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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889814/an-fmri-study-of-training-voluntary-smooth-circular-eye-movements
#1
Raimund Kleiser, Cornelia Stadler, Sibylle Wimmer, Thomas Matyas, Rüdiger J Seitz
Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement...
November 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880010/abnormal-baseline-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#2
Dan Li, Peiyu Huang, Yufeng Zang, Yuting Lou, Zhidong Cen, Quanquan Gu, Min Xuan, Fei Xie, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Bo Wang, Minming Zhang, Wei Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in spontaneous brain activity between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), PD patients without RBD, and normal controls, which may shed new light on the neural mechanism of RBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen PD patients with RBD, 16 patients without RBD, and 19 age- and gender-matched normal controls underwent clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877120/fronto-parietal-contributions-to-phonological-processes-in-successful-artificial-grammar-learning
#3
Dariya Goranskaya, Jens Kreitewolf, Jutta L Mueller, Angela D Friederici, Gesa Hartwigsen
Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859973/reorganization-of-brain-connectivity-in-obesity
#4
Paul Geha, Guillermo Cecchi, R Todd Constable, Chadi Abdallah, Dana M Small
Global brain connectivity (GBC) identifies regions of the brain, termed "hubs," which are densely connected and metabolically costly, and have a wide influence on brain function. Since obesity is associated with central and peripheral metabolic dysfunction we sought to determine if GBC is altered in obesity. Two independent fMRI data sets were subjected to GBC analyses. The first data set was acquired while participants (n = 15 healthy weight and 15 obese) tasted milkshake and the second with participants at rest (n = 33 healthy weight and 28 obese)...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835631/behavioral-quantification-of-audiomotor-transformations-in-improvising-and-score-dependent-musicians
#5
Robert Harris, Peter van Kranenburg, Bauke M de Jong
The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning. In a recent fMRI study comparing these two groups of musicians while they either imagined playing along with a recording or covertly assessed the quality of the performance, we observed activation of a right-hemisphere network of posterior superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortices in improvising musicians, indicating more efficient audiomotor transformation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826107/increased-functional-connectivity-one-week-after-motor-learning-and-tdcs-in-stroke-patients
#6
Stéphanie Lefebvre, Laurence Dricot, Patrice Laloux, Philippe Desfontaines, Frédéric Evrard, André Peeters, Jacques Jamart, Yves Vandermeeren
Recent studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) demonstrated that changes in functional connectivity (FC) after stroke correlate with recovery. The aim of this study was to explore whether combining motor learning to dual transcranial direct current stimulation (dual-tDCS, applied over both primary motor cortices (M1)) modulated FC in stroke patients. Twenty-two chronic hemiparetic stroke patients participated in a baseline rs-fMRI session. One week later, dual-tDCS/sham was applied during motor skill learning (intervention session); one week later, the retention session started with the acquisition of a run of rs-fMRI imaging...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791966/activation-of-sensory-cortex-by-imagined-genital-stimulation-an-fmri-analysis
#7
Nan J Wise, Eleni Frangos, Barry R Komisaruk
BACKGROUND: During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. OBJECTIVE: This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical 'touch' stimulation and 'imagined' stimulation. DESIGN: Eleven healthy women (age range 29-74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770667/altered-cortical-processing-of-motor-inhibition-in-schizophrenia
#8
Påvel G Lindberg, Maxime Térémetz, Sylvain Charron, Oussama Kebir, Agathe Saby, Narjes Bendjemaa, Stéphanie Lion, Benoît Crépon, Raphaël Gaillard, Catherine Oppenheim, Marie-Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Inhibition is considered a key mechanism in schizophrenia. Short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) in the motor cortex is reduced in schizophrenia and is considered to reflect locally deficient γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic modulation. However, it remains unclear how SICI is modulated during motor inhibition and how it relates to neural processing in other cortical areas. Here we studied motor inhibition Stop signal task (SST) in stabilized patients with schizophrenia (N = 28), healthy siblings (N = 21) and healthy controls (n = 31) matched in general cognitive status and educational level...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761110/magnitude-processing-in-the-brain-an-fmri-study-of-time-space-and-numerosity-as-a-shared-cortical-system
#9
Kenny Skagerlund, Thomas Karlsson, Ulf Träff
Continuous dimensions, such as time, space, and numerosity, have been suggested to be subserved by common neurocognitive mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies that have investigated either one or two dimensions simultaneously have consistently identified neural correlates in the parietal cortex of the brain. However, studies investigating the degree of neural overlap across several dimensions are inconclusive, and it remains an open question whether a potential overlap can be conceptualized as a neurocognitive magnitude processing system...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742470/hippocampus-activation-related-to-real-time-processing-of-visuospatial-change
#10
M Beudel, K L Leenders, B M de Jong
The delay associated with cerebral processing time implies a lack of real-time representation of changes in the observed environment. To bridge this gap for motor actions in a dynamical environment, the brain uses predictions of the most plausible future reality based on previously provided information. To optimise these predictions, adjustments to actual experiences are necessary. This requires a perceptual memory buffer. In our study we gained more insight how the brain treats (real-time) information by comparing cerebral activations related to judging past-, present- and future locations of a moving ball, respectively...
October 11, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734302/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptive-impairment-disruption-of-the-mirror-neuron-system
#11
Julio Plata-Bello, Cristián Modroño, Silvia Acosta-López, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Francisco Marcano, Víctor García-Marín, José Luis González-Mora
Nearly 20 % of patients who suffer a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still display cognitive impairment even a year after follow-up. Visuospatial and visuoperceptive domains may be impaired in this cognitive impairment and may not have been fully studied in these patients. Furthermore, these cognitively impaired domains have been associated with activity in the so-called mirror neuron system (MNS). The aim of the study is to analyze the pattern of brain activity with an MNS task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in SAH patients...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683905/multivariate-pattern-analysis-reveals-category-related-organization-of-semantic-representations-in-anterior-temporal-cortex
#12
Patrick S Malone, Laurie S Glezer, Judy Kim, Xiong Jiang, Maximilian Riesenhuber
UNLABELLED: The neural substrates of semantic representation have been the subject of much controversy. The study of semantic representations is complicated by difficulty in disentangling perceptual and semantic influences on neural activity, as well as in identifying stimulus-driven, "bottom-up" semantic selectivity unconfounded by top-down task-related modulations. To address these challenges, we trained human subjects to associate pseudowords (TPWs) with various animal and tool categories...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632555/cooperation-in-mind-motor-imagery-of-joint-and-single-actions-is-represented-in-different-brain-areas
#13
S C Wriessnegger, D Steyrl, K Koschutnig, G R Müller-Putz
In this study brain activity during motor imagery (MI) of joint actions, compared to single actions and rest conditions, was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first neuroimaging study which directly investigated the neural correlates of joint action motor imagery. Twenty-one healthy participants imagined three different motor tasks (dancing, carrying a box, wiping). Each imagery task was performed at two kinds: alone (single action MI) or with a partner (joint action MI)...
September 12, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627760/default-mode-and-executive-networks-areas-association-with-the-serial-order-in-divergent-thinking
#14
Jarmo Heinonen, Jussi Numminen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Henrik Antell, Vesa Taatila, Jyrki Suomala
Scientific findings have suggested a two-fold structure of the cognitive process. By using the heuristic thinking mode, people automatically process information that tends to be invariant across days, whereas by using the explicit thinking mode people explicitly process information that tends to be variant compared to typical previously learned information patterns. Previous studies on creativity found an association between creativity and the brain regions in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the default mode network and the executive network...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591782/hand-independent-representation-of-tool-use-pantomimes-in-the-left-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#15
Kenji Ogawa, Fumihito Imai
Previous neuropsychological studies of ideomotor apraxia (IMA) indicated impairments in pantomime actions for tool use for both right and left hands following lesions of parieto-premotor cortices in the left hemisphere. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we tested the hypothesis that the left parieto-premotor cortices are involved in the storage or retrieval of hand-independent representation of tool-use actions. In the fMRI scanner, one of three kinds of tools was displayed in pictures or letters, and the participants made pantomimes of the use of these tools using the right hand for the picture stimuli or with the left hand for the letters...
September 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528274/increased-brain-sensorimotor-network-activation-after-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Kelli G Sharp, Robert Gramer, Stephen Page, Steven C Cramer
After complete SCI, activation during attempted movement of paralyzed limbs is sharply reduced, but after incomplete SCI--the more common form of human injury--it is unknown how attempts to move voluntarily are accompanied by activation of brain motor and sensory networks. Here, we assessed brain activation during ankle movement in subjects with incomplete SCI, among whom voluntary motor function is partially preserved. Adults with incomplete SCI (n=20) and healthy controls (n=15) underwent fMRI that alternated rest with 0...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502049/regional-homogeneity-of-intrinsic-brain-activity-correlates-with-auditory-motor-processing-of-vocal-pitch-errors
#17
Zhiqiang Guo, Xiyan Huang, Meng Wang, Jeffery A Jones, Zhengjia Dai, Weifeng Li, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
It has been well documented that speakers produce rapid compensatory vocal adjustments for errors they perceive in their auditory feedback. The fact that they differ greatly in the degree to which they compensate for perceived errors, however, has received much less attention. The present study investigated whether intrinsic brain activity during resting can predict an individual's behavioral and cortical responses in compensating for pitch-shifted auditory feedback during vocalization. This relationship was investigated by correlating the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of resting-state fMRI signals with the vocal compensation and event-related potentials (N1 and P2) in response to pitch shifts of -200 and -500 cents...
August 5, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477323/natural-variation-in-sensory-motor-white-matter-organization-influences-manifestations-of-huntington-s-disease
#18
Michael Orth, Sarah Gregory, Rachael I Scahill, Isabella Sm Mayer, Lora Minkova, Stefan Klöppel, Kiran K Seunarine, Lara Boyd, Beth Borowsky, Ralf Reilmann, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund Ac Roos, Alexandra Durr, Geraint Rees, John C Rothwell, Douglas Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi
While the HTT CAG-repeat expansion mutation causing Huntington's disease (HD) is highly correlated with the rate of pathogenesis leading to disease onset, considerable variance in age-at-onset remains unexplained. Therefore, other factors must influence the pathogenic process. We asked whether these factors were related to natural biological variation in the sensory-motor system. In 243 participants (96 premanifest and 35 manifest HD; 112 controls), sensory-motor structural MRI, tractography, resting-state fMRI, electrophysiology (including SEP amplitudes), motor score ratings, and grip force as sensory-motor performance were measured...
December 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466132/functional-versus-effector-specific-organization-of-the-human-posterior-parietal-cortex-revisited
#19
Tobias Heed, Frank T M Leone, Ivan Toni, W Pieter Medendorp
It has been proposed that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is characterized by an effector-specific organization. However, strikingly similar functional MRI (fMRI) activation patterns have been found in the PPC for hand and foot movements. Because the fMRI signal is related to average neuronal activity, similar activation levels may result either from effector-unspecific neurons or from intermingled subsets of effector-specific neurons within a voxel. We distinguished between these possibilities using fMRI repetition suppression (RS)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458025/the-right-temporoparietal-junction-encodes-efforts-of-others-during-action-observation
#20
Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Hiroki Nakata, Kazuyuki Kanosue
Smooth social interactions require a deep understanding of others' intentions and feelings. In the present study, to investigate brain regions that respond to inference of others' effort level, we recorded brain activity during action observation of different effort levels using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a dumbbell curl movement to depict a movement requiring effort. To dissociate the factors of effort level of the actor and weight of the dumbbell, we used four combinations of dumbbell weight and actor physique: a thin actor or a built actor lifting a heavy or light dumbbell...
2016: Scientific Reports
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