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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689344/the-relationship-between-interleukin-6-and-functional-connectivity-in-methamphetamine-users
#1
Milky Kohno, Jennifer M Loftis, Marilyn Huckans, Laura E Dennis, Holly McCready, William F Hoffman
Methamphetamine (MA) causes an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in animal models and in humans. Resulting activation of microglia and neuro-inflammation could, via effects on reward networks, mediate behavioral characteristics of addiction. We examined the relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and corticolimbic and striatolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Thirty adults diagnosed with MA dependence and 20 control subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and gave a blood sample for determination of plasma IL-6 levels...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682085/prostaglandin-e-2-produced-by-alginate-encapsulated-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-modulates-the-astrocyte-inflammatory-response
#2
Elizabeth C Stucky, Joshua Erndt-Marino, Rene S Schloss, Martin L Yarmush, David I Shreiber
Astroglia are well known for their role in propagating secondary injury following brain trauma. Modulation of this injury cascade, including inflammation, is essential to repair and recovery. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated as trophic mediators in several models of secondary CNS injury, however, there has been varied success with the use of direct implantation due to a failure to persist at the injury site. To achieve sustained therapeutic benefit, we have encapsulated MSCs in alginate microspheres and evaluated the ability of these encapsulated MSCs to attenuate neuro-inflammation...
June 2017: Nano LIFE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677475/molecular-and-functional-neuroscience-in-immunity
#3
Valentin A Pavlov, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. The functional organization of this neural control is based on principles of reflex regulation. Reflexes involving the vagus nerve and other nerves have been therapeutically explored in models of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and recently in clinical settings...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661156/synergic-trial-synchronizing-exercises-remedies-in-gait-and-cognition-a-multi-centre-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-to-improve-gait-and-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Karen Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura Middleton, Susan Muir-Hunter, William McIlroy, José A Morais, Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Kevin Shoemaker, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, G Y Zou, Nicolas Berryman, Maxime Lussier, Leanne Vanderhaeghe, Louis Bherer
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D are low cost interventions that have the potential to enhance cognitive function and mobility in older adults, especially in pre-dementia states such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Aerobic and progressive resistance exercises have benefits to cognitive performance, though evidence is somewhat inconsistent. We postulate that combined aerobic exercise (AE) and progressive resistance training (RT) (combined exercise) will have a better effect on cognition than a balance and toning control (BAT) intervention in older adults with MCI...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658918/whole-mount-confocal-microscopy-for-adult-ear-skin-a-model-system-to-study-neuro-vascular-branching-morphogenesis-and-immune-cell-distribution
#5
Tomoko Yamazaki, Wenling Li, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
Here, we present a protocol of a whole-mount adult ear skin imaging technique to study comprehensive three-dimensional neuro-vascular branching morphogenesis and patterning, as well as immune cell distribution at a cellular level. The analysis of peripheral nerve and blood vessel anatomical structures in adult tissues provides some insights into the understanding of functional neuro-vascular wiring and neuro-vascular degeneration in pathological conditions such as wound healing. As a highly informative model system, we have focused our studies on adult ear skin, which is readily accessible for dissection...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656802/impact-on-the-brain-of-the-inflammatory-response-to-surgery
#6
Sarah Saxena, Mervyn Maze
The brain is both the orchestrator as well as the target of the innate immune system's response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. When trauma-induced inflammation is not appropriately regulated persistent neuro-inflammation interferes with the synaptic plasticity that underlies the learning and memory aspects of cognition. The complications that ensue, include postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) at two poles of a constellation that is now termed perioperative neurocognitive disorders...
April 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627590/exploring-experimental-autoimmune-optic-neuritis-using-multimodal-imaging
#7
Praveena Manogaran, Christine Walker-Egger, Marijana Samardzija, Conny Waschkies, Christian Grimm, Markus Rudin, Sven Schippling
BACKGROUND: Neuro-axonal injury is a key contributor to non-reversible long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Visual impairment is common among MS patients, in which episodes of optic neuritis (ON) are often followed by structural retinal damage and sustained functional impairment. Alterations in the optic nerve and retina have also been described in rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625335/cerebrospinal-fluid-il-10-as-an-early-stage-discriminative-marker-between-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-disease
#8
Meriam Belghith, Khadija Bahrini, Mariem Kchaou, Olfa Maghrebi, Samir Belal, Mohamed Ridha Barbouche
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuro-Behçet's Disease (NBD) are two recurrent disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) by causing inflammation and irreversible damage. Inaugural clinical symptoms for both diseases might be very similar and definitive diagnosis could be delayed. The present study aimed to find out possible differences at early stages in the transcription factors/cytokines expression profiles in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS and NBD patients which could be useful discriminative markers...
April 3, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615850/interplay-between-the-gut-brain-axis-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#9
REVIEW
Ana Agustí, Maria P García-Pardo, Inmaculada López-Almela, Isabel Campillo, Michael Maes, Marina Romaní-Pérez, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa . These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576121/anti-nociceptive-effects-of-caloric-restriction-on-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-involves-silent-information-regulator-1
#10
Y Liu, Y Ni, W Zhang, Y E Sun, M Jiang, W J Gu, Z L Ma, X P Gu
BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction (CR) increases both average and maximum lifespan, retards physiological signs of ageing, and delays the onset of several diseases and may mediate neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain seriously affects the quality of life of patients. In this study, we investigated whether CR exerts anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain, and probed its potential mechanisms. METHODS: Adult rats were divided into two dietary groups: an ad libitum (AL)-fed group and a CR group, which was provided with 60% of the food intake of AL rats for 6 weeks...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569030/author-correction-stem-cells-from-human-apical-papilla-decrease-neuro%C3%A2-inflammation-and-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-differentiation-via-activin%C3%A2-a-secretion
#11
Pauline De Berdt, Pauline Bottemanne, John Bianco, Mireille Alhouayek, Anibal Diogenes, Amy Lloyd, Jose Gerardo-Nava, Gary A Brook, Véronique Miron, Giulio G Muccioli, Anne des Rieux
In the original publication, sixth author's surname was incorrectly published as "Llyod" instead of "Lloyd". The correct name should read as "Amy Lloyd".
March 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565290/role-of-inflammation-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#12
REVIEW
Anne Rübsam, Sonia Parikh, Patrice E Fort
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness among the working-age population. For decades, diabetic retinopathy was considered only a microvascular complication, but the retinal microvasculature is intimately associated with and governed by neurons and glia, which are affected even prior to clinically detectable vascular lesions. While progress has been made to improve the vascular alterations, there is still no treatment to counteract the early neuro-glial perturbations in diabetic retinopathy...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563297/central-nervous-system-inflammation-and-infection-during-early-non-accelerated-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#13
Denise C Hsu, Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, Matthew Wegner, Alexandra Schuetz, Decha Silsorn, Jacob D Estes, Claire Deleage, Khamis Tomusange, Samir K Lakhashe, Ruth M Ruprecht, Eric Lombardini, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Yanin Kuncharin, Yuwadee Phuang-Ngern, Dutsadee Inthawong, Weerawan Chuenarom, Robin Burke, Merlin L Robb, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Jintanat Ananworanich, Victor Valcour, Robert J O'Connell, Serena Spudich, Nelson L Michael, Sandhya Vasan
Studies utilizing highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have largely focused on the immunopathology of the central nervous system (CNS) during end-stage neuro AIDS and SIV encephalitis. However, this may not model pathophysiology in earlier stages of infection. In this non-accelerated SHIV model, plasma SHIV RNA levels and peripheral blood and colonic CD4 T+ cell counts mirrored early HIV infection in humans. At 12 weeks post infection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) detection of SHIV RNA and elevations in IP-10 and MCP-1 reflected a discrete neurovirologic process...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562624/gaba-and-gaba-alanine-from-the-red-microalgae-rhodosorus-marinus-exhibit-a-significant-neuro-soothing-activity-through-inhibition-of-neuro-inflammation-mediators-and-positive-regulation-of-trpv1-related-skin-sensitization
#14
Amandine Scandolera, Jane Hubert, Anne Humeau, Carole Lambert, Audrey De Bizemont, Chris Winkel, Abdelmajid Kaouas, Jean-Hugues Renault, Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Romain Reynaud
The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-soothing activity of a water-soluble hydrolysate obtained from the red microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Geitler (Stylonemataceae). Transcriptomic analysis performed on ≈100 genes related to skin biological functions firstly revealed that the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was able to significantly negatively modulate specific genes involved in pro-inflammation (interleukin 1α encoding gene, IL1A) and pain detection related to tissue inflammation (nerve growth factor NGF and its receptor NGFR)...
March 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542376/serum-neurofilament-light-chain-is-a-biomarker-of-acute-and-chronic-neuronal-damage-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Nelly Siller, Jens Kuhle, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Christian Barro, Timo Uphaus, Sergiu Groppa, Ludwig Kappos, Frauke Zipp, Stefan Bittner
BACKGROUND: Monitoring neuronal injury remains one key challenge in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Upon axonal damage, neurofilament - a major component of the neuro-axonal cytoskeleton - is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subsequently peripheral blood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) for acute and chronic axonal damage in early RRMS. METHODS: sNfL levels were determined in 74 patients (63 therapy-naive) with recently diagnosed clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or RRMS using Single Molecule Array technology...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530027/inhibition-of-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-neuroinflammatory-response-by-polysaccharide-fractions-of-khaya-grandifoliola-c-d-c-stem-bark-cryptolepis-sanguinolenta-lindl-schltr-and-cymbopogon-citratus-stapf-leaves-in-raw-264-7-macrophages-and-u87-glioblastoma
#16
Francine Kengne Mediesse, Thaddée Boudjeko, Anantharaju Hasitha, Matharasala Gangadhar, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Perumal Yogeeswari
BACKGROUND: Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have been performed on the biological activities of secondary metabolites extracted from these plants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti-neuro inflammatory and protective roles of the polysaccharides of these three plants have not yet been elucidated...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517994/fatty-acids-dietary-supplements-exert-anti-inflammatory-action-and-limit-ganglion-cell-degeneration-in-the-retina-of-the-eae-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Massimo Dal Monte, Maurizio Cammalleri, Filippo Locri, Rosario Amato, Stefania Marsili, Dario Rusciano, Paola Bagnoli
Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the optic nerve (ON) and is an initial symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Optic neuritis is characterized by ON degeneration and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss that contributes to permanent visual disability and lacks a reliable treatment. Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS, a well-established model also for optic neuritis. In this model, C57BL6 mice, intraperitoneally injected with a fragment of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), were found to develop inflammation, Müller cell gliosis, and infiltration of macrophages with increased production of oncomodulin (OCM), a calcium binding protein that acts as an atypical trophic factor for neurons enabling RGC axon regeneration...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492512/-acetylcholine-suppresses-microglial-inflammatory-response-in-rats-via-acting-on-microglial-%C3%AE-7nachr
#18
Yong-Ying Jiang, Lin Li, Wei-Xing Shen, Yi-Hua Qiu, Yu-Ping Peng
Microglia are the main immune cells in the central nervous system. In the present study, the mechanism for acetylcholine (ACh) inhibiting microglial inflammatory response was investigated. Primary culture of microglia was isolated from cerebral cortex of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to activate the microglia to induce inflammatory response, and then the microglia were treated with ACh for 24 h. Protein expressions of several inflammatory factors, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were detected by Western blot...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488813/investigation-of-erg-gene-expression-in-iranian-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Nasrin Yazdanpanahi, Masoud Etemadifar, Mohammad-Taghi Kardi, Elahe Shams, Shirin Shahbazi
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neuro-inflammatory disease arising from interplay of multiple genetic and nongenetic factors. The complex etiology of MS highlights the importance of investigation in various populations exposed to different genetic and environmental risk factors and combination of the results of these studies for elucidation of the MS underlying mechanisms and management of this disease. The role of ETS-related gene (ERG) in inflammation and immune response has been suggested by different investigations...
February 28, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470537/microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-gene-deletion-impairs-neuro-immune-circuitry-of-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-endotoxaemic-mouse-spleen
#20
Priya Revathikumar, Johanna Estelius, Utsa Karmakar, Erwan Le Maître, Marina Korotkova, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Jon Lampa
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is an innate neural reflex where parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves work jointly to control inflammation. Activation of CAP by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has paved way for novel therapeutic strategies in treating inflammatory diseases. Recently, we discovered that VNS mediated splenic acetylcholine (ACh) release and subsequent immunosuppression in response to LPS associated inflammation is impaired in mice lacking microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression, a key enzyme responsible for prostaglandin E2 synthesis...
2018: PloS One
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