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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138282/trajectory-analysis-unveils-reelin-s-role-in-the-directed-migration-of-granule-cells-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#1
Shaobo Wang, Bianka Brunne, Shanting Zhao, Xuejun Chai, Jiawei Li, Jeremie Lau, Antonio Virgilio Failla, Bernd Zobiak, Mirjam Sibbe, Gary L Westbrook, David Lutz, Michael Frotscher
Reelin controls neuronal migration and layer formation. Previous studies in reeler mice deficient in Reelin focused on the result of the developmental process in fixed tissue sections. It has remained unclear whether Reelin affects the migratory process, migration directionality or migrating neurons guided by the radial glial scaffold. Moreover, Reelin has been regarded as an attractive signal, since newly generated neurons migrate toward the Reelin-containing marginal zone. Conversely, Reelin might be a stop signal, since migrating neurons in reeler, but not in wild-type mice, invade the marginal zone...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127326/proteolytic-cleavage-of-transmembrane-cell-adhesion-molecule-l1-by-extracellular-matrix-molecule-reelin-is-important-for-mouse-brain-development
#2
David Lutz, Ahmed Sharaf, Dagmar Drexler, Hardeep Kataria, Gerrit Wolters-Eisfeld, Bianka Brunne, Ralf Kleene, Gabriele Loers, Michael Frotscher, Melitta Schachner
The cell adhesion molecule L1 and the extracellular matrix protein Reelin play crucial roles in the developing nervous system. Reelin is known to activate signalling cascades regulating neuronal migration by binding to lipoprotein receptors. However, the interaction of Reelin with adhesion molecules, such as L1, has remained poorly explored. Here, we report that full-length Reelin and its N-terminal fragments N-R2 and N-R6 bind to L1 and that full-length Reelin and its N-terminal fragment N-R6 proteolytically cleave L1 to generate an L1 fragment with a molecular mass of 80 kDa (L1-80)...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109240/deficiency-of-the-thyroid-hormone-transporter-mct8-in-neural-progenitors-impairs-cellular-processes-crucial-for-early-corticogenesis
#3
Pieter Vancamp, Marie-Anne Deprez, Michiel Remmerie, Veerle M Darras
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for establishing layered brain structures, a process called corticogenesis, by acting on transcriptional activity of numerous genes. In humans, deficiency of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), involved in cellular uptake of THs prior to their action, results in severe neurological abnormalities, known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome. While the brain lesions predominantly originate prenatally, it remains unclear how and when exactly MCT8 dysfunction affects cellular processes crucial for corticogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049379/mathematical-model-of-early-reelin-induced-src-family-kinase-mediated-signaling
#4
Helge Hass, Friederike Kipkeew, Aziz Gauhar, Elisabeth Bouché, Petra May, Jens Timmer, Hans H Bock
Reelin is a large glycoprotein with a dual role in the mammalian brain. It regulates the positioning and differentiation of postmitotic neurons during brain development and modulates neurotransmission and memory formation in the adult brain. Alterations in the Reelin signaling pathway have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Reelin mainly signals by binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and ApoER2, which induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Dab1 mediated by Src family kinases (SFKs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968791/alternative-splicing-of-disabled-1-controls-multipolar-to-bipolar-transition-of-migrating-neurons-in-the-neocortex
#5
Bin Zhang, Weiwei Wang, Zhenjie Zhang, Yaling Hu, Fan Meng, Fan Wang, Huifang Lou, Liya Zhu, Roseline Godbout, Shumin Duan, Zhihua Gao
Multipolar-to-bipolar transition (MBT) is crucial for the neuronal migration and positioning in the neocortex. Reelin-Disabled-1 (Dab1) signaling plays a pivotal role in neuronal migration, yet how Dab1 coordinatively regulates downstream molecules to affect MBT remains unclear. We have previously found that alternative splicing produces multiple Dab1 isoforms with different tyrosine motifs and differential ability to recruit downstream effectors. Here, we report that splicing of Dab1 exons 7 and 8 and 9bc dynamically regulates the inclusion and activities of Dab1 tyrosine motifs in the neocortex...
August 22, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966264/regulatory-mechanisms-and-physiological-significance-of-reelin-function
#6
Takao Kohno
Reelin is a large secreted glycoprotein that regulates embryonic neuronal lamination and adult synaptic function. Secreted Reelin binds to lipoprotein receptors expressed on neurons. The Reelin-receptor interaction induces phosphorylation of an intracellular adaptor protein Dab1, which is required for normal embryonic brain development and adult brain functions. It has been suggested that Reelin hypofunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism, and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945921/dab1-contributes-differently-to-the-morphogenesis-of-the-hippocampal-subdivisions
#7
Marissa Blume, Fuduki Inoguchi, Taku Sugiyama, Yuji Owada, Noriko Osumi, Yoshinari Aimi, Kosuke Taki, Yu Katsuyama
The hippocampal formation (HF) is morphologically and functionally distinguishable into the subdivisions, such as the dentate gyrus (DG), subiculum, and Ammon's horn. The Ammon's horn is further divided into the CA (Cornu Ammonis)1, CA2, and CA3. The Reelin-Dab1 signal is essential for the morphogenesis of the mammalian brain. In the neocortex of Reelin-Dab1 signal mutants the laminar pattern of the neurons is disrupted along the radial axis. Morphological abnormalities in the HF of the Reelin-Dab1 mutants were known, but how these abnormalities appear during development had not been extensively studied...
September 25, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943410/loss-of-reelin-protects-mice-against-arterial-thrombosis-by-impairing-integrin-activation-and-thrombus-formation-under-high-shear-conditions
#8
Nina Sarah Gowert, Irena Krüger, Meike Klier, Lili Donner, Friederike Kipkeew, Michael Gliem, Nicholas J Bradshaw, David Lutz, Sabrina Köber, Harald Langer, Sebastian Jander, Kerstin Jurk, Michael Frotscher, Carsten Korth, Hans H Bock, Margitta Elvers
Reelin is a secreted glycoprotein and essential for brain development and plasticity. Recent studies provide evidence that Reelin modifies platelet actin cytoskeletal dynamics. In this study we sought to dissect the contribution of Reelin in arterial thrombus formation. Here we analyzed the impact of Reelin in arterial thrombosis ex vivo and in vivo using Reelin deficient (reeler) and wildtype mice. We found that Reelin is secreted upon platelet activation and mediates signaling via glycoprotein (GP)Ib, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) to induce activation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), SYK and Phospholipase Cγ2...
December 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919309/the-heterogeneity-of-human-cajal-retzius-neurons
#9
REVIEW
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
The definition of a Cajal-Retzius neuron (CRN) is still controversial, in part possibly due to species differences. We review the developmental history of CRN in human neocortex and focus on two main CRN family members, transient (t) and persisting (p) CRN. They share the expression of Reelin andTbr1, complemented by p73, calretinin, CXCR4 and NOS, but differ in their moment of appearance, fate and morphology. The distinctive feature of tCRN is the axon plexus in the lower third of the marginal zone, which innervates the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells and may serve as a migration substrate and waiting compartment for interneurons descending from the subpial granular layer (SGL) into the cortical plate...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916331/depressive-like-phenotype-induced-by-prenatal-dexamethasone-in-mice-is-reversed-by-desipramine
#10
Mirko Conti, Stefan Spulber, Marilena Raciti, Sandra Ceccatelli
Exposure to prenatal insults has been associated with an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, but the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Persistent alterations of the HPA axis feedback mechanism as well as adult impaired neurogenesis are believed to play a relevant role in the etiology of depression. In addition, growing evidence points at epigenetic reprogramming as a key factor. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) impairs neurogenesis and leads to late onset of depression-like behavior that does not respond to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX)...
September 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903496/editor-s-highlight-development-of-novel-neural-embryonic-stem-celltests-for-high-throughput-screening-of-embryotoxic-chemicals
#11
Kumiko Kobayashi, Noriyuki Suzuki, Kiyoshi Higashi, Akane Muroi, Florian Le Coz, Hirohisa Nagahori, Koichi Saito
There is a great demand for appropriate alternative methods to rapidly evaluate the developmental and reproductive toxicity of a wide variety of chemicals. We used the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into cardiomyocytes as a basis for establishing a rapid and highly reproducible invitro embryotoxicity test known as the Hand1-Luc Embryonic Stem Cell Test (Hand1-Luc EST). In this study, we developed novel neural-Luc ESTs using two marker genes for neural development, tubulin beta-3 (Tubb3) and Reelin (Reln), and evaluated the capacity of these tests to predict developmental toxicity...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887403/the-functions-of-reelin-in-membrane-trafficking-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-implications-for-neuronal-migration-polarization-and-differentiation
#12
REVIEW
Jessica Santana, María-Paz Marzolo
Reelin is a large extracellular matrix protein with relevant roles in mammalian central nervous system including neurogenesis, neuronal polarization and migration during development; and synaptic plasticity with its implications in learning and memory, in the adult. Dysfunctions in reelin signaling are associated with brain lamination defects such as lissencephaly, but also with neuropsychiatric diseases like autism, schizophrenia and depression as well with neurodegeneration. Reelin signaling involves a core pathway that activates upon reelin binding to its receptors, particularly ApoER2 (apolipoprotein E receptor 2)/LRP8 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor, followed by Src/Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Dab1 (Disabled-1)...
September 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861331/alteration-of-interneuron-immunoreactivity-and-autophagic-activity-in-rat-hippocampus-after-single-high-dose-whole-brain-irradiation
#13
Yi-Bing Ouyang, Shoucheng Ning, John R Adler, Bruce Maciver, Susan J Knox, Rona Giffard
The effects of high dose gamma radiation on brain tissue are poorly understood, with both limited and major changes reported. The present study compared the effects of gamma irradiation on the expression of interneuron markers within the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region with expression in control matched rats. This area was chosen for study because of its well-characterized circuitry. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 60 Gy of whole brain gamma radiation and after 24 or 48 hours, the brains were removed, fixed and sectioned to quantitate expression of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin-D28K (CB), reelin, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), and somatostatin...
June 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846851/the-regulation-of-pituitary-thyroid-abnormalities-by-peripheral-administration-of-levothyroxine-increased-bdnf-and-reelin-proteins-expression-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Sahreh Shabani, Yaghoub Farbood, Seyyed Ali Mard, Alireza Sarkaki, Akram Ahangarpour, Layasadat Khorsandi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with decreased serum levels of thyroid hormones (THs), increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased in protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in the hippocampus. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of subcutaneously (SC) administration of levothyroxine (L-T4) on levels of THs and TSH as well as protein expression of BDNF and reelin in AD rats. To make an animal model of AD, Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plus ibotenic acid were infused intrahippocampally (IH), and rats were treated with L-T4 and/or saline for 10 days...
August 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819423/reelin-promotes-adhesion-of-multiple-myeloma-cells-to-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-via-integrin-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#15
Liang Lin, Xinwei Zhang, Li Cao, Quanming An, Jie Hao, Yan Zhang, Rong Jin, Yingjun Chang, Xiaojun Huang, Jin Lu, Qing Ge
The close interaction between tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells plays a crucial role in the tumorigenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). Reelin, an extracellular matrix protein, is found expressed in myeloma cells and is negatively associated with prognosis. We examined the role of Reelin in myeloma cell adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells and the signaling pathways involved. The results revealed that Reelin promoted the adhesion of myeloma cells to HS-5, a bone marrow stromal cell line, via the activation of β1 integrin...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746897/parkinsonian-features-in-aging-gfap-hmox1-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-human-ho-1-in-the-astroglial-compartment
#16
Wei Song, Marisa Cressatti, Hillel Zukor, Adrienne Liberman, Carmela Galindez, Hyman M Schipper
Epigenetic influences mediating brain iron deposition, oxidative mitochondrial injury, and macroautophagy in Parkinson disease and related conditions remain enigmatic. Here, we show that selective overexpression of the stress protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in astrocytes of GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice between 8.5 and 19 months of age results in nigrostriatal hypodopaminergia associated with locomotor incoordination and stereotypy; downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, DAT, LMX1B, Nurr1, Pitx3 and DJ-1 mRNA and/or protein; overproduction of α-synuclein and ubiquitin; oxidative stress; basal ganglia siderosis; mitochondrial damage/mitophagy; and augmented GABAergic systems (increased GABA, GAD67 and reelin)...
June 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736504/pleomorphism-and-drug-resistant-cancer-stem-cells-are-characteristic-of-aggressive-primary-meningioma-cell-lines
#17
Ishaq Khan, Saleh Baeesa, Mohammed Bangash, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Fahad Alghamdi, Hanadi Qashqari, Nawal Madkhali, Angel Carracedo, Mohamad Saka, Awatif Jamal, Jaudah Al-Maghrabi, Mohammed AlQahtani, Saleh Al-Karim, Ghazi Damanhouri, Kulvinder Saini, Adeel Chaudhary, Adel Abuzenadah, Deema Hussein
BACKGROUND: Meningioma tumors arise in arachnoid membranes, and are the most reported central nervous system (CNS) tumors worldwide. Up to 20% of grade I meningioma tumors reoccur and currently predictive cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers for aggressive and drug resistant meningiomas are scarce. METHODS: Meningioma tissues and primary cell lines were investigated using whole transcriptome microarray analysis, immunofluorescence staining of CSCs markers (including CD133, Sox2, Nestin, and Frizzled 9), and drug treatment with cisplatin or etoposide...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724754/relevance-of-the-proteolytic-processing-of-reelin-by-adamts-3-in-brain-functions
#18
Sighild Lemarchant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711473/interaction-of-reelin-and-stress-on-immobility-in-the-forced-swim-test-but-not-dopamine-mediated-locomotor-hyperactivity-or-prepulse-inhibition-disruption-relevance-to-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#19
Michael J Notaras, Billie Vivian, Carey Wilson, Maarten van den Buuse
RATIONALE: Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, as well as some mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder, have been suggested to share common biological risk factors. One such factor is reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration during development as well as numerous activity-dependent processes in the adult brain. The current study sought to evaluate whether a history of stress exposure interacts with endogenous reelin levels to modify behavioural endophenotypes of relevance to psychotic and mood disorders...
July 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676854/dab1-contributes-to-angiotensin-ii-induced-apoptosis-via-p38-signaling-pathway-in-podocytes
#20
Zhao Gao, Xinghua Chen, Kai Zhu, Ping Zeng, Guohua Ding
Numerous studies have found that angiotensin II (Ang II) participates in podocyte apoptosis and exacerbates progression of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unexplored. As a homolog of Drosophila disabled (Dab) protein, Dab1 plays a vital role in cytoskeleton, neuronal migration, and proliferation. In the present study, our data revealed that Ang II-infused rats developed hypertension, proteinuria, and podocyte injury accompanied by Dab1 phosphorylation and increased reelin expression in kidney...
2017: BioMed Research International
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