Salayev
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychiatric and behavioural symptoms in children and adolescents with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy and aged 4 to 16 years were recruited from a medical centre in Azerbaijan during January 2012 to December 2013. A community sample was drawn from 3 schools as the comparison group. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was administered to parents of both patients with epilepsy and children in the comparison group...
September 2017: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989731/learning-of-efficient-behaviour-in-spatial-exploration-through-observation-of-behaviour-of-conspecific-in-laboratory-rats
#14
Yuji Takano, Masatoshi Ukezono, Satoshi F Nakashima, Nobuaki Takahashi, Naoyuki Hironaka
Recent studies have suggested that rodent behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of surrounding conspecifics (e.g. emotional contagion and prosocial behaviour). However, little is known about deferred imitation and complex observational learning in rats. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether rats can learn from another rat's experiences. In a maze, observer rats watched the foraging behaviour of other rats (demonstrators) and then foraged in turn. The results showed that demonstrators explored inefficiently, but observers explored more efficiently after observing inefficient exploration by the demonstrators...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967980/insecurity-distress-and-mental-health-experimental-and-randomized-controlled-trials-of-a-psychosocial-intervention-for-youth-affected-by-the-syrian-crisis
#15
Catherine Panter-Brick, Rana Dajani, Mark Eggerman, Sabrina Hermosilla, Amelia Sancilio, Alastair Ager
BACKGROUND: Strengthening the evidence base for humanitarian interventions that provide psychosocial support to war-affected youth is a key priority. We tested the impacts of an 8-week programme of structured activities informed by a profound stress attunement (PSA) framework (Advancing Adolescents), delivered in group-format to 12-18 year-olds in communities heavily affected by the Syrian crisis. We included both Syrian refugee and Jordanian youth. METHODS: We followed an experimental design, comparing treatment youth and wait-list controls over two programme implementation cycles, randomizing to study arm in cycle 2 (ClinicalTrials...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954904/helping-in-humans-and-other-animals-a-fruitful-interdisciplinary-dialogue
#16
REVIEW
Redouan Bshary, Nichola J Raihani
Humans are arguably unique in the extent and scale of cooperation with unrelated individuals. While pairwise interactions among non-relatives occur in some non-human species, there is scant evidence of the large-scale, often unconditional prosociality that characterizes human social behaviour. Consequently, one may ask whether research on cooperation in humans can offer general insights to researchers working on similar questions in non-human species, and whether research on humans should be published in biology journals...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948669/media-use-and-psychosocial-adjustment-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
Nicha Limtrakul, Orawan Louthrenoo, Atsawin Narkpongphun, Nonglak Boonchooduang, Weerasak Chonchaiya
AIMS: Currently, television and new forms of media are readily available to children and adolescents in their daily lives. Excessive use of media can lead to negative physical and psychosocial health effects. This study aimed to describe children's media use, including media multitasking, as well as the associations between media use and their psychosocial adjustment. METHODS: This study recruited 339 participants aged 10-15 years from an international school. The children and their care givers were asked to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire independently to evaluate the psychosocial problems of the children...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931829/peer-punishment-promotes-enforcement-of-bad-social-norms
#18
Klaus Abbink, Lata Gangadharan, Toby Handfield, John Thrasher
Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888489/mental-health-and-quality-of-life-among-spanish-born-and-immigrant-children-in-years-2006-and-2012
#19
Nazaret Alonso-Fernández, Rodrigo Jiménez-García, Leticia Alonso-Fernández, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Domingo Palacios-Ceña
BACKGROUND: One of every five children and adolescents in the European Union suffers from behavioural, and emotional disturbances. OBJECTIVES: To compare factors associated with the quality of life and mental health of immigrant and Spanish children aged 4-14years both during the years 2006 and 2012 and to evaluate changes over this time period. DESIGN AND METHODS: An epidemiologic age and sex matched case-control study (1:2) was conducted...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888184/early-prosocial-development-across-cultures
#20
REVIEW
Tara Callaghan, John Corbit
Human prosociality is ubiquitous, even though it may be manifested differently across cultures. Low cost helping and sharing emerge early in development, and at similar levels, across cultures having vastly different sociocultural niches. Developmental trajectories for costly sharing diverge across cultures around middle childhood, in line with differences in the sociocultural niches that children experience. Cultural developmental research has focussed primarily on the emergence and development of prosocial behaviour, and would benefit from an examination of the interplay between psychological (cognitive, motivational) and sociocultural (norms, developmental niche) foundations over ontogeny...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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