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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434537/how-can-a-ketogenic-diet-improve-motor-function
#1
REVIEW
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428549/importance-of-the-brain-corticosteroid-receptor-balance-in-metaplasticity-cognitive-performance-and-neuro-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
E R de Kloet, O C Meijer, A F de Nicola, R H de Rijk, M Joëls
Bruce McEwen's discovery of receptors for corticosterone in the rat hippocampus introduced higher brain circuits in the neuroendocrinology of stress. Subsequently, these receptors were identified as mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) that are involved in appraisal processes, choice of coping style, encoding and retrieval. The MR-mediated actions on cognition are complemented by slower actions via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) on contextualization, rationalization and memory storage of the experience. These sequential phases in cognitive performance depend on synaptic metaplasticity that is regulated by coordinate MR- and GR activation...
February 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428215/spinal-pkc-activation-induced-neuronal-hmgb1-translocation-contributes-to-hyperalgesia-in-a-bone-cancer-pain-model-in-rats
#3
Kang An, Hui Rong, Huadong Ni, Chunyan Zhu, Longsheng Xu, Qianying Liu, Yajing Chen, Ying Zheng, Bing Huang, Ming Yao
Bone cancer pain (BCP) remains a serious complication of malignancy, which is an intractable clinical problem due to the gap in knowledge of its underlying mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that the major involvement of neuroinflammation, particularly high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which was identified as a late mediator of inflammation, in a number of pain conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms and functions of HMGB1 release in spinal cord, and its contributions to the development of BCP as well, are poorly understood...
February 8, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425146/nanoparticle-based-strategies-to-treat-neuro-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Rémy Poupot, Dylan Bergozza, Séverine Fruchon
Neuro-inflammation is a pivotal physio-pathological feature of brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. As such, it is a relevant therapeutic target against which drugs have to be proposed. Targeting neuro-inflammation implies crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) to reach the Central Nervous System (CNS). Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are promising candidates to carry and deliver drugs to the CNS by crossing the BBB. There are several strategies to design ENPs intended for crossing through the BBB...
February 9, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424049/astrocyte-disruption-of-neurovascular-communication-is-linked-to-cortical-damage-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Raya Eilam, Menahem Segal, Rafael Malach, Michael Sela, Ruth Arnon, Rina Aharoni
To elucidate mechanisms contributing to cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated neurovascular aberrations, in particular the association of astrocytes with cortical neurons and blood vessels, in mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction was evident by leakage of the tracer sodium fluorescein, along with reduced expression of claudin-5 by endothelial cells and desmin by pericytes. Immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses revealed detachment of the astroglial cell bodies from the blood vessels and loss of their connections with both the blood vessels and the neuronal synapses...
February 9, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421245/effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogue-exendin-4-on-cognitive-functions-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-possible-modulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-brain-visfatin
#6
O M Abdelwahed, O M Tork, M M Gamal El Din, L Rashed, M Zickri
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most essential neurotrophic factors in the brain. BDNF is involved in learning, memory and locomotion suggesting it as a target in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated cognitive changes. Visfatin; an adipokine discovered to be expressed in the brain; was found to have multiple effects including its participation in keeping energy supply to the cell and is consequentially involved in cell survival. Its role in cognitive functions in T2DM was not studied before...
February 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417604/effects-of-alcohol-on-the-brain-in-cirrhosis-beyond-hepatic-encephalopathy
#7
Brian C Davis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Recent advances have led to a greater understanding of how alcohol alters the brain, both in acute stages (intoxication and alcohol withdrawal) and in chronic misuse. This review focuses on the current understanding of how alcohol affects the brain in cirrhosis patients with and without hepatic encephalopathy. Chronic alcohol use is associated with nutritional deficiencies, dementia, cirrhosis, and decompensating events such as hepatic encephalopathy. Direct toxicity on brain tissue, induction of neuro-inflammation, and alcohol's alterations of the gut microbiome are possible mechanisms for the clinical features of hepatic encephalopathy associated with alcohol use...
February 8, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417177/stem-cells-from-human-apical-papilla-decrease-neuro-inflammation-and-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-differentiation-via-activin-a-secretion
#8
Pauline De Berdt, Pauline Bottemanne, John Bianco, Mireille Alhouayek, Anibal Diogenes, Amy Llyod, Jose Gerardo-Nava, Gary A Brook, Véronique Miron, Giulio G Muccioli, Anne des Rieux
Secondary damage following spinal cord injury leads to non-reversible lesions and hampering of the reparative process. The local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α can exacerbate these events. Oligodendrocyte death also occurs, followed by progressive demyelination leading to significant tissue degeneration. Dental stem cells from human apical papilla (SCAP) can be easily obtained at the removal of an adult immature tooth. This offers a minimally invasive approach to re-use this tissue as a source of stem cells, as compared to biopsying neural tissue from a patient with a spinal cord injury...
February 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411262/analgesic-effect-of-methane-rich-saline-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-inflammatory-pain
#9
Shu-Zhuan Zhou, Ya-Lan Zhou, Feng Ji, Hao-Ling Li, Hu Lv, Yan Zhang, Hua Xu
How oxidative stress contributes to neuro-inflammation and chronic pain is documented, and methane is reported to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the nervous system via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We studied whether methane in the form of methane rich saline (MS) has analgesic effects in a monoarthritis (MA) rat model of chronic inflammatory pain. Single and repeated injections of MS (i.p.) reduced MA-induced mechanical allodynia and multiple methane treatments blocked activation of glial cells, decreased IL-1β and TNF-α production and MMP-2 activity, and upregulated IL-10 expression in the spinal cord on day 10 post-MA...
February 6, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408499/activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-aggravated-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-pathogenesis-in-aged-rats
#10
Mengya Cao, Jiakai Fang, Xueqin Wang, Yi Wang, Kaiming Duan, Feng Ye, Wen Ouyang, Jianbin Tong
The upstream signal molecule modulating neuro-inflammation and synaptic changes during the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is still elusive. Here, we examined the effects and mechanisms of energy sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in the pathogenesis of POCD. Our data showed that surgery significantly increased the expression of p-AMPK in aged rats (p<0.05), but not in adult rats (p>0.05). Moreover, inhibiting AMPK activation via compound C during operation significantly improved surgery-induced impairment of the learning and memory of aged rats in water maze (p<0...
February 3, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407575/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-anisalcohol-on-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-bv2-microglia-via-selective-modulation-of-microglia-polarization-and-down-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-and-jnk-activation
#11
Bin Xiang, Chun Xiao, Ting Shen, Xiufang Li
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The inhibition of inflammation appears to be a potential therapeutic strategy for neuro-inflammatory injury after ischemic stroke. In response to cerebral ischemia, resident microglia and infiltrated macrophages from the damaged blood-brain barrier are activated. Microglia activation appears to be a double-edged sword. Activated microglia migrate to the damaged neuron, change their phenotype to M1 or M2, and become involved in nerve damage and repair...
January 29, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403497/trail-mediated-suppression-of-t-cell-receptor-signaling-inhibits-t-cell-activation-and-inflammation-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
I-Tsu Chyuan, Hwei-Fang Tsai, Chien-Sheng Wu, Chi-Chang Sung, Ping-Ning Hsu
Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces cell apoptosis by transducing apoptosis signals after interacting with its receptor (TRAIL-R). Although the actual biological role of TRAIL remains to be elucidated, recent accumulating evidence implies that TRAIL regulates immune responses and immune cell homeostasis via an apoptosis-independent pathway, suggesting a novel immune-regulatory role of TRAIL in autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study is to address the immune-regulatory role and molecular mechanism of TRAIL in regulating T cell activation in autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399880/the-microglial-reaction-signature-revealed-by-rnaseq-from-individual-mice
#13
Hélène Hirbec, Camille Marmai, Isabelle Duroux-Richard, Christine Roubert, Arnaud Esclangon, Séverine Croze, Joël Lachuer, Ronan Peyroutou, François Rassendren
Microglial cells have a double life as the immune cells of the brain in times of stress but have also specific physiological functions in homeostatic conditions. In pathological contexts, microglia undergo a phenotypic switch called "reaction" that promotes the initiation and the propagation of neuro-inflammation. Reaction is complex, molecularly heterogeneous and still poorly characterized, leading to the concept that microglial reactivity might be too diverse to be molecularly defined. However, it remains unknown whether reactive microglia from different pathological contexts share a common molecular signature...
February 5, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385886/during-stress-heart-rate-variability-moderates-the-impact-of-childhood-adversity-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#14
Dina Tell, Herbert L Mathews, Robert L Burr, Linda Witek Janusek
Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST)...
February 1, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382609/role-of-proteoglycans-in-neuro-inflammation-and-central-nervous-system-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Femke Heindryckx, Jin-Ping Li
Fibrosis is defined as the thickening and scarring of connective tissue, usually as a consequence of tissue damage. The central nervous system (CNS) is special in the sense that fibrogenic cells are restricted to vascular and meningeal areas. Inflammation and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier can lead to the infiltration of fibroblasts and trigger fibrotic response. While the initial function of the fibrotic tissue is to restore the blood-brain barrier and to limit the site of injury, it also demolishes the structure of extracellular matrix and impedes the healing process by producing inhibitory molecules and forming a physical and biochemical barrier that prevents axon regeneration...
January 27, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369534/autoimmunity-in-uveitis
#16
Josianne C Ten Berge, Marco W J Schreurs, Paul L A van Daele, Aniki Rothova
PURPOSE: Recent insights into the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases proposed a new classification, which includes autoimmune and auto-inflammatory diseases. The prevalence of specific autoimmune and auto-inflammatory diseases in uveitis and/or scleritis is not yet known. In this study, we examine the presence of systemic immune-mediated diseases in patients with uveitis and/or scleritis and put a special emphasis on autoimmune disorders by reporting on their clinical manifestations and visual prognosis...
January 25, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358722/butyrylcholinesterase-and-acetylcholinesterase-polymorphisms-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-implication-in-peripheral-inflammation
#17
Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini, Marta Di Nicola, Chiara D'Angelo, Sara Franchi, Marco D'Aurora, Maria Di Bari, Viviana Orlando, Sabrina Galizia, Serena Ruggieri, Liborio Stuppia, Claudio Gasperini, Ada Maria Tata, Valentina Gatta
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease, having not fully understood aetiology, and both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. The cholinergic system has been indicated as a mediator of neuro-immune interactions, as well as an internal regulator of immune responses. The aim of the present research was to assess the associations between BChE and AChE genetic variations and serum cholinergic and inflammatory profiles in 102 Relapsing Remitting-MS patients and 117 healthy controls...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357739/grafts-of-olfactory-stem-cells-restore-breathing-and-motor-functions-after-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Jean-Claude Stamegna, Kevin Sadelli, Guy Escoffier, Stéphane D Girard, Antoine D Veron, Amandine Bonnet, Michel Khrestchatisky, Patrick Gauthier, Francois Roman
The transplantation of Olfactory Ecto-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (OEMSCs) could be a helpful therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repair. Using an acute rat model of high cervical contusion that provokes a persistent hemi-diaphragmatic and foreleg paralysis, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a delayed syngeneic transplantation (two days post-contusion) of OEMSCs within the injured spinal cord. Respiratory function was assessed using diaphragmatic electromyography and neuro-electrophysiological recordings of phrenic nerves (innervating the diaphragm)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346716/neuropeptide-af-induces-piecemeal-degranulation-in-murine-mucosal-mast-cells-a-new-mediator-in-neuro-immune-communication-in-the-intestinal-lamina-propria
#19
Nada Abdellah, Samuel Van Remoortel, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Mohamed-Nabil Mostafa, Yasser A Ahmed, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Roeland Buckinx
Neuropeptides AF (NPAF), FF (NPFF) and SF (NPSF) are RFamide neuropeptides known to be widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, where they fulfill a wide range of functions with pain modulation being the most prominent one. Recent evidence indicates that RFamides act as mediators in mast cell-sensory nerve communications related to allergic disease. Previous work by our group has shown that the expression levels of some members of the Mas-related gene receptor (Mrgpr) family in both enteric neurons and mucosal mast cells change during intestinal inflammation...
January 18, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343269/microglial-activation-mediates-chronic-mild-stress-induced-depressive-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#20
Ya-Lin Wang, Qiu-Qin Han, Wen-Qing Gong, Dong-Hui Pan, Li-Zheng Wang, Wei Hu, Min Yang, Bing Li, Jin Yu, Qiong Liu
BACKGROUND: Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, with the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease yet to be discovered. Recent work suggests it is accompanied by neuro-inflammation, characterized, in particular, by microglial activation. However, microglial activation and its involvement in neuro-inflammation and stress-related depressive disorders are far from understood. METHODS: We utilized multiple detection methods to detect the neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus of rats after exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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