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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228054/brain-to-brain-hyperclassification-reveals-action-specific-motor-mapping-of-observed-actions-in-humans
#1
Dmitry Smirnov, Fanny Lachat, Tomi Peltola, Juha M Lahnakoski, Olli-Pekka Koistinen, Enrico Glerean, Aki Vehtari, Riitta Hari, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
Seeing an action may activate the corresponding action motor code in the observer. It remains unresolved whether seeing and performing an action activates similar action-specific motor codes in the observer and the actor. We used novel hyperclassification approach to reveal shared brain activation signatures of action execution and observation in interacting human subjects. In the first experiment, two "actors" performed four types of hand actions while their haemodynamic brain activations were measured with 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224727/high-resolution-cbv-fmri-allows-mapping-of-laminar-activity-and-connectivity-of-cortical-input-and-output-in-human-m1
#2
Laurentius Huber, Daniel A Handwerker, David C Jangraw, Gang Chen, Andrew Hall, Carsten Stüber, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Dimo Ivanov, Sean Marrett, Maria Guidi, Jozien Goense, Benedikt A Poser, Peter A Bandettini
Layer-dependent fMRI allows measurements of information flow in cortical circuits, as afferent and efferent connections terminate in different cortical layers. However, it is unknown to what level human fMRI is specific and sensitive enough to reveal directional functional activity across layers. To answer this question, we developed acquisition and analysis methods for blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral-blood-volume (CBV)-based laminar fMRI and used these to discriminate four different tasks in the human motor cortex (M1)...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203648/musical-training-sharpens-and-bonds-ears-and-tongue-to-hear-speech-better
#3
Yi Du, Robert J Zatorre
The idea that musical training improves speech perception in challenging listening environments is appealing and of clinical importance, yet the mechanisms of any such musician advantage are not well specified. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that musicians outperformed nonmusicians in identifying syllables at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), which was associated with stronger activation of the left inferior frontal and right auditory regions in musicians compared with nonmusicians...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201543/object-words-modulate-the-activity-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-action-imitation
#4
Haiyan Wu, Honghong Tang, Yue Ge, Suyong Yang, Xiaoqin Mai, Yue-Jia Luo, Chao Liu
Background: Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Methods: Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130054/multimodal-integration-of-spontaneously-produced-representational-co-speech-gestures-an-fmri-study
#5
Jill Weisberg, Amy Lynn Hubbard, Karen Emmorey
To examine whether more ecologically valid co-speech gesture stimuli elicit brain responses consistent with those found by studies that relied on scripted stimuli, we presented participants with spontaneously produced, meaningful co-speech gesture during fMRI scanning (n = 28). Speech presented with gesture (versus either presented alone) elicited heightened activity in bilateral posterior superior temporal, premotor, and inferior frontal regions. Within left temporal and premotor, but not inferior frontal regions, we identified small clusters with superadditive responses, suggesting that these discrete regions support both sensory and semantic integration...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123475/cerebello-cortical-differences-in-effective-connectivity-of-the-dominant-and-non-dominant-hand-during-a-visuomotor-paradigm-of-grip-force-control
#6
Eric Moulton, Cécile Galléa, Claire Kemlin, Romain Valabregue, Marc A Maier, Pavel Lindberg, Charlotte Rosso
Structural and functional differences are known to exist within the cortical sensorimotor networks with respect to the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Similarly, the cerebellum, a key structure in the sensorimotor network with its cerebello-cortical connections, has been reported to respond differently when using the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Several groups have already investigated causal interactions during diverse motor paradigms using effective connectivity but few have studied the larger visuomotor network, including key structures such as the parietal cortex and the cerebellum, with both hands...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092081/novel-findings-in-obstetric-brachial-plexus-palsy-a-study-of-corpus-callosum-volumetry-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-sensorimotor-network
#7
Kishore Kislay, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhananjaya Ishwar Bhat, Dhaval Prem Shukla, Arun Kumar Gupta, Rajanikant Panda
BACKGROUND: The response of the brain to obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is not clearly understood. We propose that even a peripheral insult at the developmental stage may result in changes in the volume of white matter of the brain, which we studied using corpus callosum volumetry and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) of sensorimotor network. OBJECTIVE: To study the central neural effects in OBPP. METHODS: We performed an MRI study on a cohort of 14 children who had OBPP and 14 healthy controls...
October 28, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065995/mental-flexibility-an-meg-investigation-in-typically-developing-children
#8
Alexandra Mogadam, Anne E Keller, Margot J Taylor, Jason P Lerch, Evdokia Anagnostou, Elizabeth W Pang
Mental flexibility is a core property of cognitive executive functions, relying on an extended frontoparietal network in the brain. fMRI research comparing typically developing children and adults has found that children from an early age recruit the same "classic" brain areas associated with mental flexibility as adults; however, there is evidence that the timing of activation may be different. To investigate the temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with mental flexibility in children, we recruited 22 typically developing children (8-15 years) to complete a set-shifting task in the MEG...
October 20, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023463/learning-to-tie-the-knot-the-acquisition-of-functional-object-representations-by-physical-and-observational-experience
#9
Emily S Cross, Antonia F de C Hamilton, Nichola Rice Cohen, Scott T Grafton
Here we examined neural substrates for physically and observationally learning to construct novel objects, and characterized brain regions associated with each kind of learning using fMRI. Each participant was assigned a training partner, and for five consecutive days practiced tying one group of knots ("tied" condition) or watched their partner tie different knots ("watched" condition) while a third set of knots remained untrained. Functional MRI was obtained prior to and immediately following the week of training while participants performed a visual knot-matching task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993482/the-prediction-of-impact-of-a-looming-stimulus-onto-the-body-is-subserved-by-multisensory-integration-mechanisms
#10
Justine Cléry, Olivier Guipponi, Soline Odouard, Serge Pinède, Claire Wardak, Suliann Ben Hamed
In the jungle, survival is highly correlated with the ability to detect and distinguish between an approaching predator and a putative prey. From an ecological perspective, a predator rapidly approaching its prey is a stronger cue for flight than a slowly moving predator. In the present study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging in the nonhuman primate, to investigate the neural bases of the prediction of an impact to the body by a looming stimulus, i.e., the neural bases of the interaction between a dynamic visual stimulus approaching the body and its expected consequences onto an independent sensory modality, namely, touch...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978664/unaware-processing-of-tools-in-the-neural-system-for-object-directed-action-representation
#11
Marco Tettamanti, Francesca Conca, Andrea Falini, Daniela Perani
The hypothesis that the brain constitutively encodes observed manipulable objects for the actions they afford is still debated. Yet, crucial evidence demonstrating that, even in the absence of perceptual awareness, the mere visual appearance of a manipulable object triggers a visuomotor coding in the action representation system including the premotor cortex, has hitherto not been provided. In this fMRI study, we instantiated reliable unaware visual perception conditions by means of continuous flash suppression, and we tested in 24 healthy human participants (13 females) whether the visuomotor object-directed action representation system that includes left-hemispheric premotor, parietal, and posterior temporal cortices is activated even under subliminal perceptual conditions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970144/habit-strength-is-predicted-by-activity-dynamics-in-goal-directed-brain-systems-during-training
#12
Katharina Zwosta, Hannes Ruge, Thomas Goschke, Uta Wolfensteller
Previous neuroscientific research revealed insights into the brain networks supporting goal-directed and habitual behavior, respectively. However, it remains unclear how these contribute to inter-individual differences in habit strength which is relevant for understanding not only normal behavior but also more severe dysregulations between these types of action control, such as in addiction. In the present fMRI study, we trained subjects on approach and avoidance behavior for an extended period of time before testing the habit strength of the acquired stimulus-response associations...
September 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964930/grasping-with-a-new-hand-improved-performance-and-normalized-grasp-selective-brain-responses-despite-persistent-functional-changes-in-primary-motor-cortex-and-low-level-sensory-and-motor-impairments
#13
Kenneth F Valyear, Daniela Mattos, Benjamin A Philip, Christina Kaufman, Scott H Frey
Hand loss can now be reversed through surgical transplantation years or decades after amputation. Remarkably, these patients come to use their new hand to skilfully grasp and manipulate objects. The brain mechanisms that make this possible are unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that the anterior intraparietal cortex (aIPC) - a multimodal region implicated in hand preshaping and error correction during grasping - plays a key role in this compensatory grasp control. Motion capture and fMRI are used to characterize hand kinematics and brain responses during visually guided grasping with a transplanted hand at 26 and 41 months post-transplant in patient DR, a former hand amputee of 13 years...
September 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961762/executive-functions-brain-system-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analytic-study
#14
Alfredo Ardila, Byron Bernal, Monica Rosselli
Background and objective: To characterize commonalities and differences between two executive functions: reasoning and inhibitory control. Methods: A total of 5,974 participants in 346 fMRI experiments of inhibition or reasoning were selected. First level analysis consisted of Analysis of Likelihood Estimation (ALE) studies performed in two pooled data groups: (a) brain areas involved in reasoning and (b) brain areas involved in inhibition. Second level analysis consisted of two contrasts: (i) brain areas involved in reasoning but not in inhibition and (ii) brain areas involved in inhibition but not in reasoning...
September 11, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928708/neural-patterns-of-reorganization-after-intensive-robot-assisted-virtual-reality-therapy-and-repetitive-task-practice-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke
#15
Soha Saleh, Gerard Fluet, Qinyin Qiu, Alma Merians, Sergei V Adamovich, Eugene Tunik
Several approaches to rehabilitation of the hand following a stroke have emerged over the last two decades. These treatments, including repetitive task practice (RTP), robotically assisted rehabilitation and virtual rehabilitation activities, produce improvements in hand function but have yet to reinstate function to pre-stroke levels-which likely depends on developing the therapies to impact cortical reorganization in a manner that favors or supports recovery. Understanding cortical reorganization that underlies the above interventions is therefore critical to inform how such therapies can be utilized and improved and is the focus of the current investigation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916500/early-life-stress-modulates-neural-networks-associated-with-habitual-use-of-reappraisal
#16
Elissa El Khawli, Yan Fan, Sabine Aust, Katharina Wirth, Luisa Bönke, Amie Stevense, Ana Herrera, Sophie Metz, Andrea Loayza, Malek Bajbouj, Simone Grimm
Recent evidence shows that early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, as well as with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and negative mood. However, the relation between ELS and maladaptive emotion regulation is not deterministic. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal can also ensue from experience and learning in adulthood and can prevent negative mood. The present study aims to investigate the joint influence of ELS, in particular early-life emotional abuse (EA), and habitual use of reappraisal on amygdala-centered RSFC and mood...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893928/content-specific-codes-of-parametric-vibrotactile-working-memory-in-humans
#17
Timo Torsten Schmidt, Yuan-Hao Wu, Felix Blankenburg
To understand how the brain handles mentally represented information flexibly in the absence of sensory stimulation, working memory (WM) studies have been essential. A seminal finding in monkey research is that neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) retain stimulus-specific information when vibrotactile frequencies were memorized. A direct mapping between monkey studies and human research is still controversial. Although oscillatory signatures, in terms of frequency-dependent parametric beta-band modulation, have been observed recently in human EEG studies, the content specificity of these representations in terms of multivariate pattern analysis has not yet been shown...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889255/motor-related-brain-abnormalities-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-multimodal-mri-study
#18
Yawen Zhou, Ruili Li, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hui Miao, Yarui Wei, Rizwan Ali, Bensheng Qiu, Hongjun Li
PURPOSE: It is generally believed that HIV infection could cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) across a broad range of functional domains. Some of the most common findings are deficits in motor control. However, to date no neuroimaging studies have evaluated basic motor control in HIV-infected patients using a multimodal approach. METHODS: In this study, we utilized high-resolution structural imaging and task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain structure and motor function in a homogeneous cohort of HIV-infected patients...
November 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882722/cognition-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-study-with-long-term-veeg-and-rs-fmri
#19
Xinxin Yan, Qing Yu, Yuting Gao, Liting Li, Danhua Yu, Ying Chen, Xiaojuan Yao, Weidong Yang, Zhijuan Chen, Jianzhong Yin, Yang An, Ke Tan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between alterations of functional brain network and cognition in patients with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) as a function of spike-wave index (SWI) during slow wave sleep. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) were collected from two groups of patients with BECTS, including a SWI<50% group (5 cases) and a SWI≥50% group (7 cases)...
September 4, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862531/unisensory-and-multisensory-self-referential-stimulation-of-the-lower-limb-an-exploratory-fmri-study-on-healthy-subjects
#20
Ana Isabel Vieira, Patrícia Almeida, Nádia Canário, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Maria Vânia Nunes, Alexandre Castro-Caldas
BACKGROUND: The holistic view of the person is the essence of the physiotherapy. Knowledge of approaches that develop the whole person promotes better patient outcomes. Multisensory Self-referential stimulation, more than a unisensory one, seems to produce a holistic experience of the Self ("Core-Self"). OBJECTIVES: (1) To analyze the somatotopic brain activation during unisensory and multisensorial Self-referential stimulus; and (2) to understand if the areas activated by multisensorial Self-referential stimulation are the ones responsible for the "Core-Self...
September 1, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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