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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346416/decoding-the-network-of-trypanosoma-brucei-proteins-that-determines-sensitivity-to-apolipoprotein-l1
#1
Rachel B Currier, Anneli Cooper, Hollie Burrell-Saward, Annette MacLeod, Sam Alsford
In contrast to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense (the causative agents of human African trypanosomiasis), T. b. brucei is lysed by apolipoprotein-L1 (apoL1)-containing human serum trypanolytic factors (TLF), rendering it non-infectious to humans. While the mechanisms of TLF1 uptake, apoL1 membrane integration, and T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense apoL1-resistance have been extensively characterised, our understanding of the range of factors that drive apoL1 action in T. b. brucei is limited...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345964/immune-response-to-dengue-and-zika
#2
Annie Elong Ngono, Sujan Shresta
Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. In contrast, decades of DENV research implicate a dual role for the immune system in protection against and pathogenesis of DENV infection...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345636/promoting-the-accumulation-of-tumor-specific-t-cells-in-tumor-tissues-by-dendritic-cell-vaccines-and-chemokine-modulating-agents
#3
Nataša Obermajer, Julie Urban, Eva Wieckowski, Ravikumar Muthuswamy, Roshni Ravindranathan, David L Bartlett, Pawel Kalinski
This protocol describes how to induce large numbers of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in the spleens and lymph nodes of mice receiving dendritic cell (DC) vaccines and how to modulate tumor microenvironments (TMEs) to ensure effective homing of the vaccination-induced CTLs to tumor tissues. We also describe how to evaluate the numbers of tumor-specific CTLs within tumors. The protocol contains detailed information describing how to generate a specialized DC vaccine with augmented ability to induce tumor-specific CTLs...
February 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345254/the-mtor-inhibitor-azd8055-overcomes-tamoxifen-resistance-in-breast-cancer-cells-by-down-regulating-hspb8
#4
Jia-Jie Shi, Si-Meng Chen, Chen-Liang Guo, Yi-Xue Li, Jian Ding, Ling-Hua Meng
Tamoxifen, an important endocrine therapeutic agent, is widely used for the treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. However, de novo or acquired resistance prevents patients from benefitting from endocrine approaches and necessitates alternative treatments. In this study, we report that small heat protein beta-8 (HSPB8) may serve as an important molecule in tamoxifen resistance. HSPB8 expression is enhanced in MCF-7 cells resistant to tamoxifen (MCF-7/R) compared to parent cells. Moreover, high expression of HSPB8 associates with poor prognosis in ER+ breast cancer patients but not in patients without classification...
January 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344570/use-of-anticoagulant-or-antiplatelet-agents-is-not-related-to-epistaxis-in-patients-undergoing-transnasal-endoscopy
#5
Yoshiya Kobayashi, Yoshinori Komazawa, Mika Yuki, Hitomi Ishitobi, Makoto Nagaoka, Yoshiko Takahashi, Sayaka Nakashima, Toshihiro Shizuku, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Background and study aims : Unsedated transnasal endoscopy (uTNE) has become accepted as a safe and tolerable method for upper gastrointestinal tact examinations. Epistaxis is 1 of the major complications of TNE, though its risk factors have not been elucidated. Generally, patients administered an anticoagulant or antiplatelet drug are considered to have an increased risk of epistaxis during TNE. Here, we investigated risk factors of epistaxis in patients undergoing uTNE, with focus on those who received antithrombotic agents...
January 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344300/general-anesthesia-inhibits-the-activity-of-the-glymphatic-system
#6
Clement Gakuba, Thomas Gaberel, Suzanne Goursaud, Jennifer Bourges, Camille Di Palma, Aurélien Quenault, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Denis Vivien, Maxime Gauberti
INTRODUCTION: According to the "glymphatic system" hypothesis, brain waste clearance is mediated by a continuous replacement of the interstitial milieu by a bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous reports suggested that this cerebral CSF circulation is only active during general anesthesia or sleep, an effect mediated by the dilatation of the extracellular space. Given the controversies regarding the plausibility of this phenomenon and the limitations of currently available methods to image the glymphatic system, we developed original whole-brain in vivo imaging methods to investigate the effects of general anesthesia on the brain CSF circulation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344213/sentinel-lymph-node-mapping-in-gynecological-oncology
#7
Jiang Du, Yaling Li, Qing Wang, Nasra Batchu, Junkai Zou, Chao Sun, Shulan Lv, Qing Song, Qiling Li
The intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is part of the treatment strategy for a number of types of tumor. To retrospectively compare results from the mapping of pelvic SLNs for gynecological oncology, using distinct dyes, the present review was conducted to determine the clinical significance of SLN mapping for gynecological oncology. In addition, the present study aimed at identifying an improved choice for SLN mapping tracers in clinical application. Each dye exhibits demerits when applied in the clinical environment...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344020/a-case-of-immune-thrombocytopenia-as-a-rare-side-effect-of-an-immunotherapy-with-pd1-blocking-agents-for-metastatic-melanoma
#8
Claudia Pföhler, Hermann Eichler, Barbara Burgard, Nathalie Krecké, Cornelia S L Müller, Thomas Vogt
Background: Checkpoint blocking agents such as pembrolizumab or nivolumab may induce a diversity of mostly autoimmune-mediated side effects. These autoimmune phenomena mainly affect ductless glands such as the pituitary gland (hypophysitis), the thyroid gland (thyreoiditis), the skin (vitiligo and rash), the colon (colitis), and the lung (pneumonitis). Furthermore, many other organs or organ systems may be affected. Case Report: This work describes a case of an immune thrombocytopenia that developed or rather became clinically significant shortly after initiation of a systemic therapy with first nivolumab and later pembrolizumab given due to metastatic melanoma...
November 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343658/differences-in-signal-intensity-and-enhancement-on-mr-images-of-the-perivascular-spaces-in-the-basal-ganglia-versus-those-in-white-matter
#9
Shinji Naganawa, Toshiki Nakane, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiaki Taoka
PURPOSE: To elucidate differences between the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia (BG) versus that found in white matter (WM) using heavily T2-weighted FLAIR (hT2-FL) in terms of 1) signal intensity on non-contrast enhanced images, and 2) the degree of contrast enhancement by intravenous single dose administration of gadolinium based contrast agent (IV-SD-GBCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight healthy men and 13 patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops were included...
January 18, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342135/structures-of-%C3%AE-klotho-reveal-a-zip-code-like-mechanism-for-endocrine-fgf-signalling
#10
Sangwon Lee, Jungyuen Choi, Jyotidarsini Mohanty, Leiliane P Sousa, Francisco Tome, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, Mark A Lemmon, Irit Lax, Joseph Schlessinger
Canonical fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) activate FGF receptors (FGFRs) through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms in a process that requires cooperation with heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which function as co-receptors for FGFR activation. By contrast, endocrine FGFs (FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23) are circulating hormones that regulate critical metabolic processes in a variety of tissues. FGF19 regulates bile acid synthesis and lipogenesis, whereas FGF21 stimulates insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure and weight loss...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341587/fucoidan-prolongs-the-circulation-time-of-dextran-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#11
Maha R A Abdollah, Thomas J Carter, Clare Jones, Tammy L Kalber, Vineeth Rajkumar, Berend Tolner, Cordula Gruettner, May Zaw-Thin, Julia Baguña Torres, Matthew Ellis, Mathew Robson, R Barbara Pedley, Paul Mulholland, Rafael T M de Rosales, Kerry Ann Chester
The magnetic properties and safety of dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have facilitated their clinical use as MRI contrast agents and stimulated research on applications for SPIONs in particle imaging and magnetic hyperthermia. The wider clinical potential of SPIONs, however, has been limited by their rapid removal from circulation via the reticuloendothelial system (RES). We explored the possibility of extending SPION circulatory time using fucoidan, a seaweed-derived food supplement, to inhibit RES uptake...
January 17, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341418/hand-held-clinical-dual-mode-ultrasound-photoacoustic-imaging-of-rat-urinary-bladder-and-its-applications
#12
Kathyayini Sivasubramanian, Vijitha Periyasamy, Rhonnie Austria Dienzo, Manojit Pramanik
Urinary bladder imaging is critical to diagnose urinary tract disorders, and bladder cancer. There is a great need for safe, non-invasive, and sensitive imaging technique which enables bladder imaging. Photoacoustic imaging is a rapidly growing imaging technique for various biological applications. It can be combined with clinical ultrasound imaging system for hand-held, dual modal ultrasound-photoacoustic real-time imaging. Structural (bladder wall) and functional (accretion of nanoparticles) bladder imaging is shown here with combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in rats...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341349/peroxiredoxin-4-prdx4-its-critical-in-vivo-roles-in-animal-models-of-metabolic-syndrome-ranging-from-atherosclerosis-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Sohsuke Yamada, Xin Guo
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. We generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models...
January 17, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341108/characteristics-of-tendon-derived-stem-cells-according-to-different-factors-to-induce-the-tendinopathy
#14
Sun Jeong Kim, Da-Hyun Song, Sang Jun Kim
Tendon derived stem cells (TDSCs) have been used as a therapeutic agent and as a healing marker. However, there has been no study about the characteristics of TDSCs extracted from tendinopathic tendon tissues. The aim of this study was to find the different characteristics of TDSCs according to the factors to induce the tendinopathy. Five- and 15-week old Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study and chemically-induced and injury-induced tendinopathy models were made depending on the age of the animal for different types of tendinopathy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341024/advanced-contrast-agents-for-multimodal-biomedical-imaging-based-on-nanotechnology
#15
Daniel Calle, Paloma Ballesteros, Sebastián Cerdán
Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341023/anesthesia-and-monitoring-of-animals-during-mri-studies
#16
Jordi L Tremoleda, Sven Macholl, Jane K Sosabowski
The use of imaging represents a major impact on the refinement and the reduction of in vivo studies in animal models, in particular for allowing longitudinal monitoring of the onset and the progression of disease within the same animal, and studying the biological effects of drug candidate and their therapeutic effectiveness. But the use of imaging procedures can affect animal physiology, and the need to anesthetize the animals for imaging entails potential health risks. During anesthesia, there is an inevitable autonomic nervous system depression which induces cardiovascular depression, respiratory depression, and hypothermia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341021/assessment-of-blood-brain-barrier-leakage-with-gadolinium-enhanced-mri
#17
Min-Chi Ku, Sonia Waiczies, Thoralf Niendorf, Andreas Pohlmann
The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be noninvasively monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conventional MR contrast agents (CAs) containing gadolinium are used in association with MRI in routine clinical practice to detect and quantify BBB leakage. Under normal circumstances CAs do not cross the intact BBB. However due to their small size they extravasate from the blood into the brain tissue even when the BBB is partially compromised. Here we describe an MR method based on T1-weighted images taken prior to and after CA injection...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341020/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-stroke
#18
Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro
Stroke consists of the loss of cerebral functions resulting from the interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, and represents the second cause of death and the leading cause of major disability in adults in Europe. Stroke is a very active field of research at preclinical and clinical levels, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful tools that scientist and clinicians have for the study of the onset, evolution and consequences of this devastating disease, as well as for the monitoring of the success of available treatments, or for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341017/molecular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mmri
#19
Maxime Gauberti, Antoine P Fournier, Denis Vivien, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo
Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) enables the detection of a protein of interest in vivo, in a noninvasive manner. The general concept of mMRI is to target a contrast agent to a protein of interest, and to perform a contrast-sensitive MRI sequence. Typically, contrast agents are made of a "contrastophore" (the part of the construct responsible for the contrast on the images) and a targeting moiety ("pharmacophore"). Recently, the development of a new family of contrastophore carrying a high payload of iron oxide (micro-sized particles of iron oxide, MPIO) has led to a dramatic increase in the sensitivity of mMRI...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341016/oxygenation-imaging-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-methods
#20
Heling Zhou, Nuria Arias-Ramos, Pilar López-Larrubia, Ralph P Mason, Sebastián Cerdán, Jesús Pacheco-Torres
Oxygen monitoring is a topic of exhaustive research due to its central role in many biological processes, from energy metabolism to gene regulation. The ability to monitor in vivo the physiological distribution and the dynamics of oxygen from subcellular to macroscopic levels is a prerequisite to better understand the mechanisms associated with both normal and disease states (cancer, neurodegeneration, stroke, etc.). This chapter focuses on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based techniques to assess oxygenation in vivo...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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