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Horacio Parraga, Francisco Javier Arranz, Rosa Maria Benito, Florentino Borondo
The dynamical characteristics of a region of regular vibrational motion in the sea of chaos above the saddle point corresponding to the linear C-N-K configuration is examined in detail. To explain the origin of this regularity, the associated phase space structures have been characterized using suitably defined Poincar\'e surfaces of section, identifying the different resonances between the stretching and bending modes, as a function of excitation energy. The corresponding topology is elucidated by means of periodic orbit analysis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Stylianos Michalakis, Elvir Becirovic, Martin Biel
The first step in vision is the absorption of photons by the photopigments in cone and rod photoreceptors. After initial amplification within the phototransduction cascade the signal is translated into an electrical signal by the action of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. CNG channels are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the binding of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Retinal CNG channels transduce changes in intracellular concentrations of cGMP into changes of the membrane potential and the Ca2+ concentration...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexandre F Cunha, Igor S A Felippe, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Leonardo B M Resstel, Daniela A M Guimarães, Vanessa Beijamini, Julian F R Paton, Karla N Sampaio
Although it is well-established that severe poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds strongly affects the cardiorespiratory system, the effects of sub-lethal exposure to these compounds on the neural control of cardiovascular function are poorly explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used OP insecticide, on three basic reflex mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation, the peripheral chemoreflex, the baroreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex...
February 19, 2018: Toxicology
Philippe Haouzi, Maxime Gueguinou, Takashi Sonobe, Annick Judenherc-Haouzi, Nicole Tubbs, Mohamed Trebak, Joseph Cheung, Frederic Bouillaud
BACKGROUND: Although methylene blue (MB) had long been proposed to counteract the effects of cyanide (CN) intoxication, research on its mechanisms of action and efficacy has been abandoned for decades. Recent studies on the benefits of MB in post-anoxic injuries have prompted us to reexamine the relevance of this historical observation. METHODS: Our study was performed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and on HEK293T epithelial cells. First, the effects and toxicity of MB (0-80 mg/kg) on circulation and metabolism were established in four urethane-anesthetized rats...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Rongrong Chen, Jiandong Fan, Hongliang Li, Chong Liu, Yaohua Mai
Pure-sulphide Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells were prepared by a low-cost, non-toxic and high-throughput method based on the thermal decomposition and reaction of sol-gel precursor solution, followed by a high temperature sulfurization process in sulphur atmosphere, which usually gave rise to the unexpected Cu-poor and Zn-rich phase after sulfurization. In order to remove the formation of detrimental secondary phases, e.g. ZnS, a novel method with hydrochloric acid solution treatment to the CZTS absorber layer surface was employed...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Fereshteh Aslani, Masoud Khorrami-Nejad, Mohammad Aghazadeh Amiri, Hesam Hashemian, Farshad Askarizadeh, Bahram Khosravi
Purpose: To evaluate the magnitudes and axis orientation of anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA), the ratio of ACA to PCA, and the correlation between ACA and PCA in the different stages of keratoconus (KCN). Methods: This retrospective case series comprised 161 eyes of 161 patients with KCN (104 men, 57 women; mean age, 22.35 ± 6.10 years). The participants were divided into four subgroups according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification...
January 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Emilio Pedrotti, Christian Luigi Demasi, Adriano Fasolo, Erika Bonacci, Tommaso Brighenti, Nicola Gennaro, Marcello Ferrari, Giorgio Marchini
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with keratoconus (KCN) and to evaluate the association between the severity of KCN and OSA. METHODS: OSA was diagnosed with an overnight home sleep apnea test. As estimated by home monitoring, an apnea-hypopnea index threshold of ≥5 sleep-related obstructive breathing events per hour was considered suggestive of OSA. For grading KCN severity (Amsler-Krumeich classification), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, corneal topography, and pachymetry measurements were performed...
January 9, 2018: Cornea
Gururaj M Neelgund, Aderemi Oki
Herein, we report the modulation of ZnO for enhancement of its ability toward plasmonic absorption of near-infrared (NIR) photons through coupling of graphene (GR). The reported modification led GR-ZnO to be a promising photocatalyst by the complete removal of poisonous and nonvolatile potassium cyanide from water. The photocatalytic degradation of cyanide was revealed by exposing it to NIR laser and comparing with the rate of UV, visible, and sunlight using their apparent reaction rate constants derived from the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Kabiru Ibrahim Karamba, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Azham Zulkharnain, Nur Adeela Yasid, Salihu Ibrahim, Mohd Yunus Shukor
The evaluation of degradation and growth kinetics of Serratia marcescens strain AQ07 was carried out using three half-order models at all the initial concentrations of cyanide with the values of regression exceeding 0.97. The presence of varying cyanide concentrations reveals that the growth and degradation of bacteria were affected by the increase in cyanide concentration with a total halt at 700 ppm KCN after 72 h incubation. In this study, specific growth and degradation rates were found to trail the substrate inhibition kinetics...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Szymon Z Konieczka, Florian Schlüter, Christoph Sindorf, Christoph Kerpen, Eduard Bernhardt, Maik Finze
Eleven-vertex closo- and nido-boron clusters with one or two exo-cyano groups have been obtained via a series of consecutive cage-opening and -closure reactions starting from K2[closo-B11H11] (K21). In the first step, K21 reacts with KCN in water at elevated temperatures to yield [7-NC-nido-B11H12]2- (5a). Oxidation of 5a with PbO2 gives [NC-closo-B11H10]2- (2). In analogous, subsequent reactions, dianion 2 is converted with KCN regioselectively into [7,9-(NC)2-nido-B11H11]2- (6a) and is further oxidized to [(NC)2-closo-B11H9]2- (3)...
December 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Keyth Sulamitta L Guimarães, Emmanuel Veríssimo de Araújo, Jailane Souza Aquino, Danilo Assis Gadelha, Camille Moura Balarini, João Henrique Costa-Silva, Marciane Magnani, Hubert Vidal, Valdir Andrade Braga, José Luiz de Brito Alves
The present study evaluated the effects of maternal dyslipidaemia on blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory physiology and biochemical parameters in male offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed either a control (CTL) or a dyslipidaemic (DLP) diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, both CTL and DLP offspring received standard diet. On the 30th and 90th day of life, blood samples were collected for metabolic analyses. Direct measurements of BP, respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and ventilation (VE) under baseline condition, as well as during hypercapnia (7 % CO2) and hypoxia (KCN, 0·04 %), were recorded from awake 90-d-old male offspring...
December 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Qingqing Liu, Guangsheng Zhang, Jiannan Ding, Hua Zou, Hongxing Shi, Chaoqun Huang
To evaluate the removal of potassium cyanide (KCN) and its toxicity in algae, an initial comprehensive analysis was performed with Chlorella vulgaris. The algae showed potential removal capability for KCN, with the maximal removal rate of 61%. Moreover, effects of KCN on growth, cellular morphology and antioxidant defense system of C. vulgaris were evaluated. Cell number and chlorophyll a content decreased in most cases, with the maximal inhibition rates of 48% and 99%, respectively. The 100 mg L(- 1) KCN seriously damaged the algal cell membrane...
November 20, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Bilal Nisanci, Sinem Sahinoglu, Esra Tuner, Mustafa Arik, İbrahim Kani, Arif Dastan, Özgür Altan Bozdemir
ML2 type complexes of an olefin terminated 5H-dipyrrin ligand can be subjected to twofold ring closing metathesis to give bis(dipyrrinato)copper(ii) and bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(ii) [2]catenates. Demetalation of the copper(ii) [2]catenate with KCN/N2H4·H2O gave the corresponding bis(dipyrrin) [2]catenand. The boron difluoride complex of this bis(dipyrrin) was obtained as the first fluorescent F-BODIPY [2]catenane.
November 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Mackensie C Smith, Jeffrey D Clogston
This chapter describes a method for the quantitation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in PEGylated colloidal gold nanoparticles using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with charged aerosol detection. The method can be used to calculate the total PEG on the nanoparticle, as well as the bound and free unbound PEG fractions after a simple centrifugation step. This is a significant distinction as the bound PEG fraction affects biocompatibility, circulation time, and overall nanoparticle efficacy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tabinda Zafar, Charly Brouillard, Laurence Lanfumey, Caroline Sévoz-Couche
Recent studies have demonstrated that a mild stimulation of the dorsomedian nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH), a defense area, induces the inhibition of the carotid chemoreflex tachypnea. DMH activation reduces the cardiac chemoreflex response via the dorsolateral part of the periaqueductal grey matter (dlPAG) and serotonin receptors (5-HT3 subtype) in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). The objectives of this study were to assess whether dlPAG and subsequent NTS 5-HT3 receptors are involved in chemoreflex tachypnea inhibition during mild activation of the DMH...
January 2018: Neuropharmacology
Maoqing Tong, Jiewen Wang, Yunxin Ji, Xiaomin Chen, Jieru Wang, Shuangshuang Wang, Liemin Ruan, Hanbin Cui, Ying Zhou, Qingyu Zhang, Eiichi Watanabe
Atrial remodeling is considered to be any persistent change in atrial structure or function, and is responsible for the development and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Oxidative stress and intracellular pH regulation may also be linked to AF; however it remains unclear whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or statins have beneficial therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of EPA and pitavastatin on the electrophysiology of and gene expressions in mice with rapidly-paced atria...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Susan M DeLeon, Jason D Downey, Diane M Hildenberger, Melissa O Rhoomes, Lamont Booker, Gary A Rockwood, Kelly A Basi
CONTEXT: Cyanide (CN) is a metabolic poison, halting ATP synthesis by inhibiting complex IV of the electron transport chain. If exposed at high enough concentrations, humans and most animals can die within minutes. Because time is a crucial factor in survival of CN poisoning, a rapidly bioavailable, nontoxic, easy to administer CN medical countermeasure could improve morbidity/mortality in a mass CN exposure scenario. The most likely route of exposure to CN is via inhalation. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy of a new formulation for dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), a countermeasure which has shown promise as a treatment for CN poisoning, using both inhalation and injection models of CN exposure...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Raheel Ahmad, Hyowon Jang, Bhagwan S Batule, Hyun Gyu Park
We have devised a barcode DNA-mediated signal amplifying strategy for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). As a model target, thrombin was first captured by specific aptamer15 functionalized on magnetic beads (MBs-apt15) and sandwiched through the simultaneous interaction with gold nanoparticles modified with another specific aptamer29 and barcode DNA molecules (apt29-AuNPs-bcDNAs). The sandwiched complex was collected by convenient magnetic separation and then treated with potassium cyanide (KCN) to dissolve the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and consequently release the barcode DNA molecules (bcDNAs), which were then again magnetically separated and analyzed by using MALDI-TOF MS...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Mingqing Wang, Md Anower Hossain, Kwang-Leong Choy
In our work, eco-friendly, non-vacuum and low cost Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapour Deposition (ESAVD) method has been used to produce Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) solar cells. Copper (Cu) deficient (Cu/In + Ga = 0.76) CIGS films were designed to avoid the rather dangerous KCN treatment step for the removal of conductive minor phases of Cu2S/Cu2Se. A simple sodium (Na) treatment method was used to modify the morphology and electronic properties of the absorber and it clearly improved the solar cell performance...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Reena Gupta, Ruta Kinderyte, Deborah S Jacobs, Ula V Jurkunas
PURPOSE: To report a case of coexistent Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and keratoconus (KCN) in which there was normalization of corneal topography after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: Retrospective medical record review. RESULTS: Preoperative findings revealed a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 with -1.00 - 2.50 × 147, topographic maximum keratometry of 50.8 D with inferior steeping, and confluent guttae in the left eye...
October 2017: Cornea
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