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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867402/investigating-the-neural-basis-of-theta-burst-stimulation-to-premotor-cortex-on-emotional-vocalization-perception-a-combined-tms-fmri-study
#1
Zarinah K Agnew, Michael J Banissy, Carolyn McGettigan, Vincent Walsh, Sophie K Scott
Previous studies have established a role for premotor cortex in the processing of auditory emotional vocalizations. Inhibitory continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) applied to right premotor cortex selectively increases the reaction time to a same-different task, implying a causal role for right ventral premotor cortex (PMv) in the processing of emotional sounds. However, little is known about the functional networks to which PMv contribute across the cortical hemispheres. In light of these data, the present study aimed to investigate how and where in the brain cTBS affects activity during the processing of auditory emotional vocalizations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789504/the-sound-of-words-evokes-affective-brain-responses
#2
Arash Aryani, Chun-Ting Hsu, Arthur M Jacobs
The long history of poetry and the arts, as well as recent empirical results suggest that the way a word sounds (e.g., soft vs. harsh) can convey affective information related to emotional responses (e.g., pleasantness vs. harshness). However, the neural correlates of the affective potential of the sound of words remain unknown. In an fMRI study involving passive listening, we focused on the affective dimension of arousal and presented words organized in two discrete groups of sublexical (i.e., sound) arousal (high vs...
May 23, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787867/investigating-common-coding-of-observed-and-executed-actions-in-the-monkey-brain-using-cross-modal-multi-variate-fmri-classification
#3
Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Saloni Sharma, Jan Jastorff, Koen Nelissen
Mirror neurons are generally described as a neural substrate hosting shared representations of actions, by simulating or 'mirroring' the actions of others onto the observers' own motor system. Since single neuron recordings are rarely feasible in humans, it has been argued that cross-modal multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) of non-invasive fMRI data is a suitable technique to investigate common coding of observed and executed actions, allowing researchers to infer the presence of mirror neurons in the human brain...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741242/cross-classification-of-musical-and-vocal-emotions-in-the-auditory-cortex
#4
Sébastien Paquette, Sylvain Takerkart, Shinji Saget, Isabelle Peretz, Pascal Belin
Whether emotions carried by voice and music are processed by the brain using similar mechanisms has long been investigated. Yet neuroimaging studies do not provide a clear picture, mainly due to lack of control over stimuli. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using comparable stimulus material in the voice and music domains-the Montreal Affective Voices and the Musical Emotional Bursts-which include nonverbal short bursts of happiness, fear, sadness, and neutral expressions...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740300/spectral-spatial-differentiation-of-brain-activity-during-mental-imagery-of-improvisational-music-performance-using-meg
#5
Jared Boasen, Yuya Takeshita, Shinya Kuriki, Koichi Yokosawa
Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730492/trade-off-of-cerebello-cortical-and-cortico-cortical-functional-networks-for-planning-in-6-year-old-children
#6
Judy A Kipping, Daniel S Margulies, Simon Eickhoff, Annie Lee, Anqi Qiu
Childhood is a critical period for the development of cognitive planning. There is a lack of knowledge on its neural mechanisms in children. This study aimed to examine cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional connectivity in association with planning skills in 6-year-olds (n = 76). We identified the cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional networks related to cognitive planning using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on existing functional imaging studies on spatial planning, and data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) of children's resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)...
May 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723681/action-affordances-and-visuo-spatial-complexity-in-motor-imagery-an-fmri-study
#7
Laura Schulz, Anja Ischebeck, Selina C Wriessnegger, David Steyrl, Gernot R Müller-Putz
Imagining a complex action requires not only motor-related processing but also visuo-spatial imagery. In the current study, we examined visuo-spatial complexity and action affordances in motor imagery (MI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural activity in MI of reach-to-grasp movements of the right hand in five conditions. Thirty participants were scanned while imagining grasping an everyday object, grasping a geometrical shape, grasping next to an everyday object, grasping next to a geometrical shape, and grasping at nothing (no object involved)...
April 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722099/deficient-supplementary-motor-area-at-rest-neural-basis-of-limb-kinetic-deficits-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Stefanie Kübel, Katharina Stegmayer, Tim Vanbellingen, Sebastian Walther, Stephan Bohlhalter
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently suffer from limb kinetic apraxia (LKA) affecting quality of life. LKA denotes an impairment of precise and independent finger movements beyond bradykinesia, which is reliably assessed by coin rotation (CR) task. BOLD fMRI detected activation of a left inferior parietal-premotor praxis network in PD during CR. Here, we explored which network site is most critical for LKA using arterial spin labeling (ASL). Based on a hierarchical model, we hypothesized that LKA would predominantly affect the functional integrity of premotor areas including supplementary motor areas (SMA)...
May 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694259/encoding-of-novel-verbal-instructions-for-prospective-action-in-the-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-evidence-from-univariate-and-multivariate-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-analysis
#9
Nicolas J Bourguignon, Senne Braem, Egbert Hartstra, Jan De Houwer, Marcel Brass
Verbal instructions are central to humans' capacity to learn new behaviors with minimal training, but the neurocognitive mechanisms involved in verbally instructed behaviors remain puzzling. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence suggests that the right middle frontal gyrus and dorsal premotor cortex (rMFG-dPMC) supports the translation of symbolic stimulus-response mappings into sensorimotor representations. Here, we set out to (1) replicate this finding, (2) investigate whether this region's involvement is specific to novel (vs...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686047/neural-representations-of-sensorimotor-memory-and-digit-position-based-load-force-adjustments-before-the-onset-of-dexterous-object-manipulation
#10
Michelle Marneweck, Deborah A Barany, Marco Santello, Scott T Grafton
Anticipatory load forces for dexterous object manipulation in humans are modulated based on visual object property cues, sensorimotor memories of previous experiences with the object, and, when digit positioning varies from trial to trial, the integrating of this sensed variability with force modulation. Studies of the neural representations encoding these anticipatory mechanisms have not considered these mechanisms separately from each other or from feedback mechanisms emerging after lift onset. Here, representational similarity analyses of fMRI data were used to identify neural representations of sensorimotor memories and the sensing and integration of digit position...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618125/distributed-affective-space-represents-multiple-emotion-categories-across-the-human-brain
#11
Heini Saarimäki, Lara Farzaneh Ejtehadian, Enrico Glerean, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Patrik Vuilleumier, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
The functional organization of human emotion systems as well as their neuroanatomical basis and segregation in the brain remains unresolved. Here, we used pattern classification and hierarchical clustering to characterize the organization of a wide array of emotion categories in the human brain. We induced 14 emotions (6 'basic', e.g. fear and anger; and 8 'non-basic', e.g. shame and gratitude) and a neutral state using guided mental imagery while participants' brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 1, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536173/task-and-domain-specific-modulation-of-functional-connectivity-in-the-ventral-and-dorsal-object-processing-pathways
#12
Frank E Garcea, Quanjing Chen, Roger Vargas, Darren A Narayan, Bradford Z Mahon
A whole-brain network of regions collectively supports the ability to recognize and use objects-the Tool Processing Network. Little is known about how functional interactions within the Tool Processing Network are modulated in a task-dependent manner. We designed an fMRI experiment in which participants were required to either generate object pantomimes or to carry out a picture matching task over the same images of tools, while holding all aspects of stimulus presentation constant across the tasks. The Tool Processing Network was defined with an independent functional localizer, and functional connectivity within the network was measured during the pantomime and picture matching tasks...
March 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512943/neural-substrates-for-allocentric-to-egocentric-conversion-of-remembered-reach-targets-in-humans
#13
Ying Chen, Simona Monaco, J Douglas Crawford
Targets for goal-directed action can be encoded in allocentric coordinates (relative to another visual landmark), but it is not known how these are converted into egocentric commands for action. Here, we investigated this using a slow event-related fMRI paradigm, based on our previous behavioural finding that the allocentric-to-egocentric (Allo-Ego) conversion for reach is performed at the first possible opportunity. Participants were asked to remember (and eventually reach towards) the location of a briefly presented target relative to another visual landmark...
April 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504985/effectiveness-and-neural-mechanisms-of-home-based-telerehabilitation-in-patients-with-stroke-based-on-fmri-and-dti-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jing Chen, Mingli Liu, Dalong Sun, Yan Jin, Tianrao Wang, Chuancheng Ren
BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of leading diseases causing adult death and disability worldwide. Home-based telerehabilitation has become a novel approach for stroke patients as effective as conventional rehabilitation, and more convenient and economical than conventional rehabilitation. However, there is no study assessing the mechanism of home-based telerehabilitation in promoting motor recovery among stroke patients with hemiplegic. AIMS: This study is designed to determine the efficacy and explore the mechanism of motor recovery after home-based telerehabilitation in stroke patients with motor deficits...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472847/balance-training-reduces-brain-activity-during-motor-simulation-of-a-challenging-balance-task-in-older-adults-an-fmri-study
#15
Jan Ruffieux, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michaël Mouthon, Jean-Marie Annoni, Wolfgang Taube
Aging is associated with a shift from an automatic to a more cortical postural control strategy, which goes along with deteriorations in postural stability. Although balance training has been shown to effectively counteract these behavioral deteriorations, little is known about the effect of balance training on brain activity during postural tasks in older adults. We, therefore, assessed postural stability and brain activity using fMRI during motor imagery alone (MI) and in combination with action observation (AO; i...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459720/controlling-striatal-function-via-anterior-frontal-cortex-stimulation
#16
Mieke van Holstein, Monja I Froböse, Jacinta O'Shea, Esther Aarts, Roshan Cools
Motivational, cognitive and action goals are processed by distinct, topographically organized, corticostriatal circuits. We aimed to test whether processing in the striatum is under causal control by cortical regions in the human brain by investigating the effects of offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over distinct frontal regions associated with motivational, cognitive and action goal processing. Using a three-session counterbalanced within-subject crossover design, continuous theta burst stimulation was applied over the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or premotor cortex, immediately after which participants (N = 27) performed a paradigm assessing reward anticipation (motivation), task (cognitive) switching, and response (action) switching...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432300/dopamine-modulates-striatal-response-to-reward-and-punishment-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-pharmacological-challenge-fmri-study
#17
Miklos Argyelan, Mohammad Herzallah, Wataru Sako, Ivana DeLucia, Deepak Sarpal, An Vo, Toni Fitzpatrick, Ahmed A Moustafa, David Eidelberg, Mark Gluck
It is well established that Parkinson's disease leads to impaired learning from reward and enhanced learning from punishment. The administration of dopaminergic medications reverses this learning pattern. However, few studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of these cognitive processes. In this study, using fMRI, we tested a group of Parkinson's disease patients on and off dopaminergic medications and matched healthy individuals. All individuals completed an fMRI cognitive task that dissociates feedback learning from reward versus punishment...
May 2, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417705/functional-connectivity-corresponding-to-the-tonotopic-differentiation-of-the-human-auditory-cortex
#18
Guangjie Yuan, Guangyuan Liu, Dongtao Wei, Gaoyuan Wang, Qiang Li, Mingming Qi, Shifu Wu
Recent research has demonstrated that resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) within the human auditory cortex (HAC) is frequency-selective, but whether RS-FC between the HAC and other brain areas is differentiated by frequency remains unclear. Three types of data were collected in this study, including resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, task-based fMRI data using six pure tone stimuli (200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 Hz), and structural imaging data. We first used task-based fMRI to identify frequency-selective cortical regions in the HAC...
May 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379873/a-common-function-of-basal-ganglia-cortical-circuits-subserving-speed-in-both-motor-and-cognitive-domains
#19
Takashi Hanakawa, Andrew M Goldfine, Mark Hallett
Distinct regions of the frontal cortex connect with their basal ganglia and thalamic counterparts, constituting largely segregated basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (BTC) circuits. However, any common role of the BTC circuits in different behavioral domains remains unclear. Indeed, whether dysfunctional motor and cognitive BTC circuits are responsible for motor slowing and cognitive slowing, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a matter of debate. Here, we used an effortful behavioral paradigm in which the effects of task rate on accuracy were tested in movement, imagery, and calculation tasks in humans...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368208/comparison-of-brain-activity-between-motor-imagery-and-mental-rotation-of-the-hand-tasks-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Hiroyuki Hamada, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Chihiro Sutoh, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Sudesna Chakraborty, Hiroshi Ito, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takayuki Obata, Eiji Shimizu
Motor imagery (MI) has been considered effective in learning and practicing movements in many fields. However, when evaluating the effectiveness of this technique, the examiner has no way of assessing the participant's motor imagery process. As an alternative, we have been exploring a mental body-part rotation task, in which the examiner can estimate the participant's motivation and ability to sustain attention through the scored results. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible application of a mental rotation (MRot) task and used fMRI to compare the brain activity during the MRot task with that during an MI task in healthy volunteers...
January 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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