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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888489/mental-health-and-quality-of-life-among-spanish-born-and-immigrant-children-in-years-2006-and-2012
#1
Nazaret Alonso-Fernández, Rodrigo Jiménez-García, Leticia Alonso-Fernández, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Domingo Palacios-Ceña
BACKGROUND: One of every five children and adolescents in the European Union suffers from behavioural, and emotional disturbances. OBJECTIVES: To compare factors associated with the quality of life and mental health of immigrant and Spanish children aged 4-14years both during the years 2006 and 2012 and to evaluate changes over this time period. DESIGN AND METHODS: An epidemiologic age and sex matched case-control study (1:2) was conducted...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888184/early-prosocial-development-across-cultures
#2
REVIEW
Tara Callaghan, John Corbit
Human prosociality is ubiquitous, even though it may be manifested differently across cultures. Low cost helping and sharing emerge early in development, and at similar levels, across cultures having vastly different sociocultural niches. Developmental trajectories for costly sharing diverge across cultures around middle childhood, in line with differences in the sociocultural niches that children experience. Cultural developmental research has focussed primarily on the emergence and development of prosocial behaviour, and would benefit from an examination of the interplay between psychological (cognitive, motivational) and sociocultural (norms, developmental niche) foundations over ontogeny...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878976/the-nature-and-distribution-of-affiliative-behaviour-during-exposure-to-mild-threat
#3
Guillaume Dezecache, Julie Grèzes, Christoph D Dahl
Individual reactions to danger in humans are often characterized as antisocial and self-preservative. Yet, more than 50 years of research have shown that humans often seek social partners and behave prosocially when confronted by danger. This research has relied on post hoc verbal reports, which fall short of capturing the more spontaneous reactions to danger and determine their social nature. Real-world responses to danger are difficult to observe, due to their evanescent nature. Here, we took advantage of a series of photographs freely accessible online and provided by a haunted house attraction, which enabled us to examine the more immediate reactions to mild threat...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831367/correlates-of-children-s-independent-outdoor-play-cross-sectional-analyses-from-the-millennium-cohort-study
#4
Daniel Aggio, Benjamin Gardner, Justin Roberts, James Johnstone, Brendon Stubbs, Genevieve Williams, Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez, Lee Smith
Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play. Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no) as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819649/prosocial-apathy-for-helping-others-when-effort-is-required
#5
Patricia L Lockwood, Mathilde Hamonet, Samuel H Zhang, Anya Ratnavel, Florentine U Salmony, Masud Husain, Matthew A J Apps
Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves...
July 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815382/spontaneous-cross-species-imitation-in-interactions-between-chimpanzees-and-zoo-visitors
#6
Tomas Persson, Gabriela-Alina Sauciuc, Elainie Alenkær Madsen
Imitation is a cornerstone of human development, serving both a cognitive function (e.g. in the acquisition and transmission of skills and knowledge) and a social-communicative function, whereby the imitation of familiar actions serves to maintain social interaction and promote prosociality. In nonhuman primates, this latter function is poorly understood, or even claimed to be absent. In this observational study, we documented interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors and found that the two species imitated each other at a similar rate, corresponding to almost 10% of all produced actions...
August 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782292/risk-factors-for-neck-and-shoulder-pain-among-schoolchildren-and-adolescents
#7
Iman Dianat, Arezou Alipour, Mohammad Asgari Jafarabadi
AIM: To evaluate the potential risk factors for neck and shoulder pain among schoolchildren. METHODS: Demographic, physical/leisure activity, school-related and psychosocial factors for neck/shoulder pain were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1611 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. RESULTS: Neck and shoulder complaints were reported in 27.9 and 19.0% of the sample, respectively. According to multivariate logistic regression models, high desk height (odds ratio (OR) = 2...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752588/psychological-adjustment-and-behaviours-in-children-of-migrant-workers-in-china
#8
F Wang, X Zhou, T Hesketh
BACKGROUND: In China, there are around 274 million rural-urban migrants, an estimated 61 million children left behind in rural areas by parents, and 29 million children who accompany their parents to cities. The aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial adjustment and behaviours of left-behind children and migrant children. METHODS: Full data were available for 761 left-behind children and 1,392 migrant children aged 11 to 17 in Zhejiang Province, eastern China...
July 28, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751486/profiles-of-children-s-social-emotional-health-at-school-entry-and-associated-income-gender-and-language-inequalities-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study-in-british-columbia-canada
#9
Kimberly C Thomson, Martin Guhn, Chris G Richardson, Tavinder K Ark, Jean Shoveller
OBJECTIVES: Early identification of distinct patterns of child social-emotional strengths and vulnerabilities has the potential to improve our understanding of child mental health and well-being; however, few studies have explored natural groupings of indicators of child vulnerability and strengths at a population level. The purpose of this study was to examine heterogeneity in the patterns of young children's social and emotional health and investigate the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics were associated...
July 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736940/seven-year-olds-aggressive-choices-in-a-computer-game-can-be-predicted-in-infancy
#10
Dale F Hay, Mark K Johansen, Peter Daly, Salim Hashmi, Charlotte Robinson, Stephan Collishaw, Stephanie van Goozen
Concerns about the relationship between computer games and children's aggression have been expressed for decades, but it is not yet clear whether the content of such games evokes aggression or a prior history of aggression promotes children's interest in aggressive games. Two hundred and sixty-six 7-year-old children from a nationally representative longitudinal sample in the UK played a novel computer game (CAMGAME) in which the child's avatar encountered a series of social challenges that might evoke aggressive, prosocial or neutral behaviour...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665327/green-mind-theory-how-brain-body-behaviour-links-into-natural-and-social-environments-for-healthy-habits
#11
Jules Pretty, Mike Rogerson, Jo Barton
We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT) to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662455/borderline-personality-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-traits-in-childhood-are-associated-with-hypomanic-features-in-early-adulthood
#12
Sumit Mistry, Stanley Zammit, Valentina-Escott Price, Hannah J Jones, Daniel J Smith
BACKGROUND: There is limited understanding of the symptomatic development of bipolar disorder from childhood to early adulthood. AIMS: We assessed whether borderline personality disorder traits, ADHD, and emotional, behavioural and social difficulties during childhood were associated with hypomania assessed in young adulthood. METHOD: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), to examine associations between measures of childhood psychopathology and lifetime hypomanic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n = 3372)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645979/the-2015-middle-childhood-survey-mcs-of-mental-health-and-well-being-at-age-11-years-in-an-australian-population-cohort
#13
Kristin R Laurens, Stacy Tzoumakis, Kimberlie Dean, Sally A Brinkman, Miles Bore, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Maxwell Smith, Allyson Holbrook, Kim M Robinson, Robert Stevens, Felicity Harris, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
PURPOSE: The Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) was designed as a computerised self-report assessment of children's mental health and well-being at approximately 11 years of age, conducted with a population cohort of 87 026 children being studied longitudinally within the New South Wales (NSW) Child Development Study. PARTICIPANTS: School Principals provided written consent for teachers to administer the MCS in class to year 6 students at 829 NSW schools (35.0% of eligible schools)...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639407/factorial-structure-and-construct-validity-of-an-italian-version-of-the-fears-of-compassion-scales-a%C3%A2-study-on-non-clinical-subjects
#14
Francesco Dentale, Nicola Petrocchi, Michele Vecchione, Claudia Biagioli, Accursio Gennaro, Cristiano Violani
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at investigating the factorial structure and the construct validity of the Italian translation of the Fears of Compassion (FC) Scales in a non-clinical sample (i.e., Fear of Compassion From Others [FCFO], Fear of Compassion Towards Others [FCTO] and Fear of Self-Compassion [FSC]). An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on all the items to investigate the dimensionality of the FC scales. To assess construct validity, correlations between the FC scales and a series of construct-related measures were analysed...
June 22, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637246/effect-of-psilocybin-on-empathy-and-moral-decision-making
#15
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek, Franz X Vollenweider
Background: Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behavior. Although the serotonin system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behavior, the relative contribution of the various serotonin receptor subtypes is still unknown. Methods: We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612424/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-cognitive-functioning-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-down-syndrome
#16
A Joyce, D Dimitriou
BACKGROUND: Sleep affects children's cognitive development, preparedness for school and future academic outcomes. People with Down syndrome (DS) are particularly at risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). To our knowledge, the association between SDB and cognition in preschoolers with DS is unknown. METHODS: We assessed sleep by using cardiorespiratory polygraphy in 22 typically developing (TD) preschoolers and 22 with DS. Cognition was assessed by using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and behaviour by using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611410/politeness-and-compassion-differentially-predict-adherence-to-fairness-norms-and-interventions-to-norm-violations-in-economic-games
#17
Kun Zhao, Eamonn Ferguson, Luke D Smillie
Adherence to norms and interventions to norm violations are two important forms of social behaviour modelled in economic games. While both appear to serve a prosocial function, they may represent separate mechanisms corresponding with distinct emotional and psychological antecedents, and thus may be predicted by different personality traits. In this study, we compared adherence to fairness norms in the dictator game with responses to violations of the same norms in third-party punishment and recompensation games with respect to prosocial traits from the Big Five and HEXACO models of personality...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589632/effect-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-intervention-on-criminal-thinking-and-prison-misconduct-in-male-inmates-variable-oriented-and-person-oriented-analyses
#18
Glenn D Walters
BACKGROUND: There is some consensus on the value of cognitive-behaviourally informed interventions in the criminal justice system, but uncertainty about which components are of critical value. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that change in prisoners - criminal thinking and institutional misconduct - will both follow completion of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention. METHODS: A one-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was used to assess change on the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles among 219 male prisoners completing a 10-week cognitive behavioural intervention, referred to as 'Lifestyle Issues'...
June 7, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482679/symptom-severity-caregiver-stress-and-intervention-helpfulness-assessed-using-ratings-from-parents-caring-for-a-child-with-autism
#19
Daniel Shepherd, Jason Landon, Sonja Goedeke
This exploratory study assessed the relationships between autism spectrum disorder symptoms, caregiver stress and intervention helpfulness, using parent ( n = 182) ratings. Advocacy and intervention-related tasks were rated more stressful than support tasks (e.g. toileting, mealtimes), indicating that advocacy is emerging as a major caregiver task for parents. Deficits in prosocial behaviours were perceived to have the highest impact on the child's function. No difference was found between mean helpfulness ratings across the six representative interventions taken from the New Zealand context...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481256/childhood-attachment-to-pets-associations-between-pet-attachment-attitudes-to-animals-compassion-and-humane-behaviour
#20
Roxanne D Hawkins, Joanne M Williams, Scottish Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals Scottish Spca
Attachment to pets has an important role in children's social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender...
May 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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