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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217313/ghrelin-and-hormonal-markers-under-exercise-training-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-results-from-the-ex-dhf-pilot-study
#1
Tobias Daniel Trippel, Volker Holzendorf, Martin Halle, Götz Gelbrich, Kathleen Nolte, Andre Duvinage, Silja Schwarz, Tinka Rutscher, Julian Wiora, Rolf Wachter, Christoph Herrmann-Lingen, Hans-Dirk Duengen, Gerd Hasenfuß, Burkert Pieske, Frank Edelmann
BACKGROUND: Over 50% of patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF) experience HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Exercise training (ET) is effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and dimensions of quality of life in patients with HFpEF. A systemic pro-inflammatory state induced by comorbidities as the cause of myocardial structural and functional alterations has been proposed in HFpEF. ET modifies myocardial structure and has been related to inflammatory state. We investigated Ghrelin, related adipokines, markers of inflammation, and neuro-hormonal activation in patients undergoing a structured ET vs...
February 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216088/sex-differences-in-the-neuro-immune-consequences-of-stress-focus-on-depression-and-anxiety
#2
REVIEW
Mandakh Bekhbat, Gretchen N Neigh
Women appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of inflammation than men. Chronic stress, one of the most pertinent risk factors of depression and anxiety, is known to induce behavioral and affective-like deficits via neuroimmune alterations including activation of the brain's immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and subsequent changes in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity within stress-related neural circuitry. Despite well-established sexual dimorphisms in the stress response, immunity, and prevalence of stress-linked psychiatric illnesses, much of current research investigating the neuroimmune impact of stress remains exclusively focused on male subjects...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213267/ferulic-acid-inhibits-neuro-inflammation-in-mice-exposed-to-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#3
Ya-Min Liu, Ji-Duo Shen, Li-Ping Xu, Han-Bing Li, Yu-Cheng Li, Li-Tao Yi
Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid that widely presents in plant cell wall components. It has been demonstrated that ferulic acid can attenuate depressive-like behaviors in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Considering that depression is an inflammatory related mental disease, our present study was aimed to investigate the role of ferulic acid in the regulation of microglia activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
February 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#4
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182191/mir-155-modifies-inflammation-endothelial-activation-and-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-cerebral-malaria
#5
Kevin Richard Barker, Ziyue Lu, Hani Kim, Ying Zheng, Junmei Chen, Andrea L Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Henry S Cheng, Makon-Sébastien Njock, Jason E Fish, John M Harlan, Jose A López, W Conrad Liles, Kevin C Kain
miR-155 has been shown to participate in host response to infection and neuro-inflammation via negative regulation of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) integrity and T cell function. We hypothesized that miR-155 may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM). To test this hypothesis, we used a genetic approach to modulate miR-155 expression in an experimental model of cerebral malaria (ECM). In addition, an engineered endothelialized microvessel system and serum samples from Ugandan children with CM were used to examine an anti-miR-155 as a potential adjunctive therapeutic for severe malaria...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165503/modulation-of-microglial-cell-fc%C3%AE-receptor-expression-following-viral-brain-infection
#6
Priyanka Chauhan, Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) for IgG couple innate and adaptive immunity through activation of effector cells by antigen-antibody complexes. We investigated relative levels of activating and inhibitory FcγRs on brain-resident microglia following murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Flow cytometric analysis of microglial cells obtained from infected brain tissue demonstrated that activating FcγRs were expressed maximally at 5 d post-infection (dpi), while the inhibitory receptor (FcγRIIB) remained highly elevated during both acute and chronic phases of infection...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158149/a-systematic-review-on-the-prevalence-etiology-and-pathophysiology-of-intrinsic-pain-in-dermal-scar-tissue
#7
Eveline Bijlard, Lisa Uiterwaal, Casimir A E Kouwenberg, Marc A M Mureau, Steven E R Hovius, Frank J P M Huygen
BACKGROUND: Scars can cause pain, even without symptoms of underlying nerve damage. A lack of knowledge on intrinsic scar pain hampers effective treatment of these complaints. OBJECTIVE: Aggregate current knowledge on the prevalence, etiology, and pathophysiology of intrinsic pain in dermal scars. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: University Medical Center. METHODS: We searched the Embase, Medline, Cochrane central, CINAHL, Web-of-Science, and Pubmed databases with search terms: scar, skin, pain, and etiology/pathology, adding all synonyms of these terms...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155242/sensory-neuron-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-bacterial-host-defence
#8
N Y Lai, K Mills, I M Chiu
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132781/inhibitory-effect-of-punicalagin-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-oxidative-stress-and-memory-impairment-via-inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-kappab
#9
Young Eun Kim, Chul Ju Hwang, Hee Pom Lee, Chun Sik Kim, Dong Ju Son, Young Wan Ham, Mats Hellström, Sang-Bae Han, Hee Sik Kim, Eun Kyung Park, Jin Tae Hong
Neuroinflammation is significant in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we showed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation caused memory impairment. We investigated the possible preventive effects of punicalagin (PUN), a component of pomegranate, on memory deficiency caused by LPS, along with the fundamental mechanisms. LPS-treated cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells were investigated for anti-neuroinflammatory effects of PUN. PUN (1.5 mg/kg) ameliorates LPS (250 μg/kg daily 7 times)-induced memory impairment as well as prevents the LPS-induced expression of inflammatory proteins...
January 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130187/overexpression-of-mir-206-ameliorates-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-via-the-mek-erk-pathway-by-targeting-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#10
Wenbo Sun, Limin Zhang, Rui Li
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system and existing tolerance to currently available analgesics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely studied in the development of neuropathic pain and neuro-inflammation resulting from nerve injury. However, the precise mechanism of miRNAs involved in neuropathic pain remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the vital roles of miR-206 and its putative target gene, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in neuropathic pain in the rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
January 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130175/up-regulation-of-sirt6-in-the-hippocampus-induced-rats-with-depression-like-behavior-via-the-block-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#11
Qiang Mao, Xue Gong, Chanjuan Zhou, Zhe Tu, Libo Zhao, Ling Wang, Xinfa Wang, Lu Sun, Jinjun Xia, Bin Lian, Jianjun Chen, Jun Mu, Deyu Yang, Peng Xie
Major depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, which is associated with diverse alterations in brain such as neuro-inflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Accumulating evidences suggest sirtuins (SIRTs) are involved in brain developmental disorders, metabolic diseases and play a key role in cognition and synaptic plasticity, yet the role in mood regulation remains controversial. Hence, Western blotting and RT-qPCR were used to investigate whether SIRTs (SIRT1-7) expression levels were altered in the hippocampus of rats, which followed 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) treatment, the results showed depressive-like behaviors: like body weight, forced swim test and sucrose preference test and SIRT6 was a significant increase in the hippocampal of CUMS rats...
January 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117838/early-onset-of-inflammation-during-ontogeny-of-bipolar-disorder-the-nlrp2-inflammasome-gene-distinctly-differentiates-between-patients-and-healthy-controls-in-the-transition-between-ips-cell-and-neural-stem-cell-stages
#12
D Vizlin-Hodzic, Q Zhai, S Illes, K Södersten, K Truvé, T Z Parris, P K Sobhan, S Salmela, S T Kosalai, C Kanduri, J Strandberg, H Seth, T O Bontell, E Hanse, H Ågren, K Funa
Neuro-inflammation and neuronal communication are considered as mis-regulated processes in the aetiology and pathology of bipolar disorder (BD). Which and when specific signal pathways become abnormal during the ontogeny of bipolar disorder patients is unknown. To address this question, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology followed by cortical neural differentiation on adipocyte-derived cells from BD type I patients (with psychotic episodes in psychiatric history) and healthy volunteers (controls)...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112808/nerve-growth-factor-a-neuroimmune-crosstalk-mediator-for-all-seasons
#13
REVIEW
Stephen D Skaper
Neurotrophic factors comprise a broad family of biomolecules - most of which are peptides or small proteins - that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons. The prototypical example and best-characterized neurotrophic factor is nerve growth factor (NGF) which is widely recognized as a target-derived factor responsible for the survival and maintenance of the phenotype of specific subsets of peripheral neurons and basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei during development and maturation...
January 23, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111810/mutual-effect-of-cerebral-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-peripheral-lymphocytes-in-cognitively-normal-older-individuals
#14
Fumihiko Yasuno, Hiroaki Kazui, Katsufumi Kajimoto, Masafumi Ihara, Naomi Morita, Akihiko Taguchi, Akihide Yamamoto, Kiwamu Matsuoka, Masato Takahashi, Jyoji Nakagawara, Masahito Tsuji, Hidehiro Iida, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that cerebral amyloid accumulation is reflected in the periphery in the pre-dementia stage and used flow cytometry to investigate the peripheral lymphocytes as an easily accessible biomarker to observe neuro-inflammation. We aimed to determine whether peripheral lymphocytes are related to the cortical amyloid burden or vice versa in cognitively normal older subjects. METHODS: We applied [(11) C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography to 36 cognitively normal older individuals, and Aβ deposition was quantified by cortical binding potential (PiB-BPND )...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111353/gc-ms-based-metabolomics-identifies-an-amino-acid-signature-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#15
Dian Wang, Jing Kong, Jiayan Wu, Xingxing Wang, Minchao Lai
Ischemic stroke is a serious public health problem worldwide. Here, we characterized the metabolite features of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Forty AIS patients and 29 sex and age-matched controls were recruited. The serum metabolic profiles were significantly different between the two groups. Compared to the controls, the patients had elevated levels of lactate, carbonate and glutamate (P<0.01), and lowered levels of alanine, citrate, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, serine, tyrosine, methionine, tryptophan, erythronic acid, urea, purine, hypoxanthine, and proline in the serum (P<0...
January 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110629/clippers-and-the-need-for-long-term-immunosuppression
#16
Tarig M Abkur, Hugh Kearney, Michael J Hennessy
Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old female who presented with right sided facial tingling, gait ataxia and diplopia. Neuroimaging revealed pontine curvilinear enhancing lesions with extension into cerebellar peduncles, characteristic of CLIPPERS. This report discusses the differential diagnosis and the importance of prolonged immunomodulatory treatment for this rare neuro-inflammatory disorder...
January 1, 2017: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107387/neuronal-cell-death-and-degeneration-through-increased-nitroxidative-stress-and-tau-phosphorylation-in-hiv-1-transgenic-rats
#17
Young-Eun Cho, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Byoung-Joon Song
The underlying mechanisms for increased neurodegeneration and neurocognitive deficits in HIV-infected people are unclear. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms of increased neurodegeneration in 5-month old male HIV-1 Transgenic (Tg) rats compared to the age- and gender-matched wild-type (WT) by evaluating histological changes and biochemical parameters of the key proteins involved in the cell death signaling and apoptosis. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed decreased neuronal cells with elevated astrogliosis in HIV-1 Tg rats compared to WT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089729/urinary-biomarkers-in-women-with-refractory-urgency-urinary-incontinence-randomized-to-sacral-neuromodulation-versus-onabotulinumtoxina-compared-to-controls
#18
Holly E Richter, Pamela Moalli, Cindy L Amundsen, Anna P Malykhina, Dennis Wallace, Rebecca Rogers, Deborah Myers, Maria Paraiso, Michael Albo, Haolin Shi, Tracy Nolen, Susie Meikle, R Ann Word
PURPOSE: To measure urinary biomarker levels in women with refractory urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and controls at baseline and 6 months post treatment from sacral neuromodulation (SNM) or intradetrusor injection onabotulinumtoxinA and to assess association of baseline biomarkers to post treatment UUI episodes (UUIE) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptom bother outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First morning urines were collected from consented trial participants and age-matched women without UUI...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086917/resveratrol-regulates-neuro-inflammation-and-induces-adaptive-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Charbel Moussa, Michaeline Hebron, Xu Huang, Jaeil Ahn, Robert A Rissman, Paul S Aisen, R Scott Turner
BACKGROUND: Treatment of mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects (N = 119) for 52 weeks with the SIRT1 activator resveratrol (up to 1 g by mouth twice daily) attenuates progressive declines in CSF Aβ40 levels and activities of daily living (ADL) scores. METHODS: For this retrospective study, we examined banked CSF and plasma samples from a subset of AD subjects with CSF Aβ42 <600 ng/ml (biomarker-confirmed AD) at baseline (N = 19 resveratrol-treated and N = 19 placebo-treated)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081460/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-silica-nps-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-rho-kinase-jnk-signaling-pathways
#20
Xin Liu, Baiyan Sui, Jiao Sun
Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) has been extensively exploited in biomedical fields and mostly designed to enter the circulatory system, however, few studies focused on the potential adverse effects of SiO2-NPs exposure on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that serves as a critical barrier between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral circulation. This study attempts to provide an understanding of whether and how SiO2-NPs disrupts the BBB in vitro and in vivo. Through a human BBB model, we found that SiO2-NPs could induce tight junction loss and cytoskeleton arrangement, and increase inflammatory response and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs), which further activates astrocytes to amplify the generation of VEGF and increase the aquaporin-4 expression, and thus causing BBB disruption through a complex immunoregulatory loop between BMECs and astrocytes under SiO2-NPs exposure...
March 2017: Biomaterials
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