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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209734/neural-representations-of-observed-actions-generalize-across-static-and-dynamic-visual-input
#2
Alon Hafri, John C Trueswell, Russell A Epstein
People interact with other people and with objects in distinct and categorizable ways (e.g., kicking is making contact with foot). We can recognize these action categories across variations in actors, objects, and settings; moreover, we can recognize them from both dynamic and static visual input. However, the neural systems that support action recognition across these perceptual differences are unclear. Here we used multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to identify brain regions that support visual action categorization in a format-independent way...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154971/the-sensorimotor-network-dysfunction-in-migraineurs-without-aura-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#3
Jilei Zhang, Jingjing Su, Mengxing Wang, Ying Zhao, Qi-Ting Zhang, Qian Yao, Haifeng Lu, Hui Zhang, Ge-Fei Li, Yi-Lan Wu, Yi-Sheng Liu, Feng-Di Liu, Mei-Ting Zhuang, Yan-Hui Shi, Tian-Yu Hou, Rong Zhao, Yuan Qiao, Jianqi Li, Jian-Ren Liu, Xiaoxia Du
Migraine is a common recurrent neurological disorder combining nausea, vomiting, and hypersensitivities to visual, auditory, olfactory and somatosensory stimuli. However, the dysfunction of the sensorimotor network in migraineurs has not been well clarified. In the present study, we evaluated the dysfunction of the sensorimotor network in 30 migraineurs without aura and in 31 controls by combining regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and degree centrality (DC) analysis methods based on resting-state fMRI...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154796/continuous-vs-intermittent-neurofeedback-to-regulate-auditory-cortex-activity-of-tinnitus-patients-using-real-time-fmri-a-pilot-study
#4
Kirsten Emmert, Rotem Kopel, Yury Koush, Raphael Maire, Pascal Senn, Dimitri Van De Ville, Sven Haller
The emerging technique of real-time fMRI neurofeedback trains individuals to regulate their own brain activity via feedback from an fMRI measure of neural activity. Optimum feedback presentation has yet to be determined, particularly when working with clinical populations. To this end, we compared continuous against intermittent feedback in subjects with tinnitus. Fourteen participants with tinnitus completed the whole experiment consisting of nine runs (3 runs × 3 days). Prior to the neurofeedback, the target region was localized within the auditory cortex using auditory stimulation (1 kHz tone pulsating at 6 Hz) in an ON-OFF block design...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139959/inside-speech-multisensory-and-modality-specific-processing-of-tongue-and-lip-speech-actions
#5
Avril Treille, Coriandre Vilain, Thomas Hueber, Laurent Lamalle, Marc Sato
Action recognition has been found to rely not only on sensory brain areas but also partly on the observer's motor system. However, whether distinct auditory and visual experiences of an action modulate sensorimotor activity remains largely unknown. In the present sparse sampling fMRI study, we determined to which extent sensory and motor representations interact during the perception of tongue and lip speech actions. Tongue and lip speech actions were selected because tongue movements of our interlocutor are accessible via their impact on speech acoustics but not visible because of its position inside the vocal tract, whereas lip movements are both "audible" and visible...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116237/brain-correlates-of-spike-and-wave-discharges-in-glut1-deficiency-syndrome
#6
Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Sara Olivotto, Andrea Ruggieri, Giuliana Gessaroli, Valentina De Giorgis, Antonia Parmeggiani, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Stefano Meletti
PURPOSE: To provide imaging biomarkers of generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWD) in patients with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS). METHODS: Eighteen GLUT1DS patients with pathogenetic mutation in SLC2A1 gene were studied by means of Video-EEG simultaneously recorded with functional MRI (VideoEEG-fMRI). A control group of sex and age-matched patients affected by Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) with GSWD were investigated with the same protocol. Within and between groups comparison was performed as appropriated...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095312/neural-correlates-of-babyish-adult-face-processing-in-men
#7
Hirokazu Doi, Minoru Morikawa, Nobuyuki Inadomi, Katsuhiko Aikawa, Masataka Uetani, Kazuyuki Shinohara
The morphological characteristics of an infant's face are collectively referred to as baby schema or babyishness. It has been well established that infant traits are implicitly projected, or overgeneralized, to adults with babyish facial features. However, few studies to date have investigated the neural underpinnings of such overgeneralization. In the present study, we addressed this issue by comparing neural activations elicited by baby-faced and mature-faced adult faces in men using fMRI. We found increased activations in clusters surrounding the bilateral insula, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus, which have been previously linked to the processing of facial attractiveness and infant-related information...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093359/fmri-characterisation-of-widespread-brain-networks-relevant-for-behavioural-variability-in-fine-hand-motor-control-with-and-without-visual-feedback
#8
Stephen D Mayhew, Camillo Porcaro, Franca Tecchio, Andrew P Bagshaw
A bilateral visuo-parietal-motor network is responsible for fine control of hand movements. However, the sub-regions which are devoted to maintenance of contraction stability and how these processes fluctuate with trial-quality of task execution and in the presence/absence of visual feedback remains unclear. We addressed this by integrating behavioural and fMRI measurements during right-hand isometric compression of a compliant rubber bulb, at 10% and 30% of maximum voluntary contraction, both with and without visual feedback of the applied force...
January 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089970/spatial-working-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#9
Chun-Min Zhu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Jing-Jing Yin, Hong-Bo Le, Dan-Miao Sun, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
OBJECTIVE: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease. METHODS: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081451/how-specialized-are-writing-specific-brain-regions-an-fmri-study-of-writing-drawing-and-oral-spelling
#10
Samuel Planton, Marieke Longcamp, Patrice Péran, Jean-François Démonet, Mélanie Jucla
Several brain imaging studies identified brain regions that are consistently involved in writing tasks; the left premotor and superior parietal cortices have been associated with the peripheral components of writing performance as opposed to other regions that support the central, orthographic components. Based on a meta-analysis by Planton, Jucla, Roux, and Demonet (2013), we focused on five such writing areas and questioned the task-specificity and hemispheric lateralization profile of the brain response in an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment where 16 right-handed participants wrote down, spelled out orally object names, and drew shapes from object pictures...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079169/abnormalities-of-regional-brain-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#11
PingLei Pan, Yang Zhang, Yi Liu, He Zhang, DeNing Guan, Yun Xu
There is convincing evidence that abnormalities of regional brain function exist in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, many resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) have reported inconsistent results about regional spontaneous neuronal activity in PD. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis using the Seed-based d Mapping and several complementary analyses. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for eligible whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured ALFF differences between patients with PD and healthy controls published from January 1st, 2000 until June 24, 2016...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077514/representational-similarity-mapping-of-distributional-semantics-in-left-inferior-frontal-middle-temporal-and-motor-cortex
#12
Francesca Carota, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Hamed Nili, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language comprehension engages a distributed network of frontotemporal, parietal, and sensorimotor regions, but it is still unclear how meaning of words and their semantic relationships are represented and processed within these regions and to which degrees lexico-semantic representations differ between regions and semantic types. We used fMRI and representational similarity analysis to relate word-elicited multivoxel patterns to semantic similarity between action and object words. In left inferior frontal (BA 44-45-47), left posterior middle temporal and left precentral cortex, the similarity of brain response patterns reflected semantic similarity among action-related verbs, as well as across lexical classes-between action verbs and tool-related nouns and, to a degree, between action verbs and food nouns, but not between action verbs and animal nouns...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077513/cognitive-control-structures-in-the-imitation-learning-of-spatial-sequences-and-rhythms-an-fmri-study
#13
Katrin Sakreida, Satomi Higuchi, Cinzia Di Dio, Michael Ziessler, Martine Turgeon, Neil Roberts, Stefan Vogt
Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069542/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-the-transition-from-action-preparation-to-execution
#14
Valentina Sulpizio, Giuliana Lucci, Marika Berchicci, Gaspare Galati, Sabrina Pitzalis, Francesco Di Russo
Flexible and adaptive behavior requires the ability to contextually stop inappropriate actions and select the right one as quickly as possible. Recently, it has been proposed that three brain regions, i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus (iFg), the anterior insula (aIns), and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPs), play an important role in several processing phases of perceptual decision tasks, especially in the preparation, perception and action phases, respectively. However, little is known about hemispheric differences in the activation of these three areas during the transition from perception to action...
January 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060454/trait-and-neurobiological-underpinnings-of-negative-emotion-regulation-in-gambling-disorder
#15
Juan F Navas, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Juan Verdejo-Román, Ana Perandrés-Gómez, Natalia Albein-Urios, Antonio Verdejo-García, José C Perales
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gambling disorder is characterized by poor regulation of negative emotions and impulsive behaviors. This study aimed to (1) compare gambling disorder patients (GDPs) and healthy controls (HCs) in self-report and brain activation measures of emotion regulation; and (2) establish its relationship with negative emotion-driven impulsivity. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional case-control studies including GDPs and HCs. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: GDPs and HCs were recruited from specialized gambling clinics in Andalusia (Spain), where they were following outpatient treatment, and from the community, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003408/intrinsic-functional-architecture-of-the-macaque-dorsal-and-ventral-lateral-frontal-cortex
#16
Alexandros Goulas, Peter Stiers, R Matthew Hutchison, Stefan Everling, Michael Petrides, Daniel S Margulies
Investigations of the cellular and connectional organization of the lateral frontal cortex (LFC) of the macaque monkey provide indispensable knowledge for generating hypotheses about the human LFC. However, despite numerous investigations, there are still debates on the organization of this brain region. In vivo neuroimaging techniques such as resting-state fMRI can be used to define the functional circuitry of brain areas producing results largely consistent with gold-standard invasive tract-tracing techniques and offering the opportunity for cross-species comparison within the same modality...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999536/cortical-asymmetries-during-hand-laterality-task-vary-with-hand-laterality-a-fmri-study-in-295-participants
#17
Emmanuel Mellet, Bernard Mazoyer, Gaelle Leroux, Marc Joliot, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer
The aim of this study was to characterize, using fMRI, the functional asymmetries of hand laterality task (HLT) in a sample of 295 participants balanced for handedness. During HLT, participants have to decide whether the displayed picture of a hand represent a right or a left hand. Pictures of hands' back view were presented for 150 ms in the right or left hemifield. At the whole hemisphere level, we evidenced that the laterality of the hand and of the hemifield in which the picture was displayed combined their effects on the hemispheric asymmetry in an additive way...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889814/an-fmri-study-of-training-voluntary-smooth-circular-eye-movements
#18
Raimund Kleiser, Cornelia Stadler, Sibylle Wimmer, Thomas Matyas, Rüdiger J Seitz
Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement...
November 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880010/abnormal-baseline-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#19
Dan Li, Peiyu Huang, Yufeng Zang, Yuting Lou, Zhidong Cen, Quanquan Gu, Min Xuan, Fei Xie, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Bo Wang, Minming Zhang, Wei Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in spontaneous brain activity between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), PD patients without RBD, and normal controls, which may shed new light on the neural mechanism of RBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen PD patients with RBD, 16 patients without RBD, and 19 age- and gender-matched normal controls underwent clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877120/fronto-parietal-contributions-to-phonological-processes-in-successful-artificial-grammar-learning
#20
Dariya Goranskaya, Jens Kreitewolf, Jutta L Mueller, Angela D Friederici, Gesa Hartwigsen
Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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