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contrast agents

Laura M Higgins, Vidya Ganapathy, Harini Kantamneni, Xinyu Zhao, Yang Sheng, Mei-Chee Tan, Charles M Roth, Richard E Riman, Prabhas V Moghe, Mark C Pierce
Rare-earth-doped nanocomposites have appealing optical properties for use as biomedical contrast agents, but few systems exist for imaging these materials. We describe the design and characterization of (i) a preclinical system for whole animal in vivo imaging and (ii) an integrated optical coherence tomography/confocal microscopy system for high-resolution imaging of ex vivo tissues. We demonstrate these systems by administering erbium-doped nanocomposites to a murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Short-wave infrared emissions were detected in vivo and in whole organ imaging ex vivo...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
John B Gordon, Jane C Burns
Background: A growing population of young adults is presenting to cardiologists with late manifestations of Kawasaki disease (KD) that include cardiomyopathy, ischemia, and infarction. The management of these conditions differs in important ways from atherosclerotic heart disease, and yet there is little awareness in the adult cardiology community regarding the special challenges posed by the cardiovascular sequelae of KD. Methods: Observations were made on a population of 140 adult KD patients enrolled in the San Diego Adult KD Collaborative Study...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Guoli Shi, Tetsuro Suzuki
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major etiologic agent of human liver diseases, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus and is classified in the Flaviviridae family. Although research findings for the assembly of HCV particles are accumulating due to development of HCV cell culture system, the mechanism(s) by which the HCV genome becomes encapsidated remains largely unclear. In general, viral RNA represents only a small fraction of the RNA molecules in the cells infected with RNA viruses, but the viral genomic RNA is considered to selectively packaged into virions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cui Feng, Di Zhu, Xianlun Zou, Anqin Li, Xuemei Hu, Zhen Li, Daoyu Hu
To investigate the subjective and quantitative image quality and radiation exposure of CT enterography (CTE) examination performed at low tube voltage and low concentration of contrast agent with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm, compared with conventional CTE.One hundred thirty-seven patients with suspected or proved gastrointestinal diseases underwent contrast enhanced CTE in a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner. All cases were assigned to 2 groups. Group A (n = 79) underwent CT with low tube voltage based on patient body mass index (BMI) (BMI < 23 kg/m, 80 kVp; BMI ≥ 23 kg/m, 100 kVp) and low concentration of contrast agent (270 mg I/mL), the images were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and 50% ASIR algorithm...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alejandro Cabrera-García, Elisa Checa-Chavarria, Jesús Pacheco-Torres, Ángela Bernabeu-Sanz, Alejandro Vidal-Moya, Eva Rivero-Buceta, Germán Sastre, Eduardo Fernández, Pablo Botella
The development of contrast agents (CAs) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with T1-T2 dual-mode relaxivity requires the accurate assembly of T1 and T2 magnetic centers in a single structure. In this context, we have synthesized a novel hybrid material by monitoring the formation of Prussian Blue analogue Gd(H2O)4[Fe(CN)6] nanoparticles with tailored shape (from nanocrosses to nanorods) and size, and further protection with a thin and homogeneous silica coating through hydrolysis and polymerization of silicate at neutral pH...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Hamed Nosrati, Maral Adibtabar, Ali Sharafi, Hossein Danafar, Manjili Hamidreza Kheiri
Denderimer-modified magnetic nanoparticles are a promising drug delivery nanosystem which can improve the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy drugs and also can be beneficial as MR images contrast agent. The present study introduces the preparation and characterization of the potential therapeutic efficiency of CUR loaded denderimer modified citric acid coated Fe3 O4 NPs. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM (G5 )) was used to encapsulate citric acid coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. The successful preparation of CUR-loaded nanocarriers were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques...
March 21, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Damien Christophe Jacques, Eduardo Marinho, Raphaël d'Andrimont, François Waldner, Julien Radoux, Frédéric Gaspart, Pierre Defourny
In sub-Saharan Africa, transaction costs are believed to be the most significant barrier that prevents smallholders and farmers from gaining access to markets and productive assets. In this study, we explore the impact of social capital on millet prices for three contrasted years in Senegal. Social capital is approximated using a unique data set on mobile phone communications between 9 million people allowing to simulate the business network between economic agents. Our approach is a spatial equilibrium model that integrates a diversified set of data...
January 2018: Heliyon
Yi Zhang, Jielin Pan, Qilan Xu, Hao Li, Jianhao Wang, Chao Zhang, Guobin Hong
Objective: To construct carcinoma vascular endothelial-targeted polymeric nanomicelles with high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity and to evaluate their biological safety and in vitro tumor-targeting effect, and to monitor their feasibility using clinical MRI scanner. Method: Amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)- b -poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) was synthesized via the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) initiated by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), in which cyclic pentapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) was conjugated with the terminal of hydrophilic PEG block...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Michael E Hall, Jennifer H Jordan, Luis A Juncos, W Gregory Hundley, John E Hall
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides anatomic and physiologic information, is increasingly used for diagnosis of pathophysiologic conditions and for understanding renal physiology in humans. Although functional MR imaging methods were pioneered to investigate the brain, they also offer powerful techniques for investigation of other organ systems such as the kidneys. However, imaging the kidneys provides unique challenges due to potential complications from contrast agents. Therefore, development of non-contrast techniques to study kidney anatomy and physiology is important...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Maxim Shevtsov, Boris Nikolaev, Yaroslav Marchenko, Ludmila Yakovleva, Nikita Skvortsov, Anton Mazur, Peter Tolstoy, Vyacheslav Ryzhov, Gabriele Multhoff
Background: Glioblastoma is the most devastating primary brain tumor of the central nervous system in adults. Magnetic nanocarriers may help not only for a targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor site but also provide contrast enhancing properties for diagnostics using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Synthesized hybrid chitosan-dextran superparamagnetic nanoparticles (CS-DX-SPIONs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and relaxometry studies...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Marcelo Souto Nacif, Fabio S Raman, Neville Gai, Jacquin Jones, Rob J van der Geest, Christopher T Sibley, Songtao Liu, A Bluemke David
Objective: To compare an albumin-bound gadolinium chelate (gadofosveset trisodium) and an extracellular contrast agent (gadobenate dimeglumine), in terms of their effects on myocardial longitudinal (T1) relaxation time and partition coefficient. Materials and Methods: Study subjects underwent two imaging sessions for T1 mapping at 3 tesla with a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) pulse sequence to obtain one pre-contrast T1 map and two post-contrast T1 maps (mean 15 and 21 min, respectively)...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Nadège Bossuet-Greif, Julien Vignard, Frédéric Taieb, Gladys Mirey, Damien Dubois, Claude Petit, Eric Oswald, Jean-Philippe Nougayrède
Colibactins are hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides produced by Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and other Enterobacteriaceae harboring the pks genomic island. These genotoxic metabolites are produced by pks -encoded peptide-polyketide synthases as inactive prodrugs called precolibactins, which are then converted to colibactins by deacylation for DNA-damaging effects. Colibactins are bona fide virulence factors and are suspected of promoting colorectal carcinogenesis when produced by intestinal E...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Nadège Hamon, Malika Kaci, Jean-Pierre Uttaro, Christian Périgaud, Christophe Mathé
The synthesis and the antiviral evaluation of 3'-halo (iodo and fluoro) 5'-norcarbocyclic nucleoside phosphonates is described. No antiviral activity was observed against Zika virus, Dengue virus 2, HSV-1, HSV-2 and Chikungunya virus. In contrast, some of the synthesized compounds are potent inhibitors of the replication of HIV-1, comparatively to (R)-PMPA, with no concomitant cytotoxicity.
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sorina Suarasan, Emilia Licarete, Simion Astilean, Ana-Maria Craciun
Nowadays, the non-linear optical effect of two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence has recently grown in interest in recent years over other optical imaging method, due to improved 3D spatial resolution, deep penetrability and less photodamage of living organism owing to the excitation in near-infrared region (NIR). In parallel, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gain considerable attention for NIR TPE bio-imaging applications due to their appealing ability to generate strong intrinsic photoluminescence (PL). Here, we demonstrate the capability of differently shaped gelatin-coated AuNPs to perform as reliable label-free contrast agents for the non-invasive NIR imaging of NIH:OVCAR-3 ovary cancer cells via TPE Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)...
March 14, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xiao-Fang Han, Xin-Xiu Zhang, Ke-Mei Liu, Hua Tan, Qiu Zhang
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare iso-osmolar contrast medium, iodixanol, with low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) for assessing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) incidence, exclusively in the diabetic population. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted for full-text, prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary outcome was incidence of CIN. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources were searched until May 31, 2017...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoying Xu, Xiaoyan Liu, Shuran Ma, Ya Xu, Ying Xu, Xiazhen Guo, Dekui Li
Seasonal changes impact the melatonin production and immuno-activities in vertebrates. This is believed due to the photoperiodic alterations of the different seasons which impact the functions of pineal gland. The short photoperiod promotes pineal melatonin production. As a result, during the winter, animals have significantly higher levels of melatonin than in summer. However, the seasonal changes also include temperature changes. This factor has never been systemically investigated in animals. In the current study, we observed that increased temperature had limited influence on melatonin production...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jean-Marc Idée, Philippe Robert, Jean-Sébastien Raynaud, Marlène Rasschaert, Nathalie Fretellier, Cécile Factor, Claire Corot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Radiology
Seyedmehdi Hossaini Nasr, Anne Tonson, Mohammad El-Dakdouki, David C Zhu, Dalen Agnew, Robert Wiseman, Chunqi Qian, Xuefei Huang
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of arterial walls and the rupturing of atherosclerotic plaques is a major cause of heart attack and stroke. Imaging techniques that can enable the detection of atherosclerosis plaques before clinical manifestation are urgently needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique to image the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques. In order to better analyze molecular processes in plaques, contrast agents that can selectively bind to plaque receptors will prove invaluable...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mariana Verdelho Machado, Anna Mae Diehl
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of obesity-associated liver diseases and it has become the major cause of cirrhosis in the Western world. The high prevalence of NAFLD-associated advanced liver disease reflects both the high prevalence of obesity-related fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) and the lack of specific treatments to prevent hepatic steatosis from progressing to more serious forms of liver damage, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and primary liver cancer...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Aaron C Brault, Bradley J Blitvich
The expanded use of next generation sequencing tools has led to an explosion in the rate of discovery of novel viral agents and has had a measured effect on the capacity to genetically identify the presence of previously described viruses in new geographic environments and within different hosts and vectors. For example, more than 30 flaviviruses ( Flavivirus ; Flaviviridae ) with the capacity to infect only mosquitoes have been described in the last 10 years. By contrast, only two such viruses had been described in the previous 33 years...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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