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Tomaž Rijavec, Aleš Lapanje
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produce chemical compounds with different benefits for the plant. Among them, HCN is recognized as a biocontrol agent, based on its ascribed toxicity against plant pathogens. Based on several past studies questioning the validity of this hypothesis, we have re-addressed the issue by designing a new set of in vitro experiments, to test if HCN-producing rhizobacteria could inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. The level of HCN produced by the rhizobacteria in vitro does not correlate with the observed biocontrol effects, thus disproving the biocontrol hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniel Sarezky, Stephen E Orlin, Wei Pan, Brian L VanderBeek
PURPOSE: To determine recent trends in and sociodemographic/comorbid conditions associated with penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and lamellar keratoplasty (LK) for keratoconus (KCN). METHODS: Patients with KCN and subsequent PK and LK procedures were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) billing codes. The change in surgical rates was calculated over a decade, and multivariate analysis demonstrated factors associated with undergoing surgery...
November 16, 2016: Cornea
Renato Willian Martins Sá, Andrea Siqueira Haibara, Paula Magalhães Gomes, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Rafael Souza Leopoldino Nascimento, Maria Lucia Pedrosa, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Leonardo Máximo Cardoso
What is the central question of this study? In this study we sought to investigate whether cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation of rats recovered from protein restriction are related to AT1 receptors activation. What is the main finding and its importance? This study highlights the fact that angiotensinergic mechanisms activated by AT1 receptors do not supported increased responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation by KCN in rats recovered from protein restriction. Also, we found that protein restriction led to increased resting ventilation in adult rats, even after recovery...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Luara A Batista, Andrea S Haibara, Luiz C Schenberg, Fabricio A Moreira
Selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors by intravenous infusion of low doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) produces short-lasting escape responses that have been proposed as a model of panic attack. In turn, preclinical studies suggest that facilitation of the endocannabinoid system attenuate panic-like responses. Here, we compared the effects of cannabinoid-related compounds to those of alprazolam, a clinically effective panicolytic, on the duration of the escape reaction induced by intravenous infusion of KCN (80μg) in rats...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Du Fang, Yu Qing, Shijun Yan, Doris Chen, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Mitochondria are critical to neurogenesis, but the mechanisms of mitochondria in neurogenesis have not been well explored. We fully characterized mitochondrial alterations and function in relation to the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Following directed differentiation of hiPSCs to DA neurons, mitochondria in these neurons exhibit pronounced changes during differentiation, including mature neurophysiology characterization and functional synaptic network formation...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Roberto Caputo, Francesco Versaci, Neri Pucci, Cinzia de Libero, Gioia Danti, Salvatore De Masi, Rita Mencucci, Elio Novembre, Bennie H Jeng
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of keratoconus (KC) and other corneal abnormalities by means of videokeratography and tomography in a large series of patients affected by vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: • Setting: Single-center, children's hospital. • Study Population: 651 consecutive patients with VKC and a control group of 500 were prospectively recruited between May 2012 and September 2013, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Ghasem Fakhraie, Zakieh Vahedian
PURPOSE: To report a case of unilateral post trabeculectomy globe massage-induced keratoconus (KCN). CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old lady with a history of trabeculectomy due to iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in her right eye was instructed to massage her globe to control gradual rise of intraocular pressure 1.5 years after surgery. The patient experienced high astigmatism and marked inferior corneal steepening after 3 years of globe massage. The left eye was normal in all aspects...
July 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
J R Lawrence, G D W Swerhone, U Kuhlicke, T R Neu
CLSM and fluorescent probes were applied to assess the structure, composition, metabolic activity and gradients within naturally occurring β-proteobacteria microcolonies. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as defined by lectin-binding analyses had three regions: (i) cell associated, (ii) intercellular and (iii) an outer layer covering the entire colony. We assessed structural, microenvironmental and metabolic implications of this complex EPS structure. Permeability studies indicated that the outer two layers were permeable to 20 nm beads, intercellular EPS to <40 nm beads and the outer layer was permeable to <100 nm beads...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Philippe Haouzi, Nicole Tubbs, Matthew D Rannals, Annick Judenherc-Haouzi, Larry A Cabell, Joe A McDonough, Takashi Sonobe
Our objective was to determine how circulatory failure develops following systemic administration of potassium cyanide (KCN). We used a non-inhaled modality of intoxication, wherein the change in breathing pattern would not influence the diffusion of CN into the blood, akin to the effects of ingesting toxic levels of CN. In a group of 300-400 g rats, CN-induced coma (CN IP, 7 mg/kg) produced a central apnea within 2-3 minutes along with a potent and prolonged gasping pattern leading to auto-resuscitation in 38% of the animals...
August 10, 2016: Shock
Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi, Mohammad Ali Javadi, Tahmineh Motevasseli, Tahereh Chamani, Mahnoush Rezaei Kanavi, Bahareh Kheiri, Sare Safi
PURPOSE: To report changing trends in indications and techniques of corneal transplantation in Iran. METHODS: We reviewed eye bank records of 47,129 patients who had undergone corneal transplantation between 2006 and 2013 at different eye centers throughout Iran. RESULTS: The most common indication for corneal transplantation was keratoconus (KCN, n = 21,350 eyes, 45.3%), followed by bullous keratopathy (BK, n = 8,566 eyes, 18.2%), corneal opacity and scar (COS, n = 7,158 eyes, 15...
April 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Adam Heikal, Kiel Hards, Chen-Yi Cheung, Ayana Menorca, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker, Gregory M Cook
OBJECTIVES: Quinolinequinones (QQ) have been shown to inhibit the growth of mycobacterial species, but their mode(s) of action and molecular target(s) remain unknown. To facilitate further development of QQ as antimycobacterial drugs, we investigated the molecular mechanism and target of QQ in mycobacteria. METHODS: Cell viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin was determined in the presence of QQ8c, a representative QQ compound, and isoniazid, a frontline antitubercular drug...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Yi Ren, Jonathan J S Scragg, Marika Edoff, Jes K Larsen, Charlotte Platzer-Björkman
Formation of Na-containing surface compounds is an important phenomenon in the Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) quaternary material synthesis for solar cell applications. Still, identification of these compounds and the understanding of their potential influence on buffer layer growth and device performance are scarce. In this work, we discovered that the evolution of Na-S(-O) compounds on the CZTS surface substantially affect the solution/CZTS interface during the chemical bath deposition of CdS buffer film. We showed that Na2S negatively affects the growth of CdS, and that this compound is likely to form on the CZTS surface after annealing...
July 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Leonardo Calegari, Bruna B Mozzaquattro, Douglas D Rossato, Edson Quagliotto, Janaina B Ferreira, Alberto Rasia-Filho, Pedro Dal Lago
The effects of exercise training (ExT) on the pressor response elicited by potassium cyanide (KCN) in the rat model of ischemia-induced heart failure (HF) are unknown. We evaluated the effects of ExT on chemoreflex sensitivity and its interaction with baroreflex in rats with HF. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: trained HF (Tr-HF), sedentary HF (Sed-HF), trained sham (Tr-Sham), and sedentary sham (Sed-Sham). Trained animals underwent to a treadmill running protocol for 8 weeks (60 m/day, 5 days/week, 16 m/min)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Takuto Kumano, Yuko Takizawa, Sakayu Shimizu, Michihiko Kobayashi
One of the nitrile-synthesizing enzymes, β-cyano-L-alanine synthase, catalyzes β-cyano-L-alanine (β-CNAla) from potassium cyanide and O-acetyl-L-serine or L-cysteine. We have identified this enzyme from Pseudomonas ovalis No. 111. In this study, we cloned the β-CNAla synthase gene and expressed it in Escherichia coli and Rhodococcus rhodochrous. Furthermore, we carried out co-expression of β-CNAla synthase with nitrilase or nitrile hydratases in order to synthesize aspartic acid and asparagine from KCN and O-acetyl-L-serine...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Verónica Irazusta, Lucas Michel, Lucía I C de Figueroa
Candida fukuyamaensis RCL-3 yeast has the ability to decrease copper concentration in a culture medium. High copper concentrations change the cell color from white/cream to brown. The effect of color change ceases with the addition of KCN or when cells are grown in a culture medium without sulfate ions. These results could be associated with CuS bioaccumulation in the cell surface. This report revealed that mineralization would be a mechanism used by this yeast for copper bioremediation.
April 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Tahir Kansu Bozkurt, Banu Acar, Ayşe Ebru Kilavuzoglu, Mehmet Orçun Akdemir, David Rex Hamilton, Cemile Banu Cosar Yurteri, Suphi Acar
OBJECTIVES: Study aims to evaluate the indications and surgical techniques for corneal transplantation and to report changes in trends for preferred keratoplasty surgical techniques. METHODS: Clinical records of 815 consecutive corneal transplantations between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014 in Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital Eye Clinic were analyzed and classified into seven broad groups according to indications. Main outcome measures were change of leading indications and trends for surgical techniques...
May 19, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Mohammad Ali Zare, Hadi Z Mehrjardi, Mohsen Afarideh, Hooman Bahrmandy, Seyed-Farzad Mohammadi
PURPOSE: To report visual outcomes and corneal biomechanical changes after femtosecond-assisted Intacs SK implantation in keratoconic eyes. METHODS: This prospective interventional case series is comprised of 32 keratoconic eyes of 25 patients with mean age of 23.8 ± 5.4 years. Uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuity, refraction, manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), keratometry, central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured preoperatively, and 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively...
January 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Azad Farzadfard, Nader Nassiri, Tayebeh Nekuie Moghadam, Seyed Hassan Paylakhi, Elahe Elahi
PURPOSE: To investigate whether microRNA (MIR)-184 mutations make a substantial contribution to keratoconus (KCN) among affected Iranian patients. METHODS: A total of 47 Iranian KCN patients, diagnosed based on family history, clinical examinations using slit lamp biomicroscopy, refraction and corneal topography were enrolled in this study. The pri-miR-184 encoding gene obtained from the DNAs of all participants was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and subsequently sequenced by the Sanger dideoxynucleotide protocol...
January 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Patrick J Sabourin, Christina L Kobs, Seth T Gibbs, Peter Hong, Claire M Matthews, Kristen M Patton, Carol L Sabourin, Edgar J Wakayama
Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9...
September 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
Michael A Hawk, Glenn D Ritchie, Kim A Henderson, Katherine A B Knostman, Brian M Roche, Zhenxu J Ma, Claire M Matthews, Carol L Sabourin, Edward J Wakayama, Patrick J Sabourin
The Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule requires evaluation of cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) effects of new therapeutics. To characterize an adult and juvenile mouse model, neurobehavioral and cardiovascular effects and pathology of a single sublethal but toxic, 8 mg/kg, oral dose of potassium cyanide (KCN) for up to 41 days postdosing were investigated. This study describes the short- and long-term sensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes associated with oral dosing of a sublethal but toxic dose of KCN utilizing functional observation battery and Tier II CNS testing in adult and juvenile mice of both sexes...
September 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
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