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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711473/interaction-of-reelin-and-stress-on-immobility-in-the-forced-swim-test-but-not-dopamine-mediated-locomotor-hyperactivity-or-prepulse-inhibition-disruption-relevance-to-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#1
Michael J Notaras, Billie Vivian, Carey Wilson, Maarten van den Buuse
RATIONALE: Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, as well as some mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder, have been suggested to share common biological risk factors. One such factor is reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration during development as well as numerous activity-dependent processes in the adult brain. The current study sought to evaluate whether a history of stress exposure interacts with endogenous reelin levels to modify behavioural endophenotypes of relevance to psychotic and mood disorders...
July 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676854/dab1-contributes-to-angiotensin-ii-induced-apoptosis-via-p38-signaling-pathway-in-podocytes
#2
Zhao Gao, Xinghua Chen, Kai Zhu, Ping Zeng, Guohua Ding
Numerous studies have found that angiotensin II (Ang II) participates in podocyte apoptosis and exacerbates progression of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unexplored. As a homolog of Drosophila disabled (Dab) protein, Dab1 plays a vital role in cytoskeleton, neuronal migration, and proliferation. In the present study, our data revealed that Ang II-infused rats developed hypertension, proteinuria, and podocyte injury accompanied by Dab1 phosphorylation and increased reelin expression in kidney...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669600/bace1-deficiency-causes-abnormal-neuronal-clustering-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#3
Hailong Hou, Qingyuan Fan, Wanxia He, Hoonkyo Suh, Xiangyou Hu, Riqiang Yan
BACE1 is validated as Alzheimer's β-secretase and a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. In examining BACE1-null mice, we discovered that BACE1 deficiency develops abnormal clusters of immature neurons, forming doublecortin-positive neuroblasts, in the developing dentate gyrus, mainly in the subpial zone (SPZ). Such clusters were rarely observed in wild-type SPZ and not reported in other mouse models. To understand their origins and fates, we examined how neuroblasts in BACE1-null SPZ mature and migrate during early postnatal development...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647514/aqueous-cigarette-tar-extracts-disrupt-corticogenesis-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#4
Aynun N Begum, Jose S Aguilar, Yiling Hong
BACKGROUND: Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world, and approximately 4.5 trillion smoked cigarettes are discarded every year worldwide. Cigarette butts contain over 4000 chemicals, many of which are known to have neurotoxic effects. Stem cell neuronal differentiation provides an excellent cellular model with which to examine the impact of aqueous cigarette tar extracts (ACTEs) on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We have developed a neurosphere-based stem cell neuronal differentiation protocol that can recapitulate corticogenesis and produce cell types that are similar to upper and lower layer cortical projection neurons found in the germinal zone of the developing human cortex...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622594/the-role-of-apitoxin-in-alleviating-propionic-acid-induced-neurobehavioral-impairments-in-rat-pups-the-expression-pattern-of-reelin-gene
#5
Maha H Daghestani, Manar E Selim, Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Enas N Said, Noura E Abd El-Hameed, Samah R Khalil, Osama S El-Tawil
The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied. Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated. Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed...
June 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602919/the-fine-tuning-of-retinocollicular-topography-depends-on-reelin-signaling-during-early-postnatal-development-of-the-rat-visual-system
#6
Rachel Antonioli-Santos, Bruna Lanzillotta-Mattos, Cecília Hedin-Pereira, Claudio Alberto Serfaty
During postnatal development, neural circuits are extremely dynamic and develop precise connection patterns that emerge as a result of the elimination of synaptic terminals, a process instructed by molecular cues and patterns of electrical activity. In the rodent visual system, this process begins during the first postnatal week and proceeds during the second and third postnatal weeks as spontaneous retinal activity and finally use-dependent fine tuning takes place. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein able to affect several steps of brain development, from neuronal migration to the maturation of dendritic spines and use-dependent synaptic development...
June 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593193/differential-expression-and-cell-type-specificity-of-perineuronal-nets-in-hippocampus-medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-visual-cortex-examined-in-the-rat-and-mouse
#7
Kristian Kinden Lensjø, Ane Charlotte Christensen, Simen Tennøe, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that condense around the soma and proximal dendrites of subpopulations of neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that they are involved in regulating brain plasticity. However, the expression of PNNs varies between and within brain areas. A lack of quantitative studies describing the distribution and cell-specificity of PNNs makes it difficult to reveal the functional roles of PNNs. In the current study, we examine the distribution of PNNs and the identity of PNN-enwrapped neurons in three brain areas with different cognitive functions: the dorsal hippocampus, medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and primary visual cortex (V1)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588454/reelin-signaling-inactivates-cofilin-to-stabilize-the-cytoskeleton-of-migrating-cortical-neurons
#8
REVIEW
Michael Frotscher, Shanting Zhao, Shaobo Wang, Xuejun Chai
Neurons are highly polarized cells. They give rise to several dendrites but only one axon. In addition, many neurons show a preferred orientation. For example, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex extend their apical dendrites toward the cortical surface while their axons run in opposite direction toward the white matter. This characteristic orientation reflects the migratory trajectory of a pyramidal cell during cortical development: the leading process (the future apical dendrite) extends toward the marginal zone (MZ) and the trailing process (the future axon) toward the intermediate zone (IZ) while the cells migrate radially to reach their destination in the cortical plate (CP)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583708/prefrontal-fatty-acid-composition-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-association-with-reelin-expression
#9
Clare L Beasley, William G Honer, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Alasdair M Barr
OBJECTIVE: The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates early brain development and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. Reelin is decreased in the postmortem brain in schizophrenia patients. Reelin's two receptors, ApoER2 and VLDLR, are also substrates for ApoE - a key lipoprotein that regulates phospholipid homeostasis in the brain. The goal of the present study was therefore to examine phospholipids and their constituent fatty acids, and determine whether there is an association between reelin, its receptors and phospholipids in the brain...
June 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572005/reelin-protects-from-colon-pathology-by-maintaining-the-intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-repressing-tumorigenic-genes
#10
Ana E Carvajal, José M Serrano-Morales, María D Vázquez-Carretero, Pablo García-Miranda, María L Calonge, María J Peral, Anunciación A Ilundain
We previously reported that reelin, an extracellular matrix protein first known for its key role in neuronal migration, reduces the susceptibility to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis. The aim of the current study was to determine whether reelin protects from colorectal cancer and how reelin defends from colon pathology. In the colon of wild-type and of mice lacking reelin (reeler mice) we have analysed the: i) epithelium cell renewal processes, ii) morphology, iii) Sox9, Cdx2, Smad5, Cyclin D1, IL-6 and IFNγ mRNA abundance in DSS-treated and untreated mice, and iv) development of azoxymethane/DSS-induced colorectal cancer, using histological and real time-PCR methodologies...
May 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544613/qtl-and-systems-genetics-analysis-of-mouse-grooming-and-behavioral-responses-to-novelty-in-an-open-field
#11
Anna Delprato, Marie-Paule Algéo, Brice Bonheur, Jason A Bubier, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams, Elissa J Chesler, Wim E Crusio
The open field is a classic test used to assess exploratory behavior, anxiety, and locomotor activity in rodents. Here we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors displayed in an open field, using a panel of 53 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains with deep replication (10 per strain and sex). The use of these strains permits the integration and comparison of data obtained in different laboratories, and also offers the possibility to study trait covariance by exploiting powerful bioinformatics tools and resources...
May 24, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507985/control-of-neuronal-migration-and-aggregation-by-reelin-signaling-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#12
REVIEW
Yuki Hirota, Kazunori Nakajima
The mammalian cerebral neocortex has a well-organized laminar structure, achieved by the highly coordinated control of neuronal migration. During cortical development, excitatory neurons born near the lateral ventricle migrate radially to reach their final positions to form the cortical plate. During this process, dynamic changes are observed in the morphologies and migration modes, including multipolar migration, locomotion, and terminal translocation, of the newborn neurons. Disruption of these migration processes can result in neuronal disorders such as lissencephaly and periventricular heterotopia...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506622/meta-analyses-of-reln-variants-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#13
Na Chen, Yanping Bao, Yanxue Xue, Yan Sun, Die Hu, Shiqiu Meng, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Reelin is a critical extracellular matrix glycoprotein and implicated in neurodevelopment and psychiatric disorders in animal model studies. The genetic polymorphism of RELN has also been reported to be associated with several psychiatric disorders, but the results remain controversial. Here, we conducted meta-analyses of RELN gene SNPs and related neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, autistic spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorders). A total of 12 SNPs (rs736707, rs362691, rs607755, rs2229864, rs7341475, rs262355, rs362719, rs11496125, g...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498462/loss-of-reelin-suppresses-cell-survival-and-mobility-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#14
Aixia Dou, Zhilun Wang, Ni Zhang, Junli Liu
Reelin, a secreted glycoprotein, was recently demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. However, its oncogenic activities in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the functional role of reelin in NHL, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we analyzed reelin expression in lymphoma tissues and cell lines using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, qRT-PCR and western blotting. Then, the expression of Reelin was silenced with short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing plasmid in the NHL cell line A20...
May 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495490/further-evidence-for-the-association-between-lrp8-and-schizophrenia
#15
Xiao Xiao, Hao Yu, Jun Li, Lu Wang, Lingyi Li, Hong Chang, Dai Zhang, Weihua Yue, Ming Li
Previous studies (including genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene studies) have revealed the important roles of genetic risk factors in schizophrenia, and RELN has been identified as a risk gene for this illness. We recently found that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8), a receptor of Reelin (the protein encoded by RELN), was significantly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in European populations. To further enhance our understanding of its role in the risk of psychiatric illnesses, we conducted meta-analyses of a higher density of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, N=173) in LRP8 to understand their associations with schizophrenia in much larger samples (39,400 cases and 50,357 controls) from populations of European, Chinese and African American ancestries...
May 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495474/late-effect-of-developmental-exposure-to-glycidol-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-mice-loss-of-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons
#16
Masashi Kawashima, Yousuke Watanabe, Kota Nakajima, Hirotada Murayama, Rei Nagahara, Meilan Jin, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Developmental exposure to glycidol of rats causes axonal injury targeting axon terminals in dams and transient disruption of late-stage differentiation of hippocampal neurogenesis, accompanying sustained increase in the number of reelin-producing or calretinin-expressing interneurons in offspring. The molecular mechanism of disruptive neurogenesis probably targets the newly generating nerve terminals. We previously found differences between mice and rats in the effects on hippocampal neurogenesis after developmental exposure to the same neurotoxic substances...
May 8, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484035/intersectin-1-is-a-component-of-the-reelin-pathway-to-regulate-neuronal-migration-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Burkhard Jakob, Gaga Kochlamazashvili, Maria Jäpel, Aziz Gauhar, Hans H Bock, Tanja Maritzen, Volker Haucke
Brain development and function depend on the directed and coordinated migration of neurons from proliferative zones to their final position. The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is an important factor directing neuronal migration. Loss of Reelin function results in the severe developmental disorder lissencephaly and is associated with neurological diseases in humans. Reelin signals via the lipoprotein receptors very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2), but the exact mechanism by which these receptors control cellular function is poorly understood...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472243/the-subpial-granular-layer-and-transient-versus-persisting-cajal-retzius-neurons-of-the-fetal-human-cortex
#18
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
Neurons of the subpial granular layer (SGL) in the human marginal zone (MZ) migrate tangentially from the periolfactory subventricular zone all over the neocortex. After an immature stage, from 14 to 18 gestational weeks (GW), the SGL attains maximum prominence around midgestation. At 20-25 GW, a transient miniature cell type in the MZ expresses glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and calretinin, and extends a varicose plexus surrounding somata of large transient Cajal-Retzius neurons (tCRN), potentially modulating their activity...
May 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446613/structural-basis-for-ligand-capture-and-release-by-the-endocytic-receptor-apoer2
#19
Hidenori Hirai, Norihisa Yasui, Keitaro Yamashita, Sanae Tabata, Masaki Yamamoto, Junichi Takagi, Terukazu Nogi
Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) is a close homologue of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that mediates the endocytosis of ligands, including LDL particles. LDLR family members have been presumed to explore a large conformational space to capture ligands in the extended conformation at the cell surface. Ligands are subsequently released through a pH-titrated structural transition to a self-docked, contracted-closed conformation. In addition to lipoprotein uptake, ApoER2 is implicated in signal transduction during brain development through capture of the extracellular protein reelin...
June 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433501/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1-regulates-the-processing-of-reelin-in-the-perinatal-cortex
#20
Nicholas J Bradshaw, Svenja V Trossbach, Sabrina Köber, Susanne Walter, Ingrid Prikulis, Sascha Weggen, Carsten Korth
Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a prominent gene in mental illness research, encoding a scaffold protein known to be of importance in the developing cerebral cortex. Reelin is a critical extracellular protein for development and lamination of the prenatal cortex and which has also been independently implicated in mental illness. Regulation of reelin activity occurs through processing by the metalloproteinases ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5. Through cross-breeding of heterozygous transgenic DISC1 mice with heterozygous reeler mice, which have reduced reelin, pups heterozygous for both phenotypes were generated...
April 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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