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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098243/vanillic-acid-attenuates-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#1
Faiz Ul Amin, Shahid Ali Shah, Myeong Ok Kim
Increasing evidence demonstrates that β-amyloid (Aβ) elicits oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis and disease progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aims of the present study were to determine and explore the antioxidant nature and potential mechanism of vanillic acid (VA) in Aβ1-42-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation mediated cognitive impairment in mice. An intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 into the mouse brain triggered increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, neuroinflammation, synaptic deficits, memory impairment, and neurodegeneration...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098178/lithium-accumulates-in-neurogenic-brain-regions-as-revealed-by-high-resolution-ion-imaging
#2
Giulia Zanni, Wojciech Michno, Elena Di Martino, Anna Tjärnlund-Wolf, Jean Pettersson, Charlotte Elizabeth Mason, Gustaf Hellspong, Klas Blomgren, Jörg Hanrieder
Lithium (Li) is a potent mood stabilizer and displays neuroprotective and neurogenic properties. Despite extensive investigations, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, especially in the juvenile, developing brain. Here we characterized lithium distribution in the juvenile mouse brain during 28 days of continuous treatment that result in clinically relevant serum concentrations. By using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry- (ToF-SIMS) based imaging we were able to delineate temporospatial lithium profile throughout the brain and concurrent distribution of endogenous lipids with high chemical specificity and spatial resolution...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097096/impact-of-different-embolic-agents-for-transarterial-chemoembolization-tace-procedures-on-systemic-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-levels
#3
Andreas Schicho, Claus Hellerbrand, Kristina Krüger, Lukas P Beyer, Walter Wohlgemuth, Christoph Niessen, Ernst Hohenstein, Christian Stroszczynski, Philippe L Pereira, Philipp Wiggermann
Background and Aims: Intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be treated by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). However, there appear to be side effects, such as induction of proangiogenic factors, e.g. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which have been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis. This prospective study was designed to compare serum VEGF level response after TACE with different embolic agents in patients with HCC. Methods: Patients were assigned to one of three different TACE regimens: degradable starch microspheres (DSM) TACE, drug-eluting bead (DEBDOX) TACE or Lipiodol TACE (cTACE)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096695/hysterosalpingo-foam-sonography-patient-selection-and-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Hemashree Rajesh, Serene Liqing Lim, Su Ling Yu
We present an overview of the common types of tubal patency tests, with a focus on hysterosalpingo-foam sonography (HyFoSy). Current evidence suggests that HyFoSy is an accurate alternative to X-ray hysterosalpingography (HSG) for outpatient tubal evaluation in women who are at low risk for tubal disease. It may be superior to saline hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) in excluding tubal occlusion. A hyperechogenic medium may enhance contrast visualization and enable clearer delineation of tubal anatomy...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096399/antiviral-screening-identifies-adenosine-analogs-targeting-the-endogenous-dsrna-leishmania-rna-virus-1-lrv1-pathogenicity-factor
#5
F Matthew Kuhlmann, John I Robinson, Gregory R Bluemling, Catherine Ronet, Nicolas Fasel, Stephen M Beverley
The endogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus Leishmaniavirus (LRV1) has been implicated as a pathogenicity factor for leishmaniasis in rodent models and human disease, and associated with drug-treatment failures in Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania guyanensis infections. Thus, methods targeting LRV1 could have therapeutic benefit. Here we screened a panel of antivirals for parasite and LRV1 inhibition, focusing on nucleoside analogs to capitalize on the highly active salvage pathways of Leishmania, which are purine auxotrophs...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096049/monoenergetic-reconstructions-for-imaging-of-coronary-artery-stents-using-spectral-detector-ct-in-vitro-experience-and-comparison-to-conventional-images
#6
Tilman Hickethier, Bettina Baeßler, Jan Robert Kroeger, Jonas Doerner, Gregor Pahn, David Maintz, Guido Michels, Alexander C Bunck
PURPOSE: Accurate assessment of coronary stents using non-invasive CT imaging remains challenging despite new stent materials and improvements in CT technology. Virtual monoenergetic (monoE) images reconstructed from dual energy CT acquisitions potentially decrease artifacts caused by coronary stents. A novel spectral detector technology provides monoE and conventional images simultaneously for all conducted scans. The purpose of our study was to systematically investigate the influence of different monoE reconstructions on the visualization of coronary stent lumen in comparison to conventional images...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095682/superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-as-high-efficiency-magnetic-resonance-imaging-t2-contrast-agent
#7
Fernanda Sousa, Barbara Sanavio, Alessandra Saccani, Yun Tang, Ileana Zucca, Tamara M Carney, Alfonso Mastropietro, Paulo H Jacob Silva, Randy P Carney, Kurt Schenk, Arash O Omrani, Ping Huang, Lin Yang, Henrik M Rønnow, Francesco Stellacci, Silke Krol
Nanoparticle-based magnetic resonance imaging T2 negative agents are of great interest, and much effort is devoted to increasing cell-loading capability while maintaining low cytotoxicity. Herein, two classes of mixed-ligand protected magnetic-responsive, bimetallic gold/iron nanoparticles (Au/Fe NPs) synthesized by a two-step method are presented. Their structure, surface composition, and magnetic properties are characterized. The two classes of sulfonated Au/Fe NPs, with an average diameter of 4 nm, have an average atomic ratio of Au to Fe equal to 7 or 8, which enables the Au/Fe NPs to be superparamagnetic with a blocking temperature of 56 K and 96 K...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094930/fe-and-ln-dotam-f12-are-effective-paramagnetic-fluorine-contrast-agents-for-mri-in-water-and-blood
#8
Kriti Srivastava, Evan A Weitz, Katie L Peterson, Małgorzata Marjańska, Valérie C Pierre
A series of fluorinated macrocyclic complexes, M-DOTAm-F12, where M is La(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Tm(III), Yb(III), and Fe(II), was synthesized, and their potential as fluorine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents was evaluated. The high water solubility of these complexes and the presence of a single fluorine NMR signal, two necessary parameters for in vivo MRI, are substantial advantages over currently used organic polyfluorocarbons and other reported paramagnetic (19)F probes...
January 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094770/rapamycin-mediated-mtor-inhibition-uncouples-hiv-1-latency-reversal-from-cytokine-associated-toxicity
#9
Alyssa R Martin, Ross A Pollack, Adam Capoferri, Richard F Ambinder, Christine M Durand, Robert F Siliciano
Current strategies for HIV-1 eradication require the reactivation of latent HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4s). Global T cell activation is a well-characterized means of inducing HIV-1 transcription, but is considered too toxic for clinical applications. Here, we have explored a strategy that involves a combination of immune activation and the immunosuppressive mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In purified rCD4s from HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy, rapamycin treatment downregulated markers of toxicity, including proinflammatory cytokine release and cellular proliferation that were induced after potent T cell activation using αCD3/αCD28 antibodies...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092939/for-better-or-worse-iron-overload-by-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-a-mri-contrast-agent-for-chronic-liver-diseases
#10
Qibing Zhou, Yushuang Wei
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have recently been used as an effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for the noninvasive diagnosis of chronic liver diseases including nonalcohol fatty liver diseases, nonalcohol steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis as well as liver tumors. However, the potential risk of the iron overload by SPIONs has been highly underestimated in chronic liver diseases. While most of SPIONs have been shown safe in the healthy group, significant toxicity potential by the iron overload has been revealed through immunotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism in cirrhosis as a high risk factor...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092496/the-effect-of-contrast-material-on-radiation-dose-at-ct-part-i-incorporation-of-contrast-material-dynamics-in-anthropomorphic-phantoms
#11
Pooyan Sahbaee, W Paul Segars, Daniele Marin, Rendon C Nelson, Ehsan Samei
Purpose To develop a method to incorporate the propagation of contrast material into computational anthropomorphic phantoms for estimation of organ dose at computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods A patient-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of the human cardiovascular system was incorporated into 58 extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) patient phantoms. The PBPK model comprised compartmental models of vessels and organs unique to each XCAT model. For typical injection protocols, the dynamics of the contrast material in the body were described according to a series of patient-specific iodine mass-balance differential equations, the solutions to which provided the contrast material concentration time curves for each compartment...
January 13, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091590/high-performance-magneto-fluorescent-nanoparticles-assembled-from-terbium-and-gadolinium-1-3-diketones
#12
Rustem Zairov, Asiya Mustafina, Nataliya Shamsutdinova, Irek Nizameev, Beatriz Moreira, Svetlana Sudakova, Sergey Podyachev, Alfia Fattakhova, Gulnara Safina, Ingemar Lundstrom, Aidar Gubaidullin, Alberto Vomiero
Polyelectrolyte-coated nanoparticles consisting of terbium and gadolinium complexes with calix[4]arene tetra-diketone ligand were first synthesized. The antenna effect of the ligand on Tb(III) green luminescence and the presence of water molecules in the coordination sphere of Gd(III) bring strong luminescent and magnetic performance to the core-shell nanoparticles. The size and the core-shell morphology of the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The correlation between photophysical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and their core composition was highlighted...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091571/photoacoustic-pump-probe-tomography-of-fluorophores-in-vivo-using-interleaved-image-acquisition-for-motion-suppression
#13
Julia Märk, Asja Wagener, Edward Zhang, Jan Laufer
In fluorophores, the excited state lifetime can be modulated using pump-probe excitation. By generating photoacoustic (PA) signals using simultaneous and time-delayed pump and probe excitation pulses at fluences below the maximum permissible exposure, a modulation of the signal amplitude is observed in fluorophores but not in endogenous chromophores. This provides a highly specific contrast mechanism that can be used to recover the location of the fluorophore using difference imaging. The practical challenges in applying this method to in vivo PA tomography include the typically low concentrations of fluorescent contrast agents, and tissue motion...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090589/spiral-perfusion-imaging-with-consecutive-echoes-spice%C3%A2-for-the-simultaneous-mapping-of-dsc-and-dce-mri-parameters-in-brain-tumor-patients-theory-and-initial-feasibility
#14
Eric S Paulson, Douglas E Prah, Kathleen M Schmainda
Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the perfusion imaging techniques most frequently used to probe the angiogenic character of brain neoplasms. With these methods, T1- and T2/T2*-weighted imaging sequences are used to image the distribution of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. However, it is well known that Gd exhibits combined T1, T2, and T2* shortening effects in tissue, and therefore, the results of both DCE- and DSC-MRI can be confounded by these opposing effects...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090443/topographical-and-depth-dependent-glycosaminoglycan-concentration-in-canine-medial-tibial-cartilage-3-weeks-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-transection-surgery-a-microscopic-imaging-study
#15
Daniel Mittelstaedt, David Kahn, Yang Xia
BACKGROUND: Medical imaging has become an invaluable tool to diagnose damage to cartilage. Depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) has been shown to be one of the early signs of cartilage degradation. In order to investigate the topographical changes in GAG concentration caused by the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) surgery in a canine model, microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) and microscopic computed tomography (µCT) were used to measure the GAG concentration with correlation from a biochemical assay, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), to understand where the topographical and depth-dependent changes in the GAG concentration occur...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090231/effects-of-ipragliflozin-on-diabetic-nephropathy-and-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-an-open-label-study
#16
Daisuke Ito, Emi Ikuma-Suwa, Kazuyuki Inoue, Kimie Kaneko, Morifumi Yanagisawa, Kouichi Inukai, Mitsuhiko Noda, Akira Shimada
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel agents used to treat type 2 diabetic patients. We investigated the efficacy of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin on diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A 50 mg dose of ipragliflozin was administered for 24 weeks to 50 patients with type 2 diabetes who were concomitantly managed with diet and exercise therapy alone or antidiabetic medications other than SGLT2 inhibitors...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089780/co-feeding-transmission-facilitates-strain-coexistence-in-borrelia-burgdorferi-the-lyme-disease-agent
#17
S L States, C I Huang, S Davis, D M Tufts, M A Diuk-Wasser
Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus...
December 26, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089715/ameliorating-effects-of-herbal-formula-hemomine-on-experimental-subacute-hemorrhagic-anemia-in-rats
#18
Sae Kwang Ku, Hyemee Kim, Joo Wan Kim, Ki Sung Kang, Hae-Jeung Lee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hemomine (HM) is an herbal mixture consisting of 5 varieties of the hematopoietic herbal extracts (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz ex Stueudel, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer). AIM OF THE STUDY: Anemia has been treated with iron supplements, whereas it could cause adverse side effects such as digestive discomfort. In the present study, HM was applied to SHA rats to test for several activities so as to verify its therapeutic potentials on anemia and digestive discomfort...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089499/the-stability-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-in-human-serum-a-reanalysis-of-literature-data-and-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#19
John P Prybylski, Richard C Semelka, Michael Jay
PURPOSE: To reanalyze literature data of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in plasma with a kinetic model of dissociation to provide a comprehensive assessment of equilibrium conditions for linear GBCAs. METHODS: Data for the release of Gd from GBCAs in human serum was extracted from a previous report in the literature and fit to a kinetic dissociation/association model. The conditional stabilities (logKcond) and percent intact over time were calculated using the model rate constants...
January 9, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089067/effect-of-mobile-phase-additives-on-solute-retention-at-low-aqueous-ph-in-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography
#20
David V McCalley
Trifluoracetic acid (TFA) added to the aqueous acetonitrile mobile phase induces some unexpected changes in the ionic component of retention in hydrophilic interaction separations when using Type B silica and amide-bonded silica columns. TFA use results in anion exchange properties which contrast with the cation exchange typically found with ammonium salt buffers. The significant cation exchange properties of silica hydride columns are also moderated by TFA. Similar behaviour was shown in a metal- free amide column operated on a system washed with a metal complexing agent, suggesting that adsorbed metal cations were not responsible for this anion exchange behaviour...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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