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callous-unemotional traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909830/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-icu-in-children-reliability-and-heritability
#1
Ashlee A Moore, Dever Carney, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Kenneth E Towbin, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits comprise the core symptoms of psychopathy, yet no study has estimated the heritability of CU traits in a community sample of children using an instrument designed solely to assess CU traits. The current study uses data from 339 twin pairs aged 9-14 to examine the reliability and heritability of the parent-report Inventory of Callous-unemotional Traits (ICU) at two assessments approximately 3 weeks apart. Time-specific measurement error was taken into account to obtain a more accurate estimate of the heritability reflecting the latent liability to CU traits...
December 1, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888020/neural-correlates-of-affective-empathy-and-reinforcement-learning-in-boys-with-conduct-problems-fmri-evidence-from-a-gambling-task
#2
Christina Schwenck, Angela Ciaramidaro, Marina Selivanova, Jennifer Tournay, Christine M Freitag, Michael Siniatchkin
BACKGROUND: Conduct problems (CP) comprise abnormal behaviors associated with aberrant aspects of affective empathy as well as learning. However, behavioral measures for affective empathy are challenging, and previous results concerning learning in patients with CP are inconsistent. METHODS: Nineteen boys with CP and 24 typically developing (TD) boys aged 11-17 years (M=14.34, SD=1.93) participated in the study. An ultimatum-game was applied in order to elicit the feeling of like or dislike towards the opponent for a subsequent gambling task, which was played by the opponents (OTHER-condition) and by the participants themselves (SELF-condition)...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831697/therapeutic-alliance-and-treatment-outcome-in-the-outpatient-treatment-of-urban-adolescents-the-role-of-callous-unemotional-traits
#3
Laurel A Mattos, Adam T Schmidt, Craig E Henderson, Aaron Hogue
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits designate a unique subset of youth with externalizing psychopathology who have a severe pattern of aggressive behavior and tend to have worse outcomes in treatment. However, little research has addressed how CU traits relate to different components of psychotherapy, such as the therapeutic alliance. The current study examined the role of CU traits in predicting therapeutic alliance in 59 adolescents (M age = 15.3, 51% female, 64% Hispanic American, 15% African American) who were part of a larger randomized naturalistic trial of outpatient behavioral psychotherapy...
November 10, 2016: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816698/predicting-aggression-in-late-adolescent-romantic-relationships-a-short-term-longitudinal-study
#4
Christina N Caiozzo, Jessica Houston, John Grych
This study sought to prospectively predict aggression in the romantic relationships of 1180 college students from the United States (807 females; 373 males) over the course of two months with a set of intrapersonal risk and protective factors, including personality characteristics that rarely have been examined in this population. After accounting for prior dating aggression, perpetration of verbal aggression was predicted uniquely by aggressive attitudes, emotion regulation, and for females, narcissism. Perpetration of physical aggression was predicted by aggressive attitudes, but only at low levels of emotion regulation, and the interaction of callous-unemotional traits, emotion regulation, and gender: males with low levels of callous-unemotional traits perpetrated less physical aggression when they reported greater emotion regulation...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812906/predicting-risky-sexual-behavior-the-unique-and-interactive-roles-of-childhood-conduct-disorder-symptoms-and-callous-unemotional-traits
#5
Sarah L Anderson, Yao Zheng, Robert J McMahon
Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to be uniquely associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adolescence and early adulthood, yet their interactive role in predicting RSB remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of CD symptoms and CU traits, as well as their interaction, on several RSB outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood. A total of 683 participants (41.7 % female, 47.4 % African American) were followed annually and self-reported age of first sexual intercourse, frequency of condom use, pregnancy, contraction of sexually transmitted infections, and engagement in sexual solicitation from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786502/childhood-psychopathic-personality-and-callous-unemotional-traits-in-the-prediction-of-conduct-problems
#6
Louise Frogner, Chris L Gibson, Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed
This study analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study of Swedish preschoolers to examine whether psychopathic traits and concurrent conduct problems predict future conduct problems (CP) across 1- and 2-year follow-ups into early childhood. We tested the predictive ability of psychopathic traits while controlling for concurrent CP, and also by combining psychopathic traits with concurrent CP. A community sample of 1,867 preschoolers (47% girls) ages 3 to 5 years at baseline was recruited from a Swedish medium-sized municipality...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776612/psychopathic-traits-mediate-the-effects-of-neighbourhood-risk-on-juvenile-antisocial-behaviour
#7
Olalla Cutrín Mosteiro, José A Gómez Fraguela, Lorena Maneiro Boo, Jorge Sobral Fernández, María A Luengo Martín
BACKGROUND: Research of the indirect effects of neighbourhood risk through psychopathic personality traits (i.e., impulsiveness, narcissism and callous-unemotional traits) on juvenile antisocial behaviour has become relevant. METHODS: In the current study, mediation effects were assessed using a sample composed of 406 young people between 14 and 21 years old, 82.7% males, from juvenile centres in Galicia and Andalucía (Spain). RESULTS: The results showed significant mediation effects of neighbourhood risk on antisocial behaviour through impulsiveness and callous-unemotional traits...
November 2016: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765772/heritable-temperament-pathways-to-early-callous-unemotional-behaviour
#8
Rebecca Waller, Christopher J Trentacosta, Daniel S Shaw, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Jody M Ganiban, David Reiss, Leslie D Leve, Luke W Hyde
BACKGROUND: Early callous-unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous-unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. AIMS: To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous-unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. METHOD: Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous-unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways...
December 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748621/callous-unemotional-traits-predict-self-reported-offending-in-adolescent-boys-the-mediating-role-of-delinquent-peers-and-the-moderating-role-of-parenting-practices
#9
James V Ray, Paul J Frick, Laura C Thornton, Tina D Wall Myers, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Research has only recently begun to examine how callous-unemotional (CU) traits interact with contextual factors to predict delinquent behavior. The current study attempts to explain the well-established link between CU traits and offending by testing the potential mediating and moderating roles of 2 critical contextual factors: peer delinquency and the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship among a sample of 1,216 male juvenile offenders. Youth in the study were interviewed once every 6 months and in the current analyses, CU traits measured at baseline, parenting and delinquent peer association measured during the 6-month interview, and offending measured at the 1-year interview were utilized in path analysis...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739343/self-assessed-limited-prosocial-emotions-do-not-distinguish-community-youth-with-psychosocial-problems-from-those-without-them
#10
Svetlana Oshukova, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Matti Kaivosoja, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: In DSM 5, conduct disorder was expanded with the new specifier 'with limited prosocial emotions (LPE)'. These callous-unemotional traits have been emphasized as the 'core' of psychopathy syndrome providing greater information about current and future impairment. Individuals with callous-unemotional traits have shown elevated levels of impairment, and these traits have been suggested to serve as a useful indicator for psychiatric vulnerability and psychosocial maladjustment also among community youth...
October 14, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734260/callous-unemotional-traits-moderate-the-relation-between-prenatal-testosterone-2d-4d-and-externalising-behaviours-in-children
#11
Alyson Blanchard, Luna C Munoz Centifanti
Children who exhibit callous-unemotional (CU) traits are identified as developing particularly severe forms of externalising behaviours (EB). A number of risk factors have been identified in the development of CU traits, including biological, physiological, and genetic factors. However, prenatal testosterone (PT) remains un-investigated, yet could signal fetal programming of a combination of CU/EB. Using the 2D:4D digit ratio, the current study examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between PT and EB...
October 12, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693700/understanding-heterogeneity-in-conduct-disorder-a-review-of-psychophysiological-studies
#12
Kostas A Fanti
The present review is concerned with the role of different physiological systems (e.g., skin conductance, heart rate, electromyography, and the eye-bling startle reflex) in understanding heterogeneity in conduct disorder (CD). Four subtyping approaches are considered: age of onset, comorbid psychopathology, callous-unemotional traits, and proactive/reactive aggression. Empirical findings are discussed in terms of distinct theoretical perspectives that aim to explain CD behaviors based on physiological over-arousal, under-arousal, and empathy deficits...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684211/can-probation-officers-identify-remorse-among-male-adolescent-offenders
#13
Adam Fine, Caitlin Cavanagh, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Judgments about a youth's level of remorse are frequently used to make important decisions in the juvenile justice system that can have serious consequences to the person. Unfortunately, little is known about these ratings and what factors may influence them. In a sample of 325 1st-time youth offenders who were arrested for offenses of moderate severity, we tested whether probation officers' ratings of an adolescent's remorse soon after arrest were associated with the youth's self-report of showing a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, being arrested for a violent offense, and several demographic and background characteristics (e...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683227/psychopathic-personality-traits-in-5%C3%A2-year-old-twins-the-importance-of-genetic-and-shared-environmental-influences
#14
Catherine Tuvblad, Kostas A Fanti, Henrik Andershed, Olivier F Colins, Henrik Larsson
There is limited research on the genetic and environmental bases of psychopathic personality traits in children. In this study, psychopathic personality traits were assessed in a total of 1189 5-year-old boys and girls drawn from the Preschool Twin Study in Sweden. Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory, a teacher-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in children ranging from 3 to 12 years old. Univariate results showed that genetic influences accounted for 57, 25, and 74 % of the variance in the grandiose-deceitful, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, while the shared environment accounted for 17, 48 and 9 % (n...
September 28, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677830/psychiatric-evaluation-of-youths-with-disruptive-behavior-disorders-and-psychopathic-traits-a-critical-review-of-assessment-measures
#15
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670747/measuring-child-personality-when-child-personality-was-not-measured-application-of-a-thin-slice-approach
#16
Jennifer L Tackett, Avanté J Smack, Kathrin Herzhoff, Kathleen W Reardon, Stephanie Daoud, Isabela Granic
Recent efforts have demonstrated that thin-slice (TS) assessment-or assessment of individual characteristics after only brief exposure to that individual's behaviour-can produce reliable and valid measurements of child personality traits. The extent to which this approach can be generalized to archival data not designed to measure personality, and whether it can be used to measure personality pathology traits in youth, is not yet known. Archival video data of a parent-child interaction task was collected as part of a clinical intervention trial for aggressive children (N = 177)...
September 26, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624802/moral-disengagement-and-callous-unemotional-traits-a-longitudinal-study-of-italian-adolescents-with-a-disruptive-behaviour-disorder
#17
Pietro Muratori, Marinella Paciello, Carlo Buonanno, Annarita Milone, Laura Ruglioni, John E Lochman, Gabriele Masi
BACKGROUND: Callous-unemotional traits have been proposed as risk factors for a poorer prognosis in young people with disruptive behaviour disorders. Identification of factors that may cause or maintain elevated levels of such traits could help in developing targeted therapeutic interventions. Some previous studies have investigated the role of moral cognitive mechanisms, such as moral disengagement, but these previous studies focused primarily on normal or 'at-risk' samples. AIM: We aimed to evaluate associations and possible interactions between moral disengagement as a cognitive dimension and callous-unemotional traits as an affective dimension in adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders...
September 13, 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616728/neuroendocrine-factors-distinguish-juvenile-psychopathy-variants
#18
Eva R Kimonis, Natalie Goulter, David J Hawes, Rhonda R Wilbur, Maureen W Groer
The characteristic pattern of emotional hypo-reactivity observed in primary psychopathy is not evident in secondary psychopathy, which is thought to originate from childhood adversity and co-occurring anxiety. The main aim of this study was to test whether salivary afternoon cortisol, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol-to-DHEA concentrations, which at high levels indicate risk for chronic stress and poor mental health, distinguished secondary from primary variants of callous-unemotional (CU) traits-the affective component of psychopathy...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587759/psychopathy-in-childhood-why-should-we-care-about-grandiose-manipulative-and-daring-impulsive-traits
#19
EDITORIAL
Randall T Salekin
Callous-unemotional traits have been incorporated into the DSM-5 and may be considered for the ICD-11. Despite the centrality of callous-unemotional traits, it is only one of three dimensions of child psychopathy. It is proposed that the grandiose-manipulative and daring-impulsive traits should be considered and potentially accepted as specifiers for conduct disorder in the DSM-5 and ICD-11.
September 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575651/callous-unemotional-traits-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms-and-empathy-in-boys-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-or-conduct-disorder
#20
Jarla Pijper, Minet de Wied, Sophie van Rijn, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab, Wim Meeus
This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12 years. Boys completed a questionnaire measure of empathic sadness and a broader questionnaire measure of affective and cognitive empathy. Parents and teachers reported on CU traits, and parents reported on ASD symptoms...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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