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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618125/distributed-affective-space-represents-multiple-emotion-categories-across-the-human-brain
#1
Heini Saarimäki, Lara Farzaneh Ejtehadian, Enrico Glerean, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Patrik Vuilleumier, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
The functional organization of human emotion systems as well as their neuroanatomical basis and segregation in the brain remains unresolved. Here we used pattern classification and hierarchical clustering to characterize the organization of a range of specific emotion categories in the human brain. We induced 14 emotions (6 "basic", e.g. fear and anger; and 8 "non-basic", e.g. shame and gratitude) and a neutral state using guided mental imagery while participants' brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536173/task-and-domain-specific-modulation-of-functional-connectivity-in-the-ventral-and-dorsal-object-processing-pathways
#2
Frank E Garcea, Quanjing Chen, Roger Vargas, Darren A Narayan, Bradford Z Mahon
A whole-brain network of regions collectively supports the ability to recognize and use objects-the Tool Processing Network. Little is known about how functional interactions within the Tool Processing Network are modulated in a task-dependent manner. We designed an fMRI experiment in which participants were required to either generate object pantomimes or to carry out a picture matching task over the same images of tools, while holding all aspects of stimulus presentation constant across the tasks. The Tool Processing Network was defined with an independent functional localizer, and functional connectivity within the network was measured during the pantomime and picture matching tasks...
March 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512943/neural-substrates-for-allocentric-to-egocentric-conversion-of-remembered-reach-targets-in-humans
#3
Ying Chen, Simona Monaco, Douglas J Crawford
Targets for goal-directed action can be encoded in allocentric coordinates (relative to another visual landmark), but it is not known how these are converted into egocentric commands for action. Here, we investigated this using a slow event-related fMRI paradigm, based on our previous behavioral finding that the Allocentric to Egocentric (Allo-Ego) conversion for reach is done at the first possible opportunity. Participants were asked to remember (and eventually reach toward) the location of a briefly presented target relative to another visual landmark...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504985/effectiveness-and-neural-mechanisms-of-home-based-telerehabilitation-in-patients-with-stroke-based-on-fmri-and-dti-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Jing Chen, Mingli Liu, Dalong Sun, Yan Jin, Tianrao Wang, Chuancheng Ren
BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of leading diseases causing adult death and disability worldwide. Home-based telerehabilitation has become a novel approach for stroke patients as effective as conventional rehabilitation, and more convenient and economical than conventional rehabilitation. However, there is no study assessing the mechanism of home-based telerehabilitation in promoting motor recovery among stroke patients with hemiplegic. AIMS: This study is designed to determine the efficacy and explore the mechanism of motor recovery after home-based telerehabilitation in stroke patients with motor deficits...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472847/balance-training-reduces-brain-activity-during-motor-simulation-of-a-challenging-balance-task-in-older-adults-an-fmri-study
#5
Jan Ruffieux, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michaël Mouthon, Jean-Marie Annoni, Wolfgang Taube
Aging is associated with a shift from an automatic to a more cortical postural control strategy, which goes along with deteriorations in postural stability. Although balance training has been shown to effectively counteract these behavioral deteriorations, little is known about the effect of balance training on brain activity during postural tasks in older adults. We, therefore, assessed postural stability and brain activity using fMRI during motor imagery alone (MI) and in combination with action observation (AO; i...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459720/controlling-striatal-function-via-anterior-frontal-cortex-stimulation
#6
Mieke van Holstein, Monja I Froböse, Jacinta O'Shea, Esther Aarts, Roshan Cools
Motivational, cognitive and action goals are processed by distinct, topographically organized, corticostriatal circuits. We aimed to test whether processing in the striatum is under causal control by cortical regions in the human brain by investigating the effects of offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over distinct frontal regions associated with motivational, cognitive and action goal processing. Using a three-session counterbalanced within-subject crossover design, continuous theta burst stimulation was applied over the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or premotor cortex, immediately after which participants (N = 27) performed a paradigm assessing reward anticipation (motivation), task (cognitive) switching, and response (action) switching...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432300/dopamine-modulates-striatal-response-to-reward-and-punishment-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-pharmacological-challenge-fmri-study
#7
Miklos Argyelan, Mohammad Herzallah, Wataru Sako, Ivana DeLucia, Deepak Sarpal, An Vo, Toni Fitzpatrick, Ahmed A Moustafa, David Eidelberg, Mark Gluck
It is well established that Parkinson's disease leads to impaired learning from reward and enhanced learning from punishment. The administration of dopaminergic medications reverses this learning pattern. However, few studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of these cognitive processes. In this study, using fMRI, we tested a group of Parkinson's disease patients on and off dopaminergic medications and matched healthy individuals. All individuals completed an fMRI cognitive task that dissociates feedback learning from reward versus punishment...
February 9, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417705/functional-connectivity-corresponding-to-the-tonotopic-differentiation-of-the-human-auditory-cortex
#8
Guangjie Yuan, Guangyuan Liu, Dongtao Wei, Gaoyuan Wang, Qiang Li, Mingming Qi, Shifu Wu
Recent research has demonstrated that resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) within the human auditory cortex (HAC) is frequency-selective, but whether RS-FC between the HAC and other brain areas is differentiated by frequency remains unclear. Three types of data were collected in this study, including resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, task-based fMRI data using six pure tone stimuli (200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 Hz), and structural imaging data. We first used task-based fMRI to identify frequency-selective cortical regions in the HAC...
February 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379873/a-common-function-of-basal-ganglia-cortical-circuits-subserving-speed-in-both-motor-and-cognitive-domains
#9
Takashi Hanakawa, Andrew M Goldfine, Mark Hallett
Distinct regions of the frontal cortex connect with their basal ganglia and thalamic counterparts, constituting largely segregated basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (BTC) circuits. However, any common role of the BTC circuits in different behavioral domains remains unclear. Indeed, whether dysfunctional motor and cognitive BTC circuits are responsible for motor slowing and cognitive slowing, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a matter of debate. Here, we used an effortful behavioral paradigm in which the effects of task rate on accuracy were tested in movement, imagery, and calculation tasks in humans...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368208/comparison-of-brain-activity-between-motor-imagery-and-mental-rotation-of-the-hand-tasks-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#10
Hiroyuki Hamada, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Chihiro Sutoh, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Sudesna Chakraborty, Hiroshi Ito, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takayuki Obata, Eiji Shimizu
Motor imagery (MI) has been considered effective in learning and practicing movements in many fields. However, when evaluating the effectiveness of this technique, the examiner has no way of assessing the participant's motor imagery process. As an alternative, we have been exploring a mental body-part rotation task, in which the examiner can estimate the participant's motivation and ability to sustain attention through the scored results. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible application of a mental rotation (MRot) task and used fMRI to compare the brain activity during the MRot task with that during an MI task in healthy volunteers...
January 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334647/time-resolved-decoding-of-planned-delayed-and-immediate-prehension-movements
#11
Giacomo Ariani, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Angelika Lingnau
Different contexts require us either to react immediately, or to delay (or suppress) a planned movement. Previous studies that aimed at decoding movement plans typically dissociated movement preparation and execution by means of delayed-movement paradigms. Here we asked whether these results can be generalized to the planning and execution of immediate movements. To directly compare delayed, non-delayed, and suppressed reaching and grasping movements, we used a slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305534/the-role-of-human-primary-motor-cortex-in-the-production-of-skilled-finger-sequences
#12
Atsushi Yokoi, Spencer A Arbuckle, Jörn Diedrichsen
Human primary motor cortex (M1) is essential for producing dexterous hand movements. Although distinct subpopulations of neurons are activated during single-finger movements, it remains unknown whether M1 also represents sequences of multiple finger movements. Using novel multivariate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis techniques and combining evidence from both 3T and 7T fMRI data, we found that after 5 d of intense practice, premotor and parietal areas encoded the different movement sequences...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299382/an-interspecies-comparative-study-of-invasive-electrophysiological-functional-connectivity
#13
Kaitlyn Casimo, Lila H Levinson, Stavros Zanos, C Alexis Gkogkidis, Tonio Ball, Eberhard Fetz, Kurt E Weaver, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Introduction: Resting-state connectivity patterns have been observed in humans and other mammal species, and can be recorded using a variety of different technologies. Functional connectivity has been previously compared between species using resting-state fMRI, but not in electrophysiological studies. Methods: We compared connectivity with implanted electrodes in humans (electrocorticography) to macaques and sheep (microelectrocorticography), which are capable of recording neural data at high frequencies with spatial precision...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247748/action-simulation-and-mirroring-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Heather M Wadsworth, Jose O Maximo, Rebecca J Donnelly, Rajesh K Kana
Mental imitation, perhaps a precursor to motor imitation, involves visual perspective-taking and motor imagery. Research on mental imitation in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rather limited compared to that on motor imitation. The main objective of this fMRI study is to determine the differences in brain responses underlying mirroring and mentalizing networks during mental imitation in children and adolescents with ASD. Thirteen high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD and 15 age-and- IQ-matched typically developing (TD) control participants took part in this fMRI study...
April 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243004/altered-effective-connectivity-contributes-to-micrographia-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-freezing-of-gait
#15
Evelien Nackaerts, Alice Nieuwboer, Sanne Broeder, Stephan Swinnen, Wim Vandenberghe, Elke Heremans
Recently, it was shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) can also experience freezing episodes during handwriting and present writing problems outside these episodes. So far, the neural networks underlying increased handwriting problems in subjects with FOG are unclear. This study used dynamic causal modeling of fMRI data to investigate neural network dynamics underlying freezing-related handwriting problems and how these networks changed in response to visual cues. Twenty-seven non-freezers and ten freezers performed a pre-writing task with and without visual cues in the scanner with their right hand...
February 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228054/brain-to-brain-hyperclassification-reveals-action-specific-motor-mapping-of-observed-actions-in-humans
#16
Dmitry Smirnov, Fanny Lachat, Tomi Peltola, Juha M Lahnakoski, Olli-Pekka Koistinen, Enrico Glerean, Aki Vehtari, Riitta Hari, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
Seeing an action may activate the corresponding action motor code in the observer. It remains unresolved whether seeing and performing an action activates similar action-specific motor codes in the observer and the actor. We used novel hyperclassification approach to reveal shared brain activation signatures of action execution and observation in interacting human subjects. In the first experiment, two "actors" performed four types of hand actions while their haemodynamic brain activations were measured with 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224727/high-resolution-cbv-fmri-allows-mapping-of-laminar-activity-and-connectivity-of-cortical-input-and-output-in-human-m1
#17
Laurentius Huber, Daniel A Handwerker, David C Jangraw, Gang Chen, Andrew Hall, Carsten Stüber, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Dimo Ivanov, Sean Marrett, Maria Guidi, Jozien Goense, Benedikt A Poser, Peter A Bandettini
Layer-dependent fMRI allows measurements of information flow in cortical circuits, as afferent and efferent connections terminate in different cortical layers. However, it is unknown to what level human fMRI is specific and sensitive enough to reveal directional functional activity across layers. To answer this question, we developed acquisition and analysis methods for blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral-blood-volume (CBV)-based laminar fMRI and used these to discriminate four different tasks in the human motor cortex (M1)...
December 20, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203648/musical-training-sharpens-and-bonds-ears-and-tongue-to-hear-speech-better
#18
Yi Du, Robert J Zatorre
The idea that musical training improves speech perception in challenging listening environments is appealing and of clinical importance, yet the mechanisms of any such musician advantage are not well specified. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that musicians outperformed nonmusicians in identifying syllables at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), which was associated with stronger activation of the left inferior frontal and right auditory regions in musicians compared with nonmusicians...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201543/object-words-modulate-the-activity-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-action-imitation
#19
Haiyan Wu, Honghong Tang, Yue Ge, Suyong Yang, Xiaoqin Mai, Yue-Jia Luo, Chao Liu
Background: Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Methods: Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130054/multimodal-integration-of-spontaneously-produced-representational-co-speech-gestures-an-fmri-study
#20
Jill Weisberg, Amy Lynn Hubbard, Karen Emmorey
To examine whether more ecologically valid co-speech gesture stimuli elicit brain responses consistent with those found by studies that relied on scripted stimuli, we presented participants with spontaneously produced, meaningful co-speech gesture during fMRI scanning (n = 28). Speech presented with gesture (versus either presented alone) elicited heightened activity in bilateral posterior superior temporal, premotor, and inferior frontal regions. Within left temporal and premotor, but not inferior frontal regions, we identified small clusters with superadditive responses, suggesting that these discrete regions support both sensory and semantic integration...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
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