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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646838/immune-response-cytokines-as-potential-biomarkers-for-ddt-induced-neurodegeneration
#1
Héctor Luis Maldonado-Pérez, Judith Graber, Mark Gregory Robson
Background: The world incidence rate of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is 64 cases per 1,000 individuals. Due to the aging population, the prevalence of AD is however increasing and yet, little remains known about the etiology of AD. Objective: Previous studies suggested relationships between AD, neuro-inflammation and organochloride pesticide exposures, therefore, we aimed to study the association between DDT and possible biomarkers of AD. Materials and Methods: We explored literature on inflammation, pesticide exposure and biomarkers associated with AD...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639411/mapping-the-allosteric-sites-of-the-a2a-adenosine-receptor
#2
Alisha D Caliman, Yinglong Miao, J Andrew McCammon
The A2A adenosine receptor (A2A AR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is pharmacologically targeted for the treatment of inflammation, sepsis, cancer, neuro-degeneration, and Parkinson's disease. Recently, we applied long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations on two ligand-free receptor conformations, starting from the agonist-bound (PDB ID:3QAK) and antagonist-bound (PDB ID:3EML) X-ray structures. This analysis revealed four distinct conformers of the A2A AR: the active, intermediate 1, intermediate 2, and inactive...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#3
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631063/fundamentals-of-and-critical-issues-in-lipid-autacoid-medicine-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Jan M Keppel Hesselink
The identification of a number of families of lipid signal molecules since the 1990s created new therapeutic possibilities for a great number of disorders characterized by chronic inflammation and pain. These lipid autacoids have been explored in a great variety of animal models related to inflammation, pain, (neuro-)protection, and repair. Based on the data from these models, as well as on a number of proof of principle studies in the clinic in indications such as neuropathic pain, a new chapter in medicine is about to begin...
June 19, 2017: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629826/silencing-of-fkbp51-alleviates-the-mechanical-pain-threshold-inhibits-drg-inflammatory-factors-and-pain-mediators-through-the-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#5
Hong-Mei Yu, Qi Wang, Wen-Bo Sun
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system, currently available analgesics provide only temporal relief. The precise role of FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of FKBP51 in neuropathic pain in the rat model of CCI. Our results showed that FKBP51 was obviously upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in CCI rats...
June 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629631/probenecid-treatment-reduces-demyelination-induced-by-cuprizone-feeding
#6
Nadine Hainz, Philipp Becker, Daniel Rapp, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Bodo Wonnenberg, Christoph Beisswenger, Thomas Tschernig, Carola Meier
Recent experiments showed that a pannexin-1 inhibitor, probenecid, reduced clinical symptoms in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis when applied during the initial phase of neuronal inflammation. An inflammatory component is also present in a toxically induced inflammation and demyelination using cuprizone diet. Probenecid is a pannexin-1 antagonist and a probenecid therapy was investigated. Mice were fed for 10days with a cuprizone diet. In the following, the diet was continued but combined with a daily injection of a low dose of probenecid or solvent for 10days...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#7
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624333/l-theanine-prevent-quinolinic-acid-induced-motor-deficit-and-striatal-neurotoxicity-reduction-in-oxido-nitrosative-stress-and-restoration-of-striatal-neurotransmitters-level
#8
Sumit Jamwal, Shamsher Singh, Jaskamal Singh Gill, Puneet Kumar
L-theanine has been documented to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential in various animal models of neurological disorders. The present study was anticipated to investigate the effect of L-theanine against quinolinic acid induced motor deficits, oxido-nitrosative stress, neuro-inflammation and neurotransmitters alteration in rats. Rats were stereotaxically injected QA (200 nmol/2µl saline; intrastriatal); bilaterally on 0day and L-theanine (25 & 50mg/kg; p.o.) was administered for 21 days starting from day 1 of QA injection...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623178/adrenal-derived-stress-hormones-modulate-ozone-induced-lung-injury-and-inflammation
#9
Andres Henriquez, John House, Desinia B Miller, Samantha J Snow, Anna Fisher, Hongzu Ren, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Fred Wright, Urmila P Kodavanti
Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED) or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effects of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adrenal-derived stress hormones in mediating ozone-induced lung injury/inflammation, we assessed global gene expression (mRNA sequencing) and selected proteins in lung tissues from male Wistar-Kyoto rats that underwent DEMED, ADREX, or sham surgery (SHAM) prior to their exposure to air or ozone (1ppm), 4h/day for 1 or 2days...
June 13, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618070/morin-suppresses-astrocyte-activation-and-regulates-cytokine-release-in-bone-cancer-pain-rat-models
#10
Wei Jiang, Ying Wang, Wei Sun, Mengyuan Zhang
As inflammatory and immune responses are involved in pathophysiology of debilitating neuropathic pain, reagents that can modulate these two responses may have therapeutic potential. Morin, derived from the moraceae family of plants, benefits inflammation-related diseases, but its antinociceptive effects on cancer pain remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated antinociceptive effects of morin on bone cancer pain using a rat model, where rats were subject to implantation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the tibia...
June 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615730/pain-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-neuro-immune-collaboration
#11
REVIEW
Katayoon Bidad, Eric Gracey, Kasey S Hemington, Josiane C S Mapplebeck, Karen D Davis, Robert D Inman
Clinicians have commonly differentiated chronic back pain into two broad subsets: namely, non-inflammatory (or mechanical) back pain and inflammatory back pain. As the terminology suggests, the latter category, in which ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is prominent, presupposes a close link between pain and inflammation. Advances in research into the genetics and immunology of AS have improved our understanding of the inflammatory processes involved in this disease, and have led to the development of potent anti-inflammatory biologic therapeutic agents...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611572/4r-cembranoid-improves-outcomes-after-6-hydroxydopamine-challenge-in-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Jing Hu, P A Ferchmin, Ann M Hemmerle, Kim B Seroogy, Vesna A Eterovic, Jiukuan Hao
(1S, 2E, 4R, 6R,-7E, 11E)-2, 7, 11-cembratriene-4, 6-diol (4R) is one of the cembranoids found in tobacco leaves. Previous studies have found that 4R protected acute rat hippocampal slices against neurotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and against the toxic organophosphorus compounds paraoxon and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Furthermore, in vivo, 4R reduced the infarct size in a rodent ischemic stroke model and neurodegeneration caused by DFP. The present study expanded our previous study by focusing on the effect of 4R in Parkinson's disease (PD) and elucidating its underlying mechanisms using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced injury models...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605426/biomarkers-of-cerebral-injury-and-inflammation-in-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#13
Ursula K Rohlwink, Katya Mauff, Katalin A Wilkinson, Nico Enslin, Emmanuel Wegoye, Robert J Wilkinson, Anthony A Figaji
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to death or disability in half the affected individuals. Tools to assess severity and predict outcome are lacking. Neuro-specific biomarkers could serve as markers of the severity and evolution of brain injury, but have not been widely explored in TBM. We examined biomarkers of neurological injury (neuromarkers) and inflammation in pediatric TBM and their association with outcome. Methods: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with TBM and hydrocephalus taken on admission and over 3 weeks were analysed for neuromarkers S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and multiple inflammatory markers...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602513/glycolipids-essential-regulator-of-neuro-inflammation-metabolism-and-gliomagenesis
#14
REVIEW
Koichi Furukawa, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Shuting Ji, Pu Zhang, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Yuki Ohkawa, Orie Tajima, Noboru Hashimoto, Keiko Furukawa
Gene knockout mice of glycosyltransferases have clearly showed roles of their products in the bodies, while there are examples where phenotype of knockout was much less severe than expected probably due to functional redundancy. The most striking novel finding obtained from ganglioside-deficient mice was that progressive inflammatory reaction took place, leading to neurodegeneration. In particular, dysfunction of complement-regulatory proteins due to deteriorated architecture of lipid rafts seemed to be essential mechanisms for the inflammation...
June 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588301/protective-effects-of-gingerol-on-streptozotocin-induced-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-emphasis-on-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-cox-2-alpha-beta-secretases-and-aph1a
#15
Ali M El Halawany, Nesrine S El Sayed, Hossam M Abdallah, Riham Salah El Dine
Gingerol is a major dietary compound that occurs in several plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family. In the current study, the protective effect of gingerol on STZ-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) was determined. Gingerol was isolated from the seeds of Aframomum melegueta K. Schum and tested at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kgbwt for its possible effect on the SAD model in mice, using celecoxib (30 mg/kg bwt) as a reference standard. The curative effects of gingerol were assessed through measurement of β-amyloid (Aβ-42), α-, β- secretases, APH1a and COX-2 levels...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583039/experimental-models-of-autoimmune-demyelinating-diseases-in-nonhuman-primates
#16
Lev Stimmer, Claire-Maëlle Fovet, Ché Serguera
Human idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IIDD) are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune inflammatory and demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). These include multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common chronic IIDD, but also rarer disorders such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Great efforts have been made to understand the pathophysiology of MS, leading to the development of a few effective treatments. Nonetheless, IIDD still require a better understanding of the causes and underlying mechanisms to implement more effective therapies and diagnostic methods...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567133/case-series-using-montelukast-in-patients-with-memory-loss-and-dementia
#17
Spencer I Rozin
Cognitive decline and dementia are a growing problem as the population ages. Effective therapies to prevent and treat these problems are limited. Neuro-inflammation has been suggested as a cause of dementia [1]. Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used to treat seasonal allergies and asthma. It acts as a cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT1) receptor antagonist blocking the action of leukotrienes and decreasing inflammation [2]. Animal studies have shown that administering Montelukast improves memory function [3]...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566962/impact-of-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-immunoglobulin-g-on-neuronal-apoptosis
#18
Murat Giriş, Sinem Bireller, Cem İsmail Küçükali, Haşmet Hanağasi, Sevgin Değirmencioğlu, Erdem Tüzün
INTRODUCTION: Parenchymal neuro-Behçet disease (NBD) is encountered in 5%-15% of Behçet disease (BD) patients and is characterized by inflammation of the brainstem and diencephalon structures. Neuronal apoptosis has been shown to participate in neuronal cell loss. Anti-neuronal antibodies have been identified in NBD patients. However, the pathogenic properties of these antibodies have not been studied. METHODS: To delineate the potential pathogenic activity of serum antibodies on neurons, pooled sera from seven NBD patients and seven healthy controls were divided into purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG-depleted serum fractions, and each fraction was administered to cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
March 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544365/anti-aging-drugs-reduce-hypothalamic-inflammation-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#19
Marianna Sadagurski, Gillian Cady, Richard A Miller
Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case...
May 20, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537433/aspirin-mediated-acetylation-protects-against-multiple-neurodegenerative-pathologies-by-impeding-protein-aggregation
#20
Srinivas Ayyadevara, Meenakshisundaram Balasubramaniam, Ramani Alla, J L Mehta, Robert J Shmookler Reis
AIMS: Many progressive neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases, are characterized by accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates. In prospective trials, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) reduced the risk of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as cardiovascular events and many late-onset cancers. In view of previous evidence that inflammation promotes protein hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases, we asked whether aspirin's known ability to block phosphorylation may be secondary to its acetylation of protein targets...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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