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prosocial behaviour

Boram Lee, Louise J Keown, Gavin T L Brown
This study examined parenting styles and culturally-specific parenting practices of Korean immigrant mothers (N = 128) and fathers (N = 79) of children (ages 6-10) in New Zealand and the parenting predictors of child behaviour. Participants completed questionnaires on parenting styles and practices, and parental perceptions of child behaviour. Both parents indicated a high degree of devotion (Mo jeong) and involvement in care and education of their child with fathers were more likely than mothers to utilise shaming/love withdrawal and modesty encouragement...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
K E Williams, D Berthelsen, M Viviani, J M Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Playgroups are a relatively unique form of family support programme that is common in Australia which has high community acceptance and significant government investment. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of playgroups to achieve better outcomes for children and their parents. This study describes patterns of playgroup participation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families with young children and examines the extent to which participation from birth to three years is associated with subsequent child, parent and community outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Mark W Bruner, Ian D Boardley, Veronica Allan, Zach Root, Sara Buckham, Chris Forrest, Jean Côté
Social identity - identity formed through membership in groups - may play an important role in regulating intrateam moral behaviour in youth sport (Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., & Côté, J. (2014). Social identity and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 56-64. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.003). The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine this potential role through stimulated recall interviews with competitive youth-ice-hockey players. Twenty-three players (Mage = 13...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Irene Bruna Seu
This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Paul Reddish, Eddie M W Tong, Jonathan Jong, Jonathan A Lanman, Harvey Whitehouse
Previous research has found that behavioural synchrony between people leads to greater prosocial tendencies towards co-performers. In this study, we investigated the scope of this prosocial effect: does it extend beyond the performance group to an extended ingroup (extended parochial prosociality) or even to other people in general (generalized prosociality)? Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement either in time (synchrony condition) or out of time (asynchrony condition) with each other. Before and during the rhythmic movement, participants were exposed to a prime that made salient an extended ingroup identity...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Julia Dray, Jenny Bowman, Megan Freund, Elizabeth Campbell, Rebecca K Hodder, Christophe Lecathelinais, John Wiggers
BACKGROUND: Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12-16 years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7-10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in disadvantaged local government areas in one regional local health district of NSW Australia...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
M Vuori, I Autti-Rämö, N Junttila, M Vauras, A Tuulio-Henriksson
BACKGROUND: The present study examines discrepancies between self- and adult-perceptions of social competence in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and possible co-morbid disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). METHOD: Self-reported questionnaires were collected from multiple informants at the baseline of a multi-systemic family intervention programme for children (aged 5-12) with ADHD, ASD and possible co-morbid DBD...
September 19, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Mehdi Moussaïd, Mareike Trauernicht
Although cooperation is central to the organisation of many social systems, relatively little is known about cooperation in situations of collective emergency. When groups of people flee from a danger such as a burning building or a terrorist attack, the collective benefit of cooperation is important, but the cost of helping is high and the temptation to defect is strong. To explore the degree of cooperation in emergencies, we develop a new social game, the help-or-escape social dilemma. Under time and monetary pressure, players decide how much risk they are willing to take in order to help others...
2016: Scientific Reports
Michael J Gill, Phillip D Getty
People respond compassionately to transgressors whose immorality is rooted in an unfortunate life history. But, are reactions to such historicist narratives uniformly compassionate? We suggest not. We propose that historicist narratives also have a dark side. Specifically, they encourage blame shifting, in which negative evaluations of humanity arise hand in hand with compassion for the focal transgressor of the narrative. Indeed, historicist narratives portray the focal transgressor as victimized by multiple others, who destroy her goodness and remove her chance to flourish in life...
September 9, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Sheilagh Hodgins, Sanja Klein
OBJECTIVE: To review findings with clinical relevance that add to knowledge about antisocial and aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia. METHOD: Nonsystematic literature review. RESULTS: Recent evidence shows that individuals who develop schizophrenia present cognitive deficits, psychotic-like experiences, and internalizing and externalizing problems from childhood onwards. Many of their relatives present not only schizophrenia-related disorders but also antisocial behaviour...
September 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Lisa K Maguire, Ulrike Niens, Mark McCann, Paul Connolly
There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to investigate the conceptualisation of these variables and their interrelationships. Structural equation models were used to assess whether differences exist between boys and girls in relation to social and emotional competences, which could affect the relative success of such programmes...
September 13, 2016: Educational Psychology
Megan Setterfield, Mallory Walsh, Anna-Lena Frey, Ciara McCabe
BACKGROUND: Social anhedonia, the decreased enjoyment of pleasant social experiences, is associated with depression. However, whether social anhedonia in depression affects prosocial behaviours is unclear. The current study aimed to examine how high levels of depressive symptomatology in young people affect responses to usually rewarding social situations, including helping behaviour. METHODS: We recruited 46 females, 16 scoring high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI scores>20, Mage=19; HD) and 30 scoring low (BDI<10, Mage=20; LD)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Filip Rybakowski, Izabela Chojnicka, Piotr Dziechciarz, Andrea Horvath, Małgorzata Janas-Kozik, Anetta Jeziorek, Ewa Pisula, Anna Piwowarczyk, Agnieszka Słopień, Joanna Sykut-Cegielska, Hanna Szajewska, Krzysztof Szczałuba, Krystyna Szymańska, Anna Waligórska, Aneta Wojciechowska, Michał Wroniszewski, Anna Dunajska
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are caused by disruptions in early stages of central nervous system development and are usually diagnosed in first years of life. Despite common features such as impairment of socio-communicative development and stereotypical behaviours, ASD are characterised by heterogeneous course and clinical picture. The most important aetiological factors comprise genetic and environmental influences acting at prenatal, perinatal and neonatal period. The role of rare variants with large effect i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
Keith Jensen
Prosociality refers to behaviours that are intended to benefit others. This definition appears to be so straightforward that it hardly bears mentioning: like certain forms of adult entertainment, we know it when we see it. Yet, determining what counts as prosocial is not as simple as it first appears. There are numerous behaviours that appear prosocial but, on scrutiny, may not have been intended and motivated for the well-being of others. Consider a banal scenario: a seated passenger on a crowded bus stands up and someone takes his seat...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Hoshiar Sangawi, John Adams, Nadja Reissland
Although the importance of parenting styles directly influencing child development is well established, fewer studied have examined whether parenting styles also affect children's behavioural problems indirectly, mediated through children's academic self-concept (ASC). We examined direct and shared effects of parenting styles on behavioural problems of 199 Kurdish primary school children with a mean age of 11 years 7 months (range 11 years 5 months to 12 years 3 months). Questionnaires measured parenting styles (child version of Alabama Parenting Questionnaire), assessed children's ASC (Myself-As-Learner Scale) and identified children's behavioural problems with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Tanja van Langenberg, Susan M Sawyer, Daniel Le Grange, Elizabeth K Hughes
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often first diagnosed in the adolescent years. The treatment with the greatest evidence during this time is family-based treatment (FBT). In FBT, siblings are expected to attend treatment sessions; however, sibling well-being during this time has not been well researched. This study aimed to explore sibling well-being when the ill child was initially diagnosed with AN and after FBT had been completed. METHOD: Eighty-five parents and 55 siblings of adolescents with AN completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at diagnosis...
August 8, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
S L Matheson, M Kariuki, M J Green, K Dean, F Harris, S Tzoumakis, M Tarren-Sweeney, S Brinkman, M Chilvers, T Sprague, V J Carr, K R Laurens
AIMS: Childhood maltreatment and a family history of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) are each associated with social-emotional dysfunction in childhood. Both are also strong risk factors for adult SSDs, and social-emotional dysfunction in childhood may be an antecedent of these disorders. We used data from a large Australian population cohort to determine the independent and moderating effects of maltreatment and parental SSDs on early childhood social-emotional functioning. METHODS: The New South Wales Child Development Study combines intergenerational multi-agency data using record linkage methods...
August 4, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Lynne Murray, Leonardo De Pascalis, Mark Tomlinson, Zahir Vally, Harold Dadomo, Brenda MacLachlan, Charlotte Woodward, Peter J Cooper
BACKGROUND: Consistent with evidence from high-income countries (HICs), we previously showed that, in an informal peri-urban settlement in a low-middle income country, training parents in book sharing with their infants benefitted infant language and attention (Vally, Murray, Tomlinson, & Cooper, ). Here, we investigated whether these benefits were explained by improvements in carer-infant interactions in both book-sharing and non-book-sharing contexts. We also explored whether infant socioemotional development benefitted from book sharing...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Alan E Kazdin
OBJECTIVE: The intervention work of our clinical-research team has focused on the treatment of children and young adolescents referred for Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder. METHOD: We have evaluated two interventions: parent management training (PMT) and cognitive problem-solving skills training in several randomized controlled clinical trials. RESULTS: Our findings have indicated the treatments, alone or in combination, produce reliable and significant reductions in oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behaviour and increases in prosocial behaviour among children...
July 22, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Kari-Anne B Næss, Egil Nygaard, Johanne Ostad, Anne-Stine Dolva, Solveig-Alma Halaas Lyster
BACKGROUND: Practitioners and researchers have asserted for decades that social functioning is a strength in children with Down syndrome (DS). Nevertheless, some studies have concluded that children with DS may be at greater risk of impaired social functioning compared to typically developing controls. This cross-sectional study explores the profile of social functioning (social capabilities and social problems) in six-year-old children with DS, compares it with that of typically developing children and reveals possible differences in predictors between groups...
July 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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