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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913921/language-difficulty-at-school-entry-and-the-trajectories-of-hyperactivity-inattention-problems-from-ages-4-to-11-evidence-from-a-population-representative-cohort-study
#1
Shaun Goh Kok Yew, Richard O'Kearney
Latent growth curve modelling was used to contrast the developmental trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention (H-I) problems across childhood for children with a language difficulty at the start of school and those with typical language and to examine if the presence of a language difficulty moderates the associations of child, parent and peer predictors with these trajectories. Unconditional and language-status conditional latent growth curves of H-I problems were estimated for a large nationally representative cohort of children, comprising 1627 boys (280 - language difficulty) and 1609 girls (159 - language difficulty) measured at age 4 to 5, 6 to 7, 8 to 9 and 10 to 11...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865227/behavioural-emotional-and-social-development-of-children-who-stutter
#2
Jan McAllister
PURPOSE: Developmental stuttering may be associated with diminished psychological well-being which has been documented from late childhood onwards. It is important to establish the point at which behavioural, emotional and social problems emerge in children who stutter. METHODS: The study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, whose initial cohort comprised 18,818 children. Analysis involved data collected when the cohort members were 3, 5 and 11 years old...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863460/the-effects-of-a-three-year-integrated-olympic-education-programme-on-adolescents-prosocial-behaviours
#3
Saulius Sukys, Daiva Majauskiene, Audrone Dumciene
The concept of Olympic education and its use of moral education to shape the development of personality have received insufficient empirical support. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated Olympic education programme on the development of prosocial behaviour in adolescents. A natural experimental research design was applied in this study. The pre-test sample included 411 adolescents (aged 13-14) who were randomly selected from schools that had begun to apply an integrated Olympic education programme, along with 430 adolescents from schools without an Olympic education programme...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853533/no-evidence-that-a-range-of-artificial-monitoring-cues-influence-online-donations-to-charity-in-an-mturk-sample
#4
Timothy J Saunders, Alex H Taylor, Quentin D Atkinson
Monitoring cues, such as an image of a face or pair of eyes, have been found to increase prosocial behaviour in several studies. However, other studies have found little or no support for this effect. Here, we examined whether monitoring cues affect online donations to charity while manipulating the emotion displayed, the number of watchers and the cue type. We also include as statistical controls a range of likely covariates of prosocial behaviour. Using the crowdsourcing Internet marketplace, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 1535 participants completed our survey and were given the opportunity to donate to charity while being shown an image prime...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822641/the-relationship-between-screen-time-nighttime-sleep-duration-and-behavioural-problems-in-preschool-children-in-china
#5
Xiaoyan Wu, Shuman Tao, Erigene Rutayisire, Yunxiao Chen, Kun Huang, Fangbiao Tao
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between screen time (ST), nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in a sample of preschool children in China. A sample of 8900 children aged 3-6 years was enrolled from 35 kindergartens, in four cities, in two provinces, in China to evaluate the relationships between ST, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems. Children's ST and nighttime sleep duration were assessed by questionnaires completed by parents or guardians. Behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Clancy Autism Behaviour Scale (CABS)...
November 7, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790784/psychosis-risk-screening-validation-of-the-youth-psychosis-at-risk-questionnaire-brief-in-a-community-derived-sample-of-adolescents
#6
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Edurne Chocarro, Felix Inchausti, Martin Debbané, Julio Bobes
There have been several attempts to identify individuals potentially at high risk for psychotic-spectrum disorders using brief screening measures. However, relatively few studies have tested the psychometric properties of the psychosis screening measures in representative samples of adolescents. The main purpose of the present study was to analyse the prevalence, factorial structure, measurement invariance across gender, and reliability of the Youth Psychosis At-Risk Questionnaire - Brief (YPARQ-B) in a community-derived sample of adolescents...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757969/relationships-between-parenting-practices-and-perceptions-of-child-behaviour-among-korean-immigrant-mothers-and-fathers
#7
Boram Lee, Louise J Keown, Gavin T L Brown
This study examined parenting styles and culturally-specific parenting practices of Korean immigrant mothers (N = 128) and fathers (N = 79) of children (ages 6-10) in New Zealand and the parenting predictors of child behaviour. Participants completed questionnaires on parenting styles and practices, and parental perceptions of child behaviour. Both parents indicated a high degree of devotion (Mo jeong) and involvement in care and education of their child with fathers were more likely than mothers to utilise shaming/love withdrawal and modesty encouragement...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739085/participation-of-australian-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-families-in-a-parent-support-programme-longitudinal-associations-between-playgroup-attendance-and-child-parent-and-community-outcomes
#8
K E Williams, D Berthelsen, M Viviani, J M Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Playgroups are a relatively unique form of family support programme that is common in Australia which has high community acceptance and significant government investment. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of playgroups to achieve better outcomes for children and their parents. This study describes patterns of playgroup participation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families with young children and examines the extent to which participation from birth to three years is associated with subsequent child, parent and community outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735231/examining-social-identity-and-intrateam-moral-behaviours-in-competitive-youth-ice-hockey-using-stimulated-recall
#9
Mark W Bruner, Ian D Boardley, Veronica Allan, Zach Root, Sara Buckham, Chris Forrest, Jean Côté
Social identity - identity formed through membership in groups - may play an important role in regulating intrateam moral behaviour in youth sport (Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., & Côté, J. (2014). Social identity and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 56-64. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.003). The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine this potential role through stimulated recall interviews with competitive youth-ice-hockey players. Twenty-three players (Mage = 13...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696437/-the-deserving-moral-reasoning-and-ideological-dilemmas-in-public-responses-to-humanitarian-communications
#10
Irene Bruna Seu
This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683102/collective-synchrony-increases-prosociality-towards-non-performers-and-outgroup-members
#11
Paul Reddish, Eddie M W Tong, Jonathan Jong, Jonathan A Lanman, Harvey Whitehouse
Previous research has found that behavioural synchrony between people leads to greater prosocial tendencies towards co-performers. In this study, we investigated the scope of this prosocial effect: does it extend beyond the performance group to an extended ingroup (extended parochial prosociality) or even to other people in general (generalized prosociality)? Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement either in time (synchrony condition) or out of time (asynchrony condition) with each other. Before and during the rhythmic movement, participants were exposed to a prime that made salient an extended ingroup identity...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651830/mental-health-problems-in-a-regional-population-of-australian-adolescents-association-with-socio-demographic-characteristics
#12
Julia Dray, Jenny Bowman, Megan Freund, Elizabeth Campbell, Rebecca K Hodder, Christophe Lecathelinais, John Wiggers
BACKGROUND: Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12-16 years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7-10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in disadvantaged local government areas in one regional local health district of NSW Australia...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644170/discrepancies-between-self-and-adult-perceptions-of-social-competence-in-children-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#13
M Vuori, I Autti-Rämö, N Junttila, M Vauras, A Tuulio-Henriksson
BACKGROUND: The present study examines discrepancies between self- and adult-perceptions of social competence in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and possible co-morbid disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). METHOD: Self-reported questionnaires were collected from multiple informants at the baseline of a multi-systemic family intervention programme for children (aged 5-12) with ADHD, ASD and possible co-morbid DBD...
September 19, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629920/patterns-of-cooperation-during-collective-emergencies-in-the-help-or-escape-social-dilemma
#14
Mehdi Moussaïd, Mareike Trauernicht
Although cooperation is central to the organisation of many social systems, relatively little is known about cooperation in situations of collective emergency. When groups of people flee from a danger such as a burning building or a terrorist attack, the collective benefit of cooperation is important, but the cost of helping is high and the temptation to defect is strong. To explore the degree of cooperation in emergencies, we develop a new social game, the help-or-escape social dilemma. Under time and monetary pressure, players decide how much risk they are willing to take in order to help others...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611443/on-shifting-the-blame-to-humanity-historicist-narratives-regarding-transgressors-evoke-compassion-for-the-transgressor-but-disdain-for-humanity
#15
Michael J Gill, Phillip D Getty
People respond compassionately to transgressors whose immorality is rooted in an unfortunate life history. But, are reactions to such historicist narratives uniformly compassionate? We suggest not. We propose that historicist narratives also have a dark side. Specifically, they encourage blame shifting, in which negative evaluations of humanity arise hand in hand with compassion for the focal transgressor of the narrative. Indeed, historicist narratives portray the focal transgressor as victimized by multiple others, who destroy her goodness and remove her chance to flourish in life...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605579/new-clinically-relevant-findings-about-violence-by-people-with-schizophrenia
#16
Sheilagh Hodgins, Sanja Klein
OBJECTIVE: To review findings with clinical relevance that add to knowledge about antisocial and aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia. METHOD: Nonsystematic literature review. RESULTS: Recent evidence shows that individuals who develop schizophrenia present cognitive deficits, psychotic-like experiences, and internalizing and externalizing problems from childhood onwards. Many of their relatives present not only schizophrenia-related disorders but also antisocial behaviour...
September 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570322/emotional-development-among-early-school-age-children-gender-differences-in-the-role-of-problem-behaviours
#17
Lisa K Maguire, Ulrike Niens, Mark McCann, Paul Connolly
There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to investigate the conceptualisation of these variables and their interrelationships. Structural equation models were used to assess whether differences exist between boys and girls in relation to social and emotional competences, which could affect the relative success of such programmes...
September 13, 2016: Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568175/increased-social-anhedonia-and-reduced-helping-behaviour-in-young-people-with-high-depressive-symptomatology
#18
Megan Setterfield, Mallory Walsh, Anna-Lena Frey, Ciara McCabe
BACKGROUND: Social anhedonia, the decreased enjoyment of pleasant social experiences, is associated with depression. However, whether social anhedonia in depression affects prosocial behaviours is unclear. The current study aimed to examine how high levels of depressive symptomatology in young people affect responses to usually rewarding social situations, including helping behaviour. METHODS: We recruited 46 females, 16 scoring high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI scores>20, Mage=19; HD) and 30 scoring low (BDI<10, Mage=20; LD)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556113/the-role-of-genetic-factors-and-pre-and-perinatal-influences-in-the-etiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-indications-for-genetic-referral
#19
REVIEW
Filip Rybakowski, Izabela Chojnicka, Piotr Dziechciarz, Andrea Horvath, Małgorzata Janas-Kozik, Anetta Jeziorek, Ewa Pisula, Anna Piwowarczyk, Agnieszka Słopień, Joanna Sykut-Cegielska, Hanna Szajewska, Krzysztof Szczałuba, Krystyna Szymańska, Anna Waligórska, Aneta Wojciechowska, Michał Wroniszewski, Anna Dunajska
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are caused by disruptions in early stages of central nervous system development and are usually diagnosed in first years of life. Despite common features such as impairment of socio-communicative development and stereotypical behaviours, ASD are characterised by heterogeneous course and clinical picture. The most important aetiological factors comprise genetic and environmental influences acting at prenatal, perinatal and neonatal period. The role of rare variants with large effect i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554648/prosociality
#20
Keith Jensen
Prosociality refers to behaviours that are intended to benefit others. This definition appears to be so straightforward that it hardly bears mentioning: like certain forms of adult entertainment, we know it when we see it. Yet, determining what counts as prosocial is not as simple as it first appears. There are numerous behaviours that appear prosocial but, on scrutiny, may not have been intended and motivated for the well-being of others. Consider a banal scenario: a seated passenger on a crowded bus stands up and someone takes his seat...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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