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Nafiseh Mirzaei Damabi, Gholam Reza Namvar, Fahimeh Yeganeh, Masoumeh Hatam
The lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) is a pontine area involved in cardiovascular chemoreflex. This study was performed to find the effects of reversible synaptic blockade of the LPBN on the chemoreflex responses, and to find the roles of GABAA receptor and α2 -adenoreceptor (α2 -AR) in chemoreflex. It also aimed to seek possible interaction between GABA and noradrenergic systems of the LPBN in urethane-anesthetized male rats. Cardiovascular chemoreflex was activated by intravenous injection of potassium cyanide (KCN, 80 μg/kg)...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Romain Mailhot, Thomas Traviss-Pollard, Robert Pal, Stephen Jonathan Butler
The ability to study cellular metabolism and enzymatic processes involving adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is impeded by the lack of imaging probes capable of signaling the concentration of intracellular ATP rapidly, with high sensitivity. We report the first example of a luminescent lanthanide complex capable of visualizing changes in the concentration of ATP in the mitochondria of living cells. Four cationic europium(III) complexes [Eu.1-4]+ have been synthesized and their binding affinities towards nucleoside polyphosphate anions examined at physiological pH...
May 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Vitaly D Samuilov, Dmitry B Kiselevsky, Alexander V Oleskin
This work focuses on the effect of mitochondria-targeted quinones (SkQs) on plants. SkQs with antioxidant properties are accumulated in the mitochondria of pea cells and suppress the generation of reactive oxygen species. At nanomolar concentrations, SkQs prevented the death of pea leaf epidermal or guard cells caused by chitosan, bacterial lipopolysaccharide or KCN. The protective effect of SkQs was removed by a protonophoric uncoupler. SkQs at micromolar concentrations inhibited the O2 evolution by illuminated chloroplasts and stimulated the respiration of mitochondria...
April 30, 2018: Mitochondrion
Ji-A Jeong, Sae Woong Park, Dahae Yoon, Suhkmann Kim, Ho-Young Kang, Jeong-Il Oh
Here we demonstrated that the inhibition of electron flux through the respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) by either disruption of the gene for the major terminal oxidase ( aa3 -cytochrome c oxidase) or treatment with KCN resulted in the induction of ald encoding alanine dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis A decrease in functionality of the ETC shifts the redox state of the NADH/NAD+ pool toward a more reduced state, which in turn leads to an increase in cellular levels of alanine by Ald catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to alanine with the concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+ The induction of ald expression under respiration-inhibitory conditions in M...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Maosen Yuan, Xianchao Du, Zhiqiang Liu, Tianbao Li, Wenji Wang, Eric Anslyn, Jinyi Wang
Triarylboron-based Lewis acids as fluoride sensors face a stimulating academic challenge because of the high hydration enthalpy of fluoride, and are usually influenced by a competing response for cyanide ion. Herein, we present a new triarylborane functionalized by a metal-ion ligand, di-(2-picolyl)-N-(2-quinolinylmethyl)amine, with subsequent metallation. In aqueous solution, this triarylborane (QB) can capture fluoride and cyanide anions via chelation induced by the synergy of boron and metal ions. Moreover, this triarylborane moiety acts as a fluorescent reporter of the binding, allowing for discrimination between fluoride and cyanide anions through dual-channel fluorescence changes...
April 30, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Annick Judenherc-HaouzI, Takashi Sonobe, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Philippe Haouzi
This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or H2 S solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0...
April 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Shahrokh Ramin, Azad Sangin Abadi, Farideh Doroodgar, Mehrdad Esmaeili, Faizollah Niazi, Sana Niazi, Cyrus Alinia, Yaser Golestani, Reza Taj Abadi
This study was performed to evaluate the visual, refractive, and aberration measurement results of 2 implants, including Intacs Intracorneal Ring Segments (ICRS) and phakic Toric Implantable Collamer Lens (TICL), in patients with moderate Keratoconus (KCN). In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 30 patients with KCN with a mean age of 29.83 years were included in 2 groups, including the Intacs Intracorneal Ring Segments (ICRS) group and the phakic Toric Implantable Collamer Lens (TICL) group. Preoperative data as well as 6-month, 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up data after the operation were collected and analyzed with the SPSS software (ver...
2018: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
Muhammad Avais, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Arif Khan, Kamran Ashraf, Zahoorul Hassan, Jawaria Ali Khan, Nisar Ahmad
This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of aqueous garlic extract, sodium nitrite (SNT), sodium thiosulfate (STS) and hydroxocobalamin against oral cyanide exposure in rabbits. For this purpose, forty two adult male rabbits were divided randomly into 7 groups of 6 animals (A-G) each. Rabbits in group A were offered feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus potassium cyanide (KCN) at 3mg/kg orally and were kept as positive control. Animals in group C received feed, KCN and intraperitoneal injection (IP) of aqueous garlic extract at 500mg/kg...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mohamed W Attwa, Adnan A Kadi, Hany W Darwish, Haitham Alrabiah
Saracatinib (AZD-0530) is a drug under clinical trials that developed by AstraZeneca. It is considered a dual kinase inhibitor, with selective actions as a Src inhibitor and a Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. Saracatinib chemical structure contains N-methyl piperazine group and 1,3 benzodioxole group. N-methyl piperazine group that can be bioactivated to form iminium intermediates which can be captured by KCN. 1,3-Benzodioxole group can be bioactivated to form ortho-quinone intermediate that can be conjugated with GSH...
March 31, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Rahul Bhattacharya, Poonam Singh, Jebin Jacob John, Niranjan L Gujar
Cyanide-induced chemical hypoxia is responsible for pronounced oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The disruption of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism has been associated with upregulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). The present study addresses the dose- and time-dependent effect of sub-acute cyanide exposure on various non-enzymatic and enzymatic oxidative stress markers and their correlation with inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) expression. Animals received (oral) triple distilled water (vehicle control), 0...
April 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Soheila Asgari, Hassan Hashemi
Purpose: To determine topographic and aberrometric changes after accelerated cross-linking (ACXL; 18 mW/cm2 for 5 min) as measured with OPD Scan III (Nidek Inc., Tokyo, Japan) and their repeatability in patients with mild and moderate keratoconus (KCN). Methods: In this prospective study, 25 eyes with mild KCN [Ksteep = 47.24 ± 3.11 diopter (D)] and 20 moderate cases (Ksteep = 52.86 ± 4.39 D) were examined under mesopic conditions (20 lux) twice, 30-45 min apart, at baseline and 6 and 12 months afterwards...
March 2018: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Mohamad Reza Sedaghat, Hadi Ostadi-Moghadam, Mahmoud Jabbarvand, Farshad Askarizadeh, Hamed Momeni-Moghaddam, Foroozan Narooie-Noori
Purpose: To evaluate and compare corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) in pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD), keratoconus (KCN), and normal eyes using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Methods: In this retrospective study, corneal biomechanical parameters were measured in patients with PMD ( n  = 102) and KCN ( n  = 202) and normal subjects ( n  = 208) using the ORA. Data, including full patient history as well as the results of refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, Pentacam HR (Oculus), and ORA (Reichert; Buffalo, New York, USA), were collected from medical records...
March 2018: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
H Párraga, F J Arranz, R M Benito, F Borondo
The dynamical characteristics of a region of regular vibrational motion in the sea of chaos above the saddle point corresponding to the linear C-N-K configuration is examined in detail. To explain the origin of this regularity, the associated phase space structures were characterized using suitably defined Poincaré surfaces of section, identifying the different resonances between the stretching and bending modes, as a function of excitation energy. The corresponding topology is elucidated by means of periodic orbit analysis...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Stylianos Michalakis, Elvir Becirovic, Martin Biel
The first step in vision is the absorption of photons by the photopigments in cone and rod photoreceptors. After initial amplification within the phototransduction cascade the signal is translated into an electrical signal by the action of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. CNG channels are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the binding of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Retinal CNG channels transduce changes in intracellular concentrations of cGMP into changes of the membrane potential and the Ca2+ concentration...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexandre F Cunha, Igor S A Felippe, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Leonardo B M Resstel, Daniela A M Guimarães, Vanessa Beijamini, Julian F R Paton, Karla N Sampaio
Although it is well-established that severe poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds strongly affects the cardiorespiratory system, the effects of sub-lethal exposure to these compounds on the neural control of cardiovascular function are poorly explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used OP insecticide, on three basic reflex mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation, the peripheral chemoreflex, the baroreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex...
April 1, 2018: Toxicology
Philippe Haouzi, Maxime Gueguinou, Takashi Sonobe, Annick Judenherc-Haouzi, Nicole Tubbs, Mohamed Trebak, Joseph Cheung, Frederic Bouillaud
BACKGROUND: Although methylene blue (MB) had long been proposed to counteract the effects of cyanide (CN) intoxication, research on its mechanisms of action and efficacy has been abandoned for decades. Recent studies on the benefits of MB in post-anoxic injuries have prompted us to reexamine the relevance of this historical observation. METHODS: Our study was performed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and on HEK293T epithelial cells. First, the effects and toxicity of MB (0-80 mg/kg) on circulation and metabolism were established in four urethane-anesthetized rats...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Rongrong Chen, Jiandong Fan, Hongliang Li, Chong Liu, Yaohua Mai
Pure-sulphide Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells were prepared by a low-cost, non-toxic and high-throughput method based on the thermal decomposition and reaction of sol-gel precursor solution, followed by a high temperature sulfurization process in sulphur atmosphere, which usually gave rise to the unexpected Cu-poor and Zn-rich phase after sulfurization. In order to remove the formation of detrimental secondary phases, e.g. ZnS, a novel method with hydrochloric acid solution treatment to the CZTS absorber layer surface was employed...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Fereshteh Aslani, Masoud Khorrami-Nejad, Mohammad Aghazadeh Amiri, Hesam Hashemian, Farshad Askarizadeh, Bahram Khosravi
Purpose: To evaluate the magnitudes and axis orientation of anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA), the ratio of ACA to PCA, and the correlation between ACA and PCA in the different stages of keratoconus (KCN). Methods: This retrospective case series comprised 161 eyes of 161 patients with KCN (104 men, 57 women; mean age, 22.35 ± 6.10 years). The participants were divided into four subgroups according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification...
January 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Emilio Pedrotti, Christian Luigi Demasi, Adriano Fasolo, Erika Bonacci, Tommaso Brighenti, Nicola Gennaro, Marcello Ferrari, Giorgio Marchini
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with keratoconus (KCN) and to evaluate the association between the severity of KCN and OSA. METHODS: OSA was diagnosed with an overnight home sleep apnea test. As estimated by home monitoring, an apnea-hypopnea index threshold of ≥5 sleep-related obstructive breathing events per hour was considered suggestive of OSA. For grading KCN severity (Amsler-Krumeich classification), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, corneal topography, and pachymetry measurements were performed...
April 2018: Cornea
Gururaj M Neelgund, Aderemi Oki
Herein, we report the modulation of ZnO for enhancement of its ability toward plasmonic absorption of near-infrared (NIR) photons through coupling of graphene (GR). The reported modification led GR-ZnO to be a promising photocatalyst by the complete removal of poisonous and nonvolatile potassium cyanide from water. The photocatalytic degradation of cyanide was revealed by exposing it to NIR laser and comparing with the rate of UV, visible, and sunlight using their apparent reaction rate constants derived from the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
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