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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432300/dopamine-modulates-striatal-response-to-reward-and-punishment-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-pharmacological-challenge-fmri-study
#1
Miklos Argyelan, Mohammad Herzallah, Wataru Sako, Ivana DeLucia, Deepak Sarpal, An Vo, Toni Fitzpatrick, Ahmed A Moustafa, David Eidelberg, Mark Gluck
It is well established that Parkinson's disease leads to impaired learning from reward and enhanced learning from punishment. The administration of dopaminergic medications reverses this learning pattern. However, few studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of these cognitive processes. In this study, using fMRI, we tested a group of Parkinson's disease patients on and off dopaminergic medications and matched healthy individuals. All individuals completed an fMRI cognitive task that dissociates feedback learning from reward versus punishment...
February 9, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417705/functional-connectivity-corresponding-to-the-tonotopic-differentiation-of-the-human-auditory-cortex
#2
Guangjie Yuan, Guangyuan Liu, Dongtao Wei, Gaoyuan Wang, Qiang Li, Mingming Qi, Shifu Wu
Recent research has demonstrated that resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) within the human auditory cortex (HAC) is frequency-selective, but whether RS-FC between the HAC and other brain areas is differentiated by frequency remains unclear. Three types of data were collected in this study, including resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, task-based fMRI data using six pure tone stimuli (200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 Hz), and structural imaging data. We first used task-based fMRI to identify frequency-selective cortical regions in the HAC...
February 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379873/a-common-function-of-basal-ganglia-cortical-circuits-subserving-speed-in-both-motor-and-cognitive-domains
#3
Takashi Hanakawa, Andrew M Goldfine, Mark Hallett
Distinct regions of the frontal cortex connect with their basal ganglia and thalamic counterparts, constituting largely segregated basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (BTC) circuits. However, any common role of the BTC circuits in different behavioral domains remains unclear. Indeed, whether dysfunctional motor and cognitive BTC circuits are responsible for motor slowing and cognitive slowing, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a matter of debate. Here, we used an effortful behavioral paradigm in which the effects of task rate on accuracy were tested in movement, imagery, and calculation tasks in humans...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368208/comparison-of-brain-activity-between-motor-imagery-and-mental-rotation-of-the-hand-tasks-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#4
Hiroyuki Hamada, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Chihiro Sutoh, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Sudesna Chakraborty, Hiroshi Ito, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takayuki Obata, Eiji Shimizu
Motor imagery (MI) has been considered effective in learning and practicing movements in many fields. However, when evaluating the effectiveness of this technique, the examiner has no way of assessing the participant's motor imagery process. As an alternative, we have been exploring a mental body-part rotation task, in which the examiner can estimate the participant's motivation and ability to sustain attention through the scored results. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible application of a mental rotation (MRot) task and used fMRI to compare the brain activity during the MRot task with that during an MI task in healthy volunteers...
January 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334647/time-resolved-decoding-of-planned-delayed-and-immediate-prehension-movements
#5
Giacomo Ariani, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Angelika Lingnau
Different contexts require us either to react immediately, or to delay (or suppress) a planned movement. Previous studies that aimed at decoding movement plans typically dissociated movement preparation and execution by means of delayed-movement paradigms. Here we asked whether these results can be generalized to the planning and execution of immediate movements. To directly compare delayed, non-delayed, and suppressed reaching and grasping movements, we used a slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design...
December 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305534/the-role-of-human-primary-motor-cortex-in-the-production-of-skilled-finger-sequences
#6
Atsushi Yokoi, Spencer A Arbuckle, Jörn Diedrichsen
Human primary motor cortex (M1) is essential for producing dexterous hand movements. While distinct subpopulations of neurons are activated during single finger movements, it remains unknown whether M1 also represents sequences of multiple finger movements. Using novel multivariate fMRI analysis techniques and combining evidence from both 3T and 7T fMRI data, we found that after 5 days of intense practice, premotor and parietal areas encoded the different movement sequences. There was little or no evidence for a sequence representation in M1...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299382/an-interspecies-comparative-study-of-invasive-electrophysiological-functional-connectivity
#7
Kaitlyn Casimo, Lila H Levinson, Stavros Zanos, C Alexis Gkogkidis, Tonio Ball, Eberhard Fetz, Kurt E Weaver, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Introduction: Resting-state connectivity patterns have been observed in humans and other mammal species, and can be recorded using a variety of different technologies. Functional connectivity has been previously compared between species using resting-state fMRI, but not in electrophysiological studies. Methods: We compared connectivity with implanted electrodes in humans (electrocorticography) to macaques and sheep (microelectrocorticography), which are capable of recording neural data at high frequencies with spatial precision...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247748/action-simulation-and-mirroring-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Heather M Wadsworth, Jose O Maximo, Rebecca J Donnelly, Rajesh K Kana
Mental imitation, perhaps a precursor to motor imitation, involves visual perspective-taking and motor imagery. Research on mental imitation in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rather limited compared to that on motor imitation. The main objective of this fMRI study is to determine the differences in brain responses underlying mirroring and mentalizing networks during mental imitation in children and adolescents with ASD. Thirteen high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD and 15 age-and- IQ-matched typically developing (TD) control participants took part in this fMRI study...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243004/altered-effective-connectivity-contributes-to-micrographia-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-freezing-of-gait
#9
Evelien Nackaerts, Alice Nieuwboer, Sanne Broeder, Stephan Swinnen, Wim Vandenberghe, Elke Heremans
Recently, it was shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) can also experience freezing episodes during handwriting and present writing problems outside these episodes. So far, the neural networks underlying increased handwriting problems in subjects with FOG are unclear. This study used dynamic causal modeling of fMRI data to investigate neural network dynamics underlying freezing-related handwriting problems and how these networks changed in response to visual cues. Twenty-seven non-freezers and ten freezers performed a pre-writing task with and without visual cues in the scanner with their right hand...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228054/brain-to-brain-hyperclassification-reveals-action-specific-motor-mapping-of-observed-actions-in-humans
#10
Dmitry Smirnov, Fanny Lachat, Tomi Peltola, Juha M Lahnakoski, Olli-Pekka Koistinen, Enrico Glerean, Aki Vehtari, Riitta Hari, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
Seeing an action may activate the corresponding action motor code in the observer. It remains unresolved whether seeing and performing an action activates similar action-specific motor codes in the observer and the actor. We used novel hyperclassification approach to reveal shared brain activation signatures of action execution and observation in interacting human subjects. In the first experiment, two "actors" performed four types of hand actions while their haemodynamic brain activations were measured with 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224727/high-resolution-cbv-fmri-allows-mapping-of-laminar-activity-and-connectivity-of-cortical-input-and-output-in-human-m1
#11
Laurentius Huber, Daniel A Handwerker, David C Jangraw, Gang Chen, Andrew Hall, Carsten Stüber, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Dimo Ivanov, Sean Marrett, Maria Guidi, Jozien Goense, Benedikt A Poser, Peter A Bandettini
Layer-dependent fMRI allows measurements of information flow in cortical circuits, as afferent and efferent connections terminate in different cortical layers. However, it is unknown to what level human fMRI is specific and sensitive enough to reveal directional functional activity across layers. To answer this question, we developed acquisition and analysis methods for blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral-blood-volume (CBV)-based laminar fMRI and used these to discriminate four different tasks in the human motor cortex (M1)...
December 20, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203648/musical-training-sharpens-and-bonds-ears-and-tongue-to-hear-speech-better
#12
Yi Du, Robert J Zatorre
The idea that musical training improves speech perception in challenging listening environments is appealing and of clinical importance, yet the mechanisms of any such musician advantage are not well specified. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that musicians outperformed nonmusicians in identifying syllables at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), which was associated with stronger activation of the left inferior frontal and right auditory regions in musicians compared with nonmusicians...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201543/object-words-modulate-the-activity-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-action-imitation
#13
Haiyan Wu, Honghong Tang, Yue Ge, Suyong Yang, Xiaoqin Mai, Yue-Jia Luo, Chao Liu
Background: Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Methods: Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130054/multimodal-integration-of-spontaneously-produced-representational-co-speech-gestures-an-fmri-study
#14
Jill Weisberg, Amy Lynn Hubbard, Karen Emmorey
To examine whether more ecologically valid co-speech gesture stimuli elicit brain responses consistent with those found by studies that relied on scripted stimuli, we presented participants with spontaneously produced, meaningful co-speech gesture during fMRI scanning (n = 28). Speech presented with gesture (versus either presented alone) elicited heightened activity in bilateral posterior superior temporal, premotor, and inferior frontal regions. Within left temporal and premotor, but not inferior frontal regions, we identified small clusters with superadditive responses, suggesting that these discrete regions support both sensory and semantic integration...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123475/cerebello-cortical-differences-in-effective-connectivity-of-the-dominant-and-non-dominant-hand-during-a-visuomotor-paradigm-of-grip-force-control
#15
Eric Moulton, Cécile Galléa, Claire Kemlin, Romain Valabregue, Marc A Maier, Pavel Lindberg, Charlotte Rosso
Structural and functional differences are known to exist within the cortical sensorimotor networks with respect to the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Similarly, the cerebellum, a key structure in the sensorimotor network with its cerebello-cortical connections, has been reported to respond differently when using the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Several groups have already investigated causal interactions during diverse motor paradigms using effective connectivity but few have studied the larger visuomotor network, including key structures such as the parietal cortex and the cerebellum, with both hands...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092081/novel-findings-in-obstetric-brachial-plexus-palsy-a-study-of-corpus-callosum-volumetry-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-sensorimotor-network
#16
Kishore Kislay, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhananjaya Ishwar Bhat, Dhaval Prem Shukla, Arun Kumar Gupta, Rajanikant Panda
BACKGROUND: The response of the brain to obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is not clearly understood. We propose that even a peripheral insult at the developmental stage may result in changes in the volume of white matter of the brain, which we studied using corpus callosum volumetry and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) of sensorimotor network. OBJECTIVE: To study the central neural effects in OBPP. METHODS: We performed an MRI study on a cohort of 14 children who had OBPP and 14 healthy controls...
October 28, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065995/mental-flexibility-an-meg-investigation-in-typically-developing-children
#17
Alexandra Mogadam, Anne E Keller, Margot J Taylor, Jason P Lerch, Evdokia Anagnostou, Elizabeth W Pang
Mental flexibility is a core property of cognitive executive functions, relying on an extended frontoparietal network in the brain. fMRI research comparing typically developing children and adults has found that children from an early age recruit the same "classic" brain areas associated with mental flexibility as adults; however, there is evidence that the timing of activation may be different. To investigate the temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with mental flexibility in children, we recruited 22 typically developing children (8-15 years) to complete a set-shifting task in the MEG...
October 20, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023463/learning-to-tie-the-knot-the-acquisition-of-functional-object-representations-by-physical-and-observational-experience
#18
Emily S Cross, Antonia F de C Hamilton, Nichola Rice Cohen, Scott T Grafton
Here we examined neural substrates for physically and observationally learning to construct novel objects, and characterized brain regions associated with each kind of learning using fMRI. Each participant was assigned a training partner, and for five consecutive days practiced tying one group of knots ("tied" condition) or watched their partner tie different knots ("watched" condition) while a third set of knots remained untrained. Functional MRI was obtained prior to and immediately following the week of training while participants performed a visual knot-matching task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993482/the-prediction-of-impact-of-a-looming-stimulus-onto-the-body-is-subserved-by-multisensory-integration-mechanisms
#19
Justine Cléry, Olivier Guipponi, Soline Odouard, Serge Pinède, Claire Wardak, Suliann Ben Hamed
In the jungle, survival is highly correlated with the ability to detect and distinguish between an approaching predator and a putative prey. From an ecological perspective, a predator rapidly approaching its prey is a stronger cue for flight than a slowly moving predator. In the present study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging in the nonhuman primate, to investigate the neural bases of the prediction of an impact to the body by a looming stimulus, i.e., the neural bases of the interaction between a dynamic visual stimulus approaching the body and its expected consequences onto an independent sensory modality, namely, touch...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978664/unaware-processing-of-tools-in-the-neural-system-for-object-directed-action-representation
#20
Marco Tettamanti, Francesca Conca, Andrea Falini, Daniela Perani
The hypothesis that the brain constitutively encodes observed manipulable objects for the actions they afford is still debated. Yet, crucial evidence demonstrating that, even in the absence of perceptual awareness, the mere visual appearance of a manipulable object triggers a visuomotor coding in the action representation system including the premotor cortex, has hitherto not been provided. In this fMRI study, we instantiated reliable unaware visual perception conditions by means of continuous flash suppression, and we tested in 24 healthy human participants (13 females) whether the visuomotor object-directed action representation system that includes left-hemispheric premotor, parietal, and posterior temporal cortices is activated even under subliminal perceptual conditions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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