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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188852/the-k%C3%A3-lliker-fuse-nucleus-acts-as-a-timekeeper-for-late-expiratory-abdominal-activity
#1
Sarah E M Jenkin, William K Milsom, Daniel B Zoccal
While the transition from the inspiratory to the post-inspiratory (post-I) phase is dependent on the pons, little attention has been paid to understanding the role of the pontine respiratory nuclei, specifically the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF), in transitioning from post-I to the late expiratory (late-E) activity seen with elevated respiratory drive. To elucidate this, we used the in situ working heart-brainstem preparation of juvenile male Holtzman rats and recorded from the vagus (cVN), phrenic (PN) and abdominal nerves (AbN) during baseline conditions and during chemoreflex activation [with potassium cyanide (KCN; n=13) or hypercapnia (8% CO2; n=10)] to recruit active expiration...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106742/mechanochemical-lignin-mediated-strecker-reaction
#2
Saumya Dabral, Mathias Turberg, Andrea Wanninger, Carsten Bolm, José G Hernández
A mechanochemical Strecker reaction involving a wide range of aldehydes (aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic), amines, and KCN afforded a library of α-aminonitriles upon mechanical activation. This multicomponent process was efficiently activated by lignocellulosic biomass as additives. Particularly, commercially available Kraft lignin was found to be the best activator for the addition of cyanide to the in situ formed imines. A comparative study of the (31)P-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) along with IR (Infrared) data analysis for the Kraft lignin and methylated Kraft lignin samples ascertained the importance of the free hydroxyl groups in the activation of the mechanochemical reaction...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075127/homeomorphic-isomerization-as-a-design-element-in-container-molecules-binding-displacement-and-selective-transport-of-mcl2-species-m-pt-pd-ni
#3
Sugam Kharel, Hemant Joshi, Stephen Bierschenk, Michael Stollenz, Deeb Taher, Nattamai Bhuvanesh, John A Gladysz
The dibridgehead diphosphine ((CH2)14)3 P (1) can rapidly turn inside-out (homeomorphic isomerization) to give a mixture of in,in and out,out isomers. The exo directed lone pairs in the latter are able to scavenge Lewis acidic MCl2; cagelike adducts of the in,in isomer, trans- Cl2(P((CH2)14)3 P) (M = 2/Pt, 3/Pd, 4/Ni), then form. The NiCl2 unit in 4 may be replaced by PtCl2 or PdCl2, but 2 and 3 do not give similar substitutions. U-tubes are charged with CH2Cl2 solutions of 1 (lower phase), an aqueous solution of K2MCl4 (charging arm; M = Pt, Pd), and an aqueous solution of excess KCl (receiving arm)...
January 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060057/trends-in-corneal-transplantation-in-keratoconus
#4
Daniel Sarezky, Stephen E Orlin, Wei Pan, Brian L VanderBeek
PURPOSE: To determine recent trends in and sociodemographic/comorbid conditions associated with penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and lamellar keratoplasty (LK) for keratoconus (KCN). METHODS: Patients with KCN and subsequent PK and LK procedures were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) billing codes. The change in surgical rates was calculated over a decade, and multivariate analysis demonstrated factors associated with undergoing surgery...
2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057642/accelerated-transepithelial-corneal-cross-linking-for-progressive-keratoconus-a-prospective-study-of-12%C3%A2-months
#5
Wei Aixinjueluo, Tomohiko Usui, Takashi Miyai, Tetsuya Toyono, Toshihiro Sakisaka, Satoru Yamagami
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the clinical results of accelerated transepithelial corneal cross-linking (CXL) in Japanese patients with progressive keratoconus (KCN). METHODS: Thirty eyes of 19 patients (16 male, 3 female patients) with progressive KCN were included. The mean age was 24.9±7.0 (range 16-38) years. All patients received ultraviolet A radiation for 3 min at an irradiance of 30 mW/cm(2). Patients were followed up on the first day, at 1 week and 2 weeks, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months postoperatively...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042810/perturbation-analysis-of-calcium-alkalinity-and-secretion-during-growth-of-lily-pollen-tubes
#6
Lawrence J Winship, Caleb Rounds, Peter K Hepler
Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily (Lilium formosanum Wallace) pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate...
December 30, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917154/hydrogen-cyanide-in-the-rhizosphere-not-suppressing-plant-pathogens-but-rather-regulating-availability-of-phosphate
#7
Tomaž Rijavec, Aleš Lapanje
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produce chemical compounds with different benefits for the plant. Among them, HCN is recognized as a biocontrol agent, based on its ascribed toxicity against plant pathogens. Based on several past studies questioning the validity of this hypothesis, we have re-addressed the issue by designing a new set of in vitro experiments, to test if HCN-producing rhizobacteria could inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. The level of HCN produced by the rhizobacteria in vitro does not correlate with the observed biocontrol effects, thus disproving the biocontrol hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861304/trends-in-corneal-transplantation-in-keratoconus
#8
Daniel Sarezky, Stephen E Orlin, Wei Pan, Brian L VanderBeek
PURPOSE: To determine recent trends in and sociodemographic/comorbid conditions associated with penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and lamellar keratoplasty (LK) for keratoconus (KCN). METHODS: Patients with KCN and subsequent PK and LK procedures were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) billing codes. The change in surgical rates was calculated over a decade, and multivariate analysis demonstrated factors associated with undergoing surgery...
November 16, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763697/changes-in-cardiovascular-responses-to-chemoreflex-activation-of-rats-recovered-from-protein-restriction-are-not-related-to-at1-receptors
#9
Renato Willian Martins Sá, Andrea Siqueira Haibara, Paula Magalhães Gomes, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Rafael Souza Leopoldino Nascimento, Maria Lucia Pedrosa, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Leonardo Máximo Cardoso
What is the central question of this study? In this study, we sought to investigate whether cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation of rats recovered from protein restriction are related to activation of AT1 receptors. What is the main finding and its importance? This study highlights the fact that angiotensinergic mechanisms activated by AT1 receptors do not support increased responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation by KCN in rats recovered from protein restriction. Also, we found that protein restriction led to increased resting ventilation in adult rats, even after recovery...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737792/effects-of-alprazolam-and-cannabinoid-related-compounds-in-an-animal-model-of-panic-attack
#10
Luara A Batista, Andrea S Haibara, Luiz C Schenberg, Fabricio A Moreira
Selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors by intravenous infusion of low doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) produces short-lasting escape responses that have been proposed as a model of panic attack. In turn, preclinical studies suggest that facilitation of the endocannabinoid system attenuate panic-like responses. Here, we compared the effects of cannabinoid-related compounds to those of alprazolam, a clinically effective panicolytic, on the duration of the escape reaction induced by intravenous infusion of KCN (80μg) in rats...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666790/development-and-dynamic-regulation-of-mitochondrial-network-in-human-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-differentiated-from-ipscs
#11
Du Fang, Yu Qing, Shijun Yan, Doris Chen, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Mitochondria are critical to neurogenesis, but the mechanisms of mitochondria in neurogenesis have not been well explored. We fully characterized mitochondrial alterations and function in relation to the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Following directed differentiation of hiPSCs to DA neurons, mitochondria in these neurons exhibit pronounced changes during differentiation, including mature neurophysiology characterization and functional synaptic network formation...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640005/very-low-prevalence-of-keratoconus-in-a-large-series-of-vernal-keratoconjunctivitis-patients
#12
Roberto Caputo, Francesco Versaci, Neri Pucci, Cinzia de Libero, Gioia Danti, Salvatore De Masi, Rita Mencucci, Elio Novembre, Bennie H Jeng
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of keratoconus (KC) and other corneal abnormalities by means of videokeratography and tomography in a large series of patients affected by vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: • Setting: Single-center, children's hospital. • Study Population: 651 consecutive patients with VKC and a control group of 500 were prospectively recruited between May 2012 and September 2013, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621792/post-filtering-surgery-globe-massage-induced-keratoconus-in-an-eye-with-iridocorneal-endothelial-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-brief-review
#13
Ghasem Fakhraie, Zakieh Vahedian
PURPOSE: To report a case of unilateral post trabeculectomy globe massage-induced keratoconus (KCN). CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old lady with a history of trabeculectomy due to iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in her right eye was instructed to massage her globe to control gradual rise of intraocular pressure 1.5 years after surgery. The patient experienced high astigmatism and marked inferior corneal steepening after 3 years of globe massage. The left eye was normal in all aspects...
July 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562775/in-situ-evidence-for-metabolic-and-chemical-microdomains-in-the-structured-polymer-matrix-of-bacterial-microcolonies
#14
J R Lawrence, G D W Swerhone, U Kuhlicke, T R Neu
CLSM and fluorescent probes were applied to assess the structure, composition, metabolic activity and gradients within naturally occurring β-proteobacteria microcolonies. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as defined by lectin-binding analyses had three regions: (i) cell associated, (ii) intercellular and (iii) an outer layer covering the entire colony. We assessed structural, microenvironmental and metabolic implications of this complex EPS structure. Permeability studies indicated that the outer two layers were permeable to 20 nm beads, intercellular EPS to <40 nm beads and the outer layer was permeable to <100 nm beads...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513083/circulatory-failure-during-noninhaled-forms-of-cyanide-intoxication
#15
Philippe Haouzi, Nicole Tubbs, Matthew D Rannals, Annick Judenherc-Haouzi, Larry A Cabell, Joe A McDonough, Takashi Sonobe
Our objective was to determine how circulatory failure develops following systemic administration of potassium cyanide (KCN). We used a noninhaled modality of intoxication, wherein the change in breathing pattern would not influence the diffusion of CN into the blood, akin to the effects of ingesting toxic levels of CN. In a group of 300 to 400 g rats, CN-induced coma (CN i.p., 7 mg/kg) produced a central apnea within 2 to 3 min along with a potent and prolonged gasping pattern leading to autoresuscitation in 38% of the animals...
March 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413493/trends-in-indications-and-techniques-of-corneal-transplantation-in-iran-from-2006-to-2013-an-8-year-review
#16
Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi, Mohammad Ali Javadi, Tahmineh Motevasseli, Tahereh Chamani, Mahnoush Rezaei Kanavi, Bahareh Kheiri, Sare Safi
PURPOSE: To report changing trends in indications and techniques of corneal transplantation in Iran. METHODS: We reviewed eye bank records of 47,129 patients who had undergone corneal transplantation between 2006 and 2013 at different eye centers throughout Iran. RESULTS: The most common indication for corneal transplantation was keratoconus (KCN, n = 21,350 eyes, 45.3%), followed by bullous keratopathy (BK, n = 8,566 eyes, 18.2%), corneal opacity and scar (COS, n = 7,158 eyes, 15...
April 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365187/activation-of-type-ii-nadh-dehydrogenase-by-quinolinequinones-mediates-antitubercular-cell-death
#17
Adam Heikal, Kiel Hards, Chen-Yi Cheung, Ayana Menorca, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker, Gregory M Cook
OBJECTIVES: Quinolinequinones (QQ) have been shown to inhibit the growth of mycobacterial species, but their mode(s) of action and molecular target(s) remain unknown. To facilitate further development of QQ as antimycobacterial drugs, we investigated the molecular mechanism and target of QQ in mycobacteria. METHODS: Cell viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin was determined in the presence of QQ8c, a representative QQ compound, and isoniazid, a frontline antitubercular drug...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356214/evolution-of-na-s-o-compounds-on-the-cu2znsns4-absorber-surface-and-their-effects-on-cds-thin-film-growth
#18
Yi Ren, Jonathan J S Scragg, Marika Edoff, Jes K Larsen, Charlotte Platzer-Björkman
Formation of Na-containing surface compounds is an important phenomenon in the Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) quaternary material synthesis for solar cell applications. Still, identification of these compounds and the understanding of their potential influence on buffer layer growth and device performance are scarce. In this work, we discovered that the evolution of Na-S(-O) compounds on the CZTS surface substantially affect the solution/CZTS interface during the chemical bath deposition of CdS buffer film. We showed that Na2S negatively affects the growth of CdS, and that this compound is likely to form on the CZTS surface after annealing...
July 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295522/exercise-training-attenuates-the-pressor-response-evoked-by-peripheral-chemoreflex-in-rats-with-heart-failure
#19
Leonardo Calegari, Bruna B Mozzaquattro, Douglas D Rossato, Edson Quagliotto, Janaina B Ferreira, Alberto Rasia-Filho, Pedro Dal Lago
The effects of exercise training (ExT) on the pressor response elicited by potassium cyanide (KCN) in the rat model of ischemia-induced heart failure (HF) are unknown. We evaluated the effects of ExT on chemoreflex sensitivity and its interaction with baroreflex in rats with HF. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: trained HF (Tr-HF), sedentary HF (Sed-HF), trained sham (Tr-Sham), and sedentary sham (Sed-Sham). Trained animals underwent to a treadmill running protocol for 8 weeks (60 m/day, 5 days/week, 16 m/min)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250664/nitrile-synthesizing-enzyme-gene-cloning-overexpression-and-application-for-the-production-of-useful-compounds
#20
Takuto Kumano, Yuko Takizawa, Sakayu Shimizu, Michihiko Kobayashi
One of the nitrile-synthesizing enzymes, β-cyano-L-alanine synthase, catalyzes β-cyano-L-alanine (β-CNAla) from potassium cyanide and O-acetyl-L-serine or L-cysteine. We have identified this enzyme from Pseudomonas ovalis No. 111. In this study, we cloned the β-CNAla synthase gene and expressed it in Escherichia coli and Rhodococcus rhodochrous. Furthermore, we carried out co-expression of β-CNAla synthase with nitrilase or nitrile hydratases in order to synthesize aspartic acid and asparagine from KCN and O-acetyl-L-serine...
September 12, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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