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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431506/emotional-and-behavioural-problems-in-swedish-preschool-children-rated-by-preschool-teachers-with-the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-sdq
#1
Berit M Gustafsson, Marie Proczkowska-Björklund, Per A Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: There is a high risk that young children who show early signs of mental health problems develop symptoms in the same or overlapping areas some years later. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used to screen externalizing and internalizing problems early in life. In Sweden 80-90% of all children aged 1-5 years go to preschool and preschool is thus an appropriate context for finding early signs of mental health problems among children. METHODS: This study is part of a longitudinal project too investigate the frequency of emotional and behavioural problems for children between 1 and 5 years of age in Sweden...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424317/the-williams-syndrome-prosociality-gene-gtf2i-mediates-oxytocin-reactivity-and-social-anxiety-in-a-healthy-population
#2
Tanya L Procyshyn, Jason Spence, Silven Read, Neil V Watson, Bernard J Crespi
The neurohormone oxytocin plays a central role in human social behaviour and cognition, and oxytocin dysregulation may contribute to psychiatric disorders. However, genetic factors influencing individual variation in the oxytocinergic system remain poorly understood. We genotyped 169 healthy adults for a functional polymorphism in GTF2I (general transcription factor II-I), a gene associated with high prosociality and reduced social anxiety in Williams syndrome, a condition reported to involve high oxytocin levels and reactivity...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394427/opioid-system-and-human-emotions
#3
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Tuominen
Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct human basic emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit and the opioid system modulates a multitude of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384523/effectiveness-of-a-pragmatic-school-based-universal-intervention-targeting-student-resilience-protective-factors-in-reducing-mental-health-problems-in-adolescents
#4
Julia Dray, Jenny Bowman, Elizabeth Campbell, Megan Freund, Rebecca Hodder, Luke Wolfenden, Jody Richards, Catherine Leane, Sue Green, Christophe Lecathelinais, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia, Karen Gillham, John Wiggers
Worldwide, 10-20% of adolescents experience mental health problems. Strategies aimed at strengthening resilience protective factors provide a potential approach for reducing mental health problems in adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal, school-based intervention targeting resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 20 intervention and 12 control secondary schools located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of NSW, Australia...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322858/a-neuroendocrine-account-of-facial-mimicry-and-its-dynamic-modulation
#5
REVIEW
Eline J Kraaijenvanger, Dennis Hofman, Peter A Bos
Facial expressions are considered central in conveying information about one's emotional state. During social encounters, facial expressions of another individual are often automatically imitated by the observer, a process referred to as 'facial mimicry'. This process is assumed to facilitate prosocial behaviour and is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system, known for its involvement in both observation and execution of motor actions. However, recent studies have revealed mimicry to be a more dynamic process than previously conceptualized, leaving mere perception-action coupling insufficient to explain its behavioural flexibility...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279200/the-benefits-of-early-book-sharing-bebs-for-child-cognitive-and-socio-emotional-development-in-south-africa-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Nicholas Dowdall, Peter J Cooper, Mark Tomlinson, Sarah Skeen, Frances Gardner, Lynne Murray
BACKGROUND: Children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are at risk for problems in their cognitive, social and behavioural development. Factors such as a lack of cognitive stimulation, harsh parenting practices, and severe and persistent aggression in early childhood are central to the genesis of these problems. Interventions that target the intersection between early childhood development, parenting, and early violence prevention are required in order to meaningfully address these problems...
March 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278738/evidence-for-a-relationship-between-trait-gratitude-and-prosocial-behaviour
#7
Rachel Yost-Dubrow, Yarrow Dunham
Prosocial behaviour towards unrelated others is communally beneficial but can be individually costly. The emotion of gratitude mitigates this cost by encouraging direct as well as "upstream" reciprocity, thereby facilitating cooperation. A widely used method for measuring trait gratitude is the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ6) [McCullough, M., Emmons, R., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127. Retrieved from http://dx...
February 16, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250046/behavioural-disorders-in-6-year-old-children-and-pyrethroid-insecticide-exposure-the-pelagie-mother-child-cohort
#8
Jean-François Viel, Florence Rouget, Charline Warembourg, Christine Monfort, Gwendolina Limon, Sylvaine Cordier, Cécile Chevrier
OBJECTIVE: The potential impact of environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides on child neurodevelopment has only just started to receive attention despite their widespread use. We investigated the associations between prenatal and childhood exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and behavioural skills in 6-year-olds. METHODS: The PELAGIE cohort enrolled 3421 pregnant women from Brittany, France between 2002 and 2006. 428 mothers were randomly selected for the study when their children turned 6, and 287 (67%) agreed to participate...
March 1, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237296/frontal-subcortical-circuitry-in-social-attachment-and-relationships-a-cross-sectional-fmri-ale-meta-analysis
#9
Shu-Hui Lee, Zachary M Walker, James B Hale, S H Annabel Chen
Researchers have explored the concept of attachment in multiple ways, from animal studies examining imprinting to abnormal attachment in psychopathology. However, until recently, few have considered how neural circuitry develops the effective social bonds that are subsequently replicated in relationships across the lifespan. This current cross-sectional study undertook a fMRI Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to examine the neurocircuitry that governs emotional and behavioural functions critical for building effective social relationships in children and adults...
February 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207165/birth-order-and-preschool-children-s-cooperative-abilities-a-within-family-analysis
#10
Heather Prime, André Plamondon, Jennifer M Jenkins
There is evidence for a laterborn sibling advantage in some social skills, although this has not been investigated in children's early capacities for cooperation. Using a within-family design, this study compared firstborn and laterborn (i.e., middle and youngest) siblings on their cooperative abilities when they were aged around 3 years. Further, the study investigated whether the association between children's birth order and cooperative abilities was dependent on the prosocial behaviour of other siblings in the home...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167396/musical-friends-and-foes-the-social-cognition-of-affiliation-and-control-in-improvised-interactions
#11
Jean-Julien Aucouturier, Clément Canonne
A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention...
April 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167313/prosociality-from-early-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-a-longitudinal-study-of-individuals-with-a-history-of-language-impairment
#12
Umar Toseeb, Andrew Pickles, Kevin Durkin, Nicola Botting, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal research into the development of prosociality contributes vitally to understanding of individual differences in psychosocial outcomes. Most of the research to date has been concerned with prosocial behaviour in typically developing young people; much less has been directed to the course of development in individuals with developmental disorders. AIMS: This study reports a longitudinal investigation of prosocial behaviour in young people with language impairment (LI), and compares trajectories of development to typically developing age-matched peers (AMPs)...
March 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112065/measuring-adolescent-mental-health-around-the-globe-psychometric-properties-of-the-self-report-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-in-south-africa-and-comparison-with-uk-australian-and-chinese-data
#13
P J de Vries, E L Davids, C Mathews, L E Aarø
AIMS: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Self-Report (SDQ-S) in South African adolescents, and compared findings with data from the UK, Australia and China. METHODS: A sample of 3451 South African adolescents in grade 8, the first year of secondary school (M age = 13.7 years), completed the SDQ-S in Afrikaans, English or isiXhosa. Means, group differences and internal consistency were analysed using SPSS V22, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using MPlus V7...
January 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094811/brain-connectivity-changes-occurring-following-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis-predict-long-term-recovery
#14
L Mason, E Peters, S C Williams, V Kumari
Little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and which specific processes are key in predicting favourable long-term outcomes. Following theoretical models of psychosis, this proof-of-concept study investigated whether the long-term recovery path of CBTp completers can be predicted by the neural changes in threat-based social affective processing that occur during CBTp. We followed up 22 participants who had undergone a social affective processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging along with self-report and clinician-administered symptom measures, before and after receiving CBTp...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073033/situating-violent-ideations-within-the-landscape-of-mental-health-associations-between-violent-ideations-and-dimensions-of-mental-health
#15
Aja Louise Murray, Manuel Eisner, Ingrid Obsuth, Denis Ribeaud
Violent ideations occur more frequently in individuals with mental health problems. They may be of interest in clinical contexts as possible indicators of dangerousness, as corollaries of mental health problems, as candidate treatment targets and as potentially playing a role in perpetuation or onset of symptoms. In spite of their relevance to mental health, some fundamental questions about their place within the broader landscape of mental health problems remain unanswered. To provide a basic characterisation of the relations between violent ideations and dimensions of mental health and provide a foundation for future research in this area we factor analysed a measure of violent ideations and an omnibus measure of mental health dimensions in a normative sample of 1306 youth (at age 17)...
March 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053282/psychological-adjustment-of-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-hong-kong
#16
J Yn Chan, K Yc Lai
OBJECTIVES: Findings about the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been inconsistent in western literature and little is known among non-western societies. This study explored the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. METHODS: A total of 116 families with siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders co-morbid with learning disability were included in the study...
December 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002432/task-differences-and-prosociality-investigating-pet-dogs-prosocial-preferences-in-a-token-choice-paradigm
#17
Rachel Dale, Mylène Quervel-Chaumette, Ludwig Huber, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Prosociality has received increasing interest by non-human animal researchers since the initial discoveries that suggested it is not a uniquely human trait. However, thus far studies, even within the same species, have not garnered conclusive results. A prominent suggestion for this disparity is the effect methodology can have on prosocial responses in animals. We recently found evidence of prosociality in domestic dogs towards familiar conspecifics using a bar-pulling paradigm, in which a subject could pull a rope to deliver food to its partner...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996969/the-nature-of-prosociality-in-chimpanzees
#18
Claudio Tennie, Keith Jensen, Josep Call
An important debate centres around the nature of prosociality in nonhuman primates. Chimpanzees help other individuals in some experimental settings, yet they do not readily share food. One solution to this paradox is that they are motivated to help others provided there are no competing interests. However, benefits to recipients could arise as by-products of testing. Here we report two studies that separate by-product from intended helping in chimpanzees using a GO/NO-GO paradigm. Actors in one group could help a recipient by releasing a food box, but the same action for another group prevented a recipient from being able to get food...
December 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978597/the-role-of-emotion-regulation-in-situational-empathy-related-responding-and-prosocial-behaviour-in-the-presence-of-negative-affect
#19
Sascha Hein, Mandy Röder, Michael Fingerle
Empathy and prosocial behaviour are crucial factors for children's positive social adjustment. Contemporary models of empathy highlight the capacity to regulate vicariously experienced emotions as a precursor to empathy-related responses (e.g., prosocial behaviour). The goal of this study was to examine the role of emotion regulation (ER) in situational empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour. A sample of 157 children (76 boys and 81 girls; Mage = 9.94 years) participated in a two-tiered interview procedure that utilised vignettes to assess empathy and prosocial behaviour...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913921/language-difficulty-at-school-entry-and-the-trajectories-of-hyperactivity-inattention-problems-from-ages-4-to-11-evidence-from-a-population-representative-cohort-study
#20
Shaun Goh Kok Yew, Richard O'Kearney
Latent growth curve modelling was used to contrast the developmental trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention (H-I) problems across childhood for children with a language difficulty at the start of school and those with typical language and to examine if the presence of a language difficulty moderates the associations of child, parent and peer predictors with these trajectories. Unconditional and language-status conditional latent growth curves of H-I problems were estimated for a large nationally representative cohort of children, comprising 1627 boys (280 - language difficulty) and 1609 girls (159 - language difficulty) measured at age 4 to 5, 6 to 7, 8 to 9 and 10 to 11...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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