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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919309/the-heterogeneity-of-human-cajal-retzius-neurons
#1
REVIEW
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
The definition of a Cajal-Retzius neuron (CRN) is still controversial, in part possibly due to species differences. We review the developmental history of CRN in human neocortex and focus on two main CRN family members, transient (t) and persisting (p) CRN. They share the expression of Reelin andTbr1, complemented by p73, calretinin, CXCR4 and NOS, but differ in their moment of appearance, fate and morphology. The distinctive feature of tCRN is the axon plexus in the lower third of the marginal zone, which innervates the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells and may serve as a migration substrate and waiting compartment for interneurons descending from the subpial granular layer (SGL) into the cortical plate...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916331/depressive-like-phenotype-induced-by-prenatal-dexamethasone-in-mice-is-reversed-by-desipramine
#2
Mirko Conti, Stefan Spulber, Marilena Raciti, Sandra Ceccatelli
Exposure to prenatal insults has been associated with an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, but the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Persistent alterations of the HPA axis feedback mechanism as well as adult impaired neurogenesis are believed to play a relevant role in the etiology of depression. In addition, growing evidence points at epigenetic reprogramming as a key factor. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) impairs neurogenesis and leads to late onset of depression-like behavior that does not respond to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903496/editor-s-highlight-development-of-novel-neural-embryonic-stem-celltests-for-high-throughput-screening-of-embryotoxic-chemicals
#3
Kumiko Kobayashi, Noriyuki Suzuki, Kiyoshi Higashi, Akane Muroi, Florian Le Coz, Hirohisa Nagahori, Koichi Saito
There is a great demand for appropriate alternative methods to rapidly evaluate the developmental and reproductive toxicity of a wide variety of chemicals. We used the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into cardiomyocytes as a basis for establishing a rapid and highly reproducible invitro embryotoxicity test known as the Hand1-Luc Embryonic Stem Cell Test (Hand1-Luc EST). In this study, we developed novel neural-Luc ESTs using two marker genes for neural development, tubulin beta-3 (Tubb3) and Reelin (Reln), and evaluated the capacity of these tests to predict developmental toxicity...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887403/the-functions-of-reelin-in-membrane-trafficking-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-implications-for-neuronal-migration-polarization-and-differentiation
#4
REVIEW
Jessica Santana, María-Paz Marzolo
Reelin is a large extracellular matrix protein with relevant roles in mammalian central nervous system including neurogenesis, neuronal polarization and migration during development; and synaptic plasticity with its implications in learning and memory, in the adult. Dysfunctions in reelin signaling are associated with brain lamination defects such as lissencephaly, but also with neuropsychiatric diseases like autism, schizophrenia and depression as well with neurodegeneration. Reelin signaling involves a core pathway that activates upon reelin binding to its receptors, particularly ApoER2 (apolipoprotein E receptor 2)/LRP8 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor, followed by Src/Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Dab1 (Disabled-1)...
September 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861331/alteration-of-interneuron-immunoreactivity-and-autophagic-activity-in-rat-hippocampus-after-single-high-dose-whole-brain-irradiation
#5
Yi-Bing Ouyang, Shoucheng Ning, John R Adler, Bruce Maciver, Susan J Knox, Rona Giffard
The effects of high dose gamma radiation on brain tissue are poorly understood, with both limited and major changes reported. The present study compared the effects of gamma irradiation on the expression of interneuron markers within the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region with expression in control matched rats. This area was chosen for study because of its well-characterized circuitry. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 60 Gy of whole brain gamma radiation and after 24 or 48 hours, the brains were removed, fixed and sectioned to quantitate expression of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin-D28K (CB), reelin, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), and somatostatin...
June 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846851/the-regulation-of-pituitary-thyroid-abnormalities-by-peripheral-administration-of-levothyroxine-increased-bdnf-and-reelin-proteins-expression-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Sahreh Shabani, Yaghoub Farbood, Seyyed Ali Mard, Alireza Sarkaki, Akram Ahangarpour, Layasadat Khorsandi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with decreased serum levels of thyroid hormones (THs), increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased in protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in the hippocampus. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of subcutaneously (SC) administration of levothyroxine (L-T4) on levels of THs and TSH as well as protein expression of BDNF and reelin in AD rats. To make an animal model of AD, Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plus ibotenic acid were infused intrahippocampally (IH), and rats were treated with L-T4 and/or saline for 10 days...
August 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819423/reelin-promotes-adhesion-of-multiple-myeloma-cells-to-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-via-integrin-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#7
Liang Lin, Xinwei Zhang, Li Cao, Quanming An, Jie Hao, Yan Zhang, Rong Jin, Yingjun Chang, Xiaojun Huang, Jin Lu, Qing Ge
The close interaction between tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells plays a crucial role in the tumorigenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). Reelin, an extracellular matrix protein, is found expressed in myeloma cells and is negatively associated with prognosis. We examined the role of Reelin in myeloma cell adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells and the signaling pathways involved. The results revealed that Reelin promoted the adhesion of myeloma cells to HS-5, a bone marrow stromal cell line, via the activation of β1 integrin...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746897/parkinsonian-features-in-aging-gfap-hmox1-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-human-ho-1-in-the-astroglial-compartment
#8
Wei Song, Marisa Cressatti, Hillel Zukor, Adrienne Liberman, Carmela Galindez, Hyman M Schipper
Epigenetic influences mediating brain iron deposition, oxidative mitochondrial injury, and macroautophagy in Parkinson disease and related conditions remain enigmatic. Here, we show that selective overexpression of the stress protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in astrocytes of GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice between 8.5 and 19 months of age results in nigrostriatal hypodopaminergia associated with locomotor incoordination and stereotypy; downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, DAT, LMX1B, Nurr1, Pitx3 and DJ-1 mRNA and/or protein; overproduction of α-synuclein and ubiquitin; oxidative stress; basal ganglia siderosis; mitochondrial damage/mitophagy; and augmented GABAergic systems (increased GABA, GAD67 and reelin)...
June 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736504/pleomorphism-and-drug-resistant-cancer-stem-cells-are-characteristic-of-aggressive-primary-meningioma-cell-lines
#9
Ishaq Khan, Saleh Baeesa, Mohammed Bangash, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Fahad Alghamdi, Hanadi Qashqari, Nawal Madkhali, Angel Carracedo, Mohamad Saka, Awatif Jamal, Jaudah Al-Maghrabi, Mohammed AlQahtani, Saleh Al-Karim, Ghazi Damanhouri, Kulvinder Saini, Adeel Chaudhary, Adel Abuzenadah, Deema Hussein
BACKGROUND: Meningioma tumors arise in arachnoid membranes, and are the most reported central nervous system (CNS) tumors worldwide. Up to 20% of grade I meningioma tumors reoccur and currently predictive cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers for aggressive and drug resistant meningiomas are scarce. METHODS: Meningioma tissues and primary cell lines were investigated using whole transcriptome microarray analysis, immunofluorescence staining of CSCs markers (including CD133, Sox2, Nestin, and Frizzled 9), and drug treatment with cisplatin or etoposide...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724754/relevance-of-the-proteolytic-processing-of-reelin-by-adamts-3-in-brain-functions
#10
Sighild Lemarchant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711473/interaction-of-reelin-and-stress-on-immobility-in-the-forced-swim-test-but-not-dopamine-mediated-locomotor-hyperactivity-or-prepulse-inhibition-disruption-relevance-to-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#11
Michael J Notaras, Billie Vivian, Carey Wilson, Maarten van den Buuse
RATIONALE: Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, as well as some mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder, have been suggested to share common biological risk factors. One such factor is reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration during development as well as numerous activity-dependent processes in the adult brain. The current study sought to evaluate whether a history of stress exposure interacts with endogenous reelin levels to modify behavioural endophenotypes of relevance to psychotic and mood disorders...
July 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676854/dab1-contributes-to-angiotensin-ii-induced-apoptosis-via-p38-signaling-pathway-in-podocytes
#12
Zhao Gao, Xinghua Chen, Kai Zhu, Ping Zeng, Guohua Ding
Numerous studies have found that angiotensin II (Ang II) participates in podocyte apoptosis and exacerbates progression of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unexplored. As a homolog of Drosophila disabled (Dab) protein, Dab1 plays a vital role in cytoskeleton, neuronal migration, and proliferation. In the present study, our data revealed that Ang II-infused rats developed hypertension, proteinuria, and podocyte injury accompanied by Dab1 phosphorylation and increased reelin expression in kidney...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669600/bace1-deficiency-causes-abnormal-neuronal-clustering-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#13
Hailong Hou, Qingyuan Fan, Wanxia He, Hoonkyo Suh, Xiangyou Hu, Riqiang Yan
BACE1 is validated as Alzheimer's β-secretase and a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. In examining BACE1-null mice, we discovered that BACE1 deficiency develops abnormal clusters of immature neurons, forming doublecortin-positive neuroblasts, in the developing dentate gyrus, mainly in the subpial zone (SPZ). Such clusters were rarely observed in wild-type SPZ and not reported in other mouse models. To understand their origins and fates, we examined how neuroblasts in BACE1-null SPZ mature and migrate during early postnatal development...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647514/aqueous-cigarette-tar-extracts-disrupt-corticogenesis-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#14
Aynun N Begum, Jose S Aguilar, Yiling Hong
BACKGROUND: Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world, and approximately 4.5 trillion smoked cigarettes are discarded every year worldwide. Cigarette butts contain over 4000 chemicals, many of which are known to have neurotoxic effects. Stem cell neuronal differentiation provides an excellent cellular model with which to examine the impact of aqueous cigarette tar extracts (ACTEs) on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We have developed a neurosphere-based stem cell neuronal differentiation protocol that can recapitulate corticogenesis and produce cell types that are similar to upper and lower layer cortical projection neurons found in the germinal zone of the developing human cortex...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622594/the-role-of-apitoxin-in-alleviating-propionic-acid-induced-neurobehavioral-impairments-in-rat-pups-the-expression-pattern-of-reelin-gene
#15
Maha H Daghestani, Manar E Selim, Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Enas N Said, Noura E Abd El-Hameed, Samah R Khalil, Osama S El-Tawil
The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied. Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated. Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602919/the-fine-tuning-of-retinocollicular-topography-depends-on-reelin-signaling-during-early-postnatal-development-of-the-rat-visual-system
#16
Rachel Antonioli-Santos, Bruna Lanzillotta-Mattos, Cecília Hedin-Pereira, Claudio Alberto Serfaty
During postnatal development, neural circuits are extremely dynamic and develop precise connection patterns that emerge as a result of the elimination of synaptic terminals, a process instructed by molecular cues and patterns of electrical activity. In the rodent visual system, this process begins during the first postnatal week and proceeds during the second and third postnatal weeks as spontaneous retinal activity and finally use-dependent fine tuning takes place. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein able to affect several steps of brain development, from neuronal migration to the maturation of dendritic spines and use-dependent synaptic development...
June 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593193/differential-expression-and-cell-type-specificity-of-perineuronal-nets-in-hippocampus-medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-visual-cortex-examined-in-the-rat-and-mouse
#17
Kristian Kinden Lensjø, Ane Charlotte Christensen, Simen Tennøe, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that condense around the soma and proximal dendrites of subpopulations of neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that they are involved in regulating brain plasticity. However, the expression of PNNs varies between and within brain areas. A lack of quantitative studies describing the distribution and cell-specificity of PNNs makes it difficult to reveal the functional roles of PNNs. In the current study, we examine the distribution of PNNs and the identity of PNN-enwrapped neurons in three brain areas with different cognitive functions: the dorsal hippocampus, medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and primary visual cortex (V1)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588454/reelin-signaling-inactivates-cofilin-to-stabilize-the-cytoskeleton-of-migrating-cortical-neurons
#18
REVIEW
Michael Frotscher, Shanting Zhao, Shaobo Wang, Xuejun Chai
Neurons are highly polarized cells. They give rise to several dendrites but only one axon. In addition, many neurons show a preferred orientation. For example, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex extend their apical dendrites toward the cortical surface while their axons run in opposite direction toward the white matter. This characteristic orientation reflects the migratory trajectory of a pyramidal cell during cortical development: the leading process (the future apical dendrite) extends toward the marginal zone (MZ) and the trailing process (the future axon) toward the intermediate zone (IZ) while the cells migrate radially to reach their destination in the cortical plate (CP)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583708/prefrontal-fatty-acid-composition-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-association-with-reelin-expression
#19
Clare L Beasley, William G Honer, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Alasdair M Barr
OBJECTIVE: The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates early brain development and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. Reelin is decreased in the postmortem brain in schizophrenia patients. Reelin's two receptors, ApoER2 and VLDLR, are also substrates for ApoE - a key lipoprotein that regulates phospholipid homeostasis in the brain. The goal of the present study was therefore to examine phospholipids and their constituent fatty acids, and determine whether there is an association between reelin, its receptors and phospholipids in the brain...
June 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572005/reelin-protects-from-colon-pathology-by-maintaining-the-intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-repressing-tumorigenic-genes
#20
Ana E Carvajal, José M Serrano-Morales, María D Vázquez-Carretero, Pablo García-Miranda, María L Calonge, María J Peral, Anunciación A Ilundain
We previously reported that reelin, an extracellular matrix protein first known for its key role in neuronal migration, reduces the susceptibility to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis. The aim of the current study was to determine whether reelin protects from colorectal cancer and how reelin defends from colon pathology. In the colon of wild-type and of mice lacking reelin (reeler mice) we have analysed the: i) epithelium cell renewal processes, ii) morphology, iii) Sox9, Cdx2, Smad5, Cyclin D1, IL-6 and IFNγ mRNA abundance in DSS-treated and untreated mice, and iv) development of azoxymethane/DSS-induced colorectal cancer, using histological and real time-PCR methodologies...
May 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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