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callous-unemotional traits

Rebecca Waller, Christopher J Trentacosta, Daniel S Shaw, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Jody M Ganiban, David Reiss, Leslie D Leve, Luke W Hyde
BACKGROUND: Early callous-unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous-unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. AIMS: To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous-unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. METHOD: Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous-unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
James V Ray, Paul J Frick, Laura C Thornton, Tina D Wall Myers, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Research has only recently begun to examine how callous-unemotional (CU) traits interact with contextual factors to predict delinquent behavior. The current study attempts to explain the well-established link between CU traits and offending by testing the potential mediating and moderating roles of 2 critical contextual factors: peer delinquency and the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship among a sample of 1,216 male juvenile offenders. Youth in the study were interviewed once every 6 months and in the current analyses, CU traits measured at baseline, parenting and delinquent peer association measured during the 6-month interview, and offending measured at the 1-year interview were utilized in path analysis...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Psychology
Svetlana Oshukova, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Matti Kaivosoja, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: In DSM 5, conduct disorder was expanded with the new specifier 'with limited prosocial emotions (LPE)'. These callous-unemotional traits have been emphasized as the 'core' of psychopathy syndrome providing greater information about current and future impairment. Individuals with callous-unemotional traits have shown elevated levels of impairment, and these traits have been suggested to serve as a useful indicator for psychiatric vulnerability and psychosocial maladjustment also among community youth...
October 14, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Alyson Blanchard, Luna C Munoz Centifanti
Children who exhibit callous-unemotional (CU) traits are identified as developing particularly severe forms of externalising behaviours (EB). A number of risk factors have been identified in the development of CU traits, including biological, physiological, and genetic factors. However, prenatal testosterone (PT) remains un-investigated, yet could signal fetal programming of a combination of CU/EB. Using the 2D:4D digit ratio, the current study examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between PT and EB...
October 12, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Kostas A Fanti
The present review is concerned with the role of different physiological systems (e.g., skin conductance, heart rate, electromyography, and the eye-bling startle reflex) in understanding heterogeneity in conduct disorder (CD). Four subtyping approaches are considered: age of onset, comorbid psychopathology, callous-unemotional traits, and proactive/reactive aggression. Empirical findings are discussed in terms of distinct theoretical perspectives that aim to explain CD behaviors based on physiological over-arousal, under-arousal, and empathy deficits...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Adam Fine, Caitlin Cavanagh, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Judgments about a youth's level of remorse are frequently used to make important decisions in the juvenile justice system that can have serious consequences to the person. Unfortunately, little is known about these ratings and what factors may influence them. In a sample of 325 1st-time youth offenders who were arrested for offenses of moderate severity, we tested whether probation officers' ratings of an adolescent's remorse soon after arrest were associated with the youth's self-report of showing a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, being arrested for a violent offense, and several demographic and background characteristics (e...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Catherine Tuvblad, Kostas A Fanti, Henrik Andershed, Olivier F Colins, Henrik Larsson
There is limited research on the genetic and environmental bases of psychopathic personality traits in children. In this study, psychopathic personality traits were assessed in a total of 1189 5-year-old boys and girls drawn from the Preschool Twin Study in Sweden. Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory, a teacher-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in children ranging from 3 to 12 years old. Univariate results showed that genetic influences accounted for 57, 25, and 74 % of the variance in the grandiose-deceitful, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, while the shared environment accounted for 17, 48 and 9 % (n...
September 28, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jennifer L Tackett, Avanté J Smack, Kathrin Herzhoff, Kathleen W Reardon, Stephanie Daoud, Isabela Granic
Recent efforts have demonstrated that thin-slice (TS) assessment-or assessment of individual characteristics after only brief exposure to that individual's behaviour-can produce reliable and valid measurements of child personality traits. The extent to which this approach can be generalized to archival data not designed to measure personality, and whether it can be used to measure personality pathology traits in youth, is not yet known. Archival video data of a parent-child interaction task was collected as part of a clinical intervention trial for aggressive children (N = 177)...
September 26, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
Pietro Muratori, Marinella Paciello, Carlo Buonanno, Annarita Milone, Laura Ruglioni, John E Lochman, Gabriele Masi
BACKGROUND: Callous-unemotional traits have been proposed as risk factors for a poorer prognosis in young people with disruptive behaviour disorders. Identification of factors that may cause or maintain elevated levels of such traits could help in developing targeted therapeutic interventions. Some previous studies have investigated the role of moral cognitive mechanisms, such as moral disengagement, but these previous studies focused primarily on normal or 'at-risk' samples. AIM: We aimed to evaluate associations and possible interactions between moral disengagement as a cognitive dimension and callous-unemotional traits as an affective dimension in adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders...
September 13, 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Eva R Kimonis, Natalie Goulter, David J Hawes, Rhonda R Wilbur, Maureen W Groer
The characteristic pattern of emotional hypo-reactivity observed in primary psychopathy is not evident in secondary psychopathy, which is thought to originate from childhood adversity and co-occurring anxiety. The main aim of this study was to test whether salivary afternoon cortisol, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol-to-DHEA concentrations, which at high levels indicate risk for chronic stress and poor mental health, distinguished secondary from primary variants of callous-unemotional (CU) traits-the affective component of psychopathy...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Randall T Salekin
Callous-unemotional traits have been incorporated into the DSM-5 and may be considered for the ICD-11. Despite the centrality of callous-unemotional traits, it is only one of three dimensions of child psychopathy. It is proposed that the grandiose-manipulative and daring-impulsive traits should be considered and potentially accepted as specifiers for conduct disorder in the DSM-5 and ICD-11.
September 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Jarla Pijper, Minet de Wied, Sophie van Rijn, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab, Wim Meeus
This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12 years. Boys completed a questionnaire measure of empathic sadness and a broader questionnaire measure of affective and cognitive empathy. Parents and teachers reported on CU traits, and parents reported on ASD symptoms...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Paul J Frick
Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics...
October 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Kim Veroude, Daniel von Rhein, Roselyne J M Chauvin, Eelco V van Dongen, Maarten J J Mennes, Barbara Franke, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jeffrey C Glennon, Jan K Buitelaar
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, i.e., unconcernedness and lack of prosocial feelings, may manifest in Conduct Disorder (CD), but also in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These disorders have been associated with aberrant reward processing, while the influence of CU traits is unclear. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we examined whether CU traits affect the neural circuit for reward. A Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task was administered to 328 adolescents and young adults with varying levels of CU traits: 40 participants with ODD/CD plus ADHD, 101 participants with ADHD only, 84 siblings of probands with ADHD and 103 typically developing (TD) individuals...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Ann-Margret Rydell
We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescence
Jantiene Schoorl, Sophie van Rijn, Minet de Wied, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab
Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this study extended previous studies in that not only baseline and reactivity to a psychosocial stressor were examined, but also recovery from a stressor. These three phases of cortisol could be impacted differentially in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) with (+ANX) and without anxiety (-ANX)...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Moji Aghajani, Eduard T Klapwijk, Nic J van der Wee, Ilya M Veer, Serge A R B Rombouts, Albert E Boon, Peter van Beelen, Arne Popma, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Olivier F Colins
BACKGROUND: The developmental trajectory of psychopathy seemingly begins early in life and includes the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., deficient emotional reactivity, callousness) in conduct-disordered (CD) youth. Though subregion-specific anomalies in amygdala function have been suggested in CU pathophysiology among antisocial populations, system-level studies of CU traits have typically examined the amygdala as a unitary structure. Hence, nothing is yet known of how amygdala subregional network function may contribute to callous-unemotionality in severely antisocial people...
May 27, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Moran D Cohn, Essi Viding, Eamon McCrory, Louise Pape, Wim van den Brink, Theo A H Doreleijers, Dick J Veltman, Arne Popma
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The present study employed voxel-based morphometry to assess both grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter concentration (GMC) in a large representative at-risk sample of adolescents (n=134; mean age 17...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Christie Hartman, Tina Hageman, James Herbert Williams, Jason St Mary, Frank R Ascione
We explored the relation between empathy, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and animal abuse in a sample of 290 seven- to twelve-year-old children whose mothers were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The sample comprises mostly Latino and White participants, and 55% of the children's mothers were born outside the United States (primarily Mexico). To our knowledge, among studies examining child-perpetrated animal abuse, this study is the first to examine empathy levels and one of only a few to examine CU traits...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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