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Fatty acid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#1
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822960/loss-of-perilipin-2-in-cultured-myotubes-enhances-lipolysis-and-redirects-the-metabolic-energy-balance-from-glucose-oxidation-towards-fatty-acid-oxidation
#2
Yuan Z Feng, Jenny Lund, Yuchuan Li, Irlin K Knabenes, Siril S Bakke, Eili Tranheim Kase, Yun K Lee, Alan R Kimmel, G Hege Thoresen, Arild Christian Rustan, Knut Tomas Dalen
Lipid droplet (LD) coating proteins are essential for the formation and stability of intracellular LDs. Plin2 is an abundant LD coating protein in skeletal muscle, but its importance for muscle function is unclear. We show that myotubes established from Plin2-/- mice contain reduced content of LDs and accumulate less oleic acid in triacylglycerol (TAG), due to elevated LD hydrolysis compared to Plin2+/+ myotubes. The reduced ability to store TAG in LDs in Plin2-/- myotubes is accompanied by a shift in energy metabolism...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822947/cell-metabolomics-reveals-the-neurotoxicity-mechanism-of-cadmium-in-pc12-cells
#3
Li Zong, Junpeng Xing, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Fengrui Song
The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) can induce neurotoxicity. Extensive studies about the effects of Cd on human health have been reported, however, a systematic investigation on the molecular mechanisms of the effects of Cd on central nervous system is still needed. In this paper, the neuronal PC-12 cells were treated with a series of concentrations of CdCl2 for 48h. Then the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC15 value (15% inhibiting concentration) was selected for further mechanism studies...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822928/combined-effects-of-salinity-temperature-and-hypoxia-on-daphnia-magna-metabolism
#4
Elba Garreta-Lara, Bruno Campos, Carlos Barata, Silvia Lacorte, Romà Tauler
Metabolic changes of Daphnia magna pools due different abiotic factors linked to global climate change (salinity, temperature and hypoxia) were investigated using untargeted GC-MS and advanced chemometric strategies using a three factors two-level full factorial experimental design (DoE). Effects of these three factors and identity of the metabolites whose concentrations changed because of them were investigated. The simultaneous analysis of GC-MS data sets using Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) allowed the resolution of the elution and mass spectra profiles of a large number of D...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822867/de-novo-assembly-and-characterization-of-seabass-lateolabrax-japonicus-transcriptome-and-expression-of-hepatic-genes-following-different-dietary-phosphorus-calcium-levels
#5
Kang-Le Lu, Zhong-Li Ji, Samad Rahimnejad, Chun-Xiao Zhang, Ling Wang, Kai Song
Fish farming seriously influences the aquatic environment because most dietary phosphorus (P) is excreted in the effluent. To increase the P utilization in fish, molecular techniques should be explored given the remarkable development of these techniques. Thus, to identify the candidate genes related to P utilization and molecular alterations following administration of a P-deficient diet in seabass Lateolabrax japonicus, we assessed the de novo pituitary, gill, intestine, liver, kidney, scales and vertebra transcriptomes, and we compared the expression of hepatic genes with three diets varying in P and Ca levels: diet I (0...
August 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821850/comparative-metabonomics-of-wenxin-keli-and-verapamil-reveals-differential-roles-of-gluconeogenesis-and-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-myocardial-injury-protection
#6
Miaomiao Jiang, Qiuying Wang, Jingrui Chen, Yanan Wang, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plasma caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and to compare the metabolic regulatory differences between traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli (WXKL) and Western medicine verapamil...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821754/discovery-of-potential-biomarkers-in-human-melanoma-cells-with-different-metastatic-potential-by-metabolic-and-lipidomic-profiling
#7
Hye-Youn Kim, Hwanhui Lee, So-Hyun Kim, Hanyong Jin, Jeehyeon Bae, Hyung-Kyoon Choi
Malignant melanoma, characterized by its ability to metastasize to other organs, is responsible for 90% of skin cancer mortality. To investigate alterations in the cellular metabolome and lipidome related to melanoma metastasis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct infusion-mass spectrometry (DI-MS)-based metabolic and lipidomic profiling were performed on extracts of normal human melanocyte (HEMn-LP), low metastatic melanoma (A375, G361), and highly metastatic melanoma (A2058, SK-MEL-28) cell lines...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821734/transcriptional-transitions-in-alphonso-mango-mangifera-indica-l-during-fruit-development-and-ripening-explain-its-distinct-aroma-and-shelf-life-characteristics
#8
Ashish B Deshpande, Krishanpal Anamika, Vineet Jha, Hemangi G Chidley, Pranjali S Oak, Narendra Y Kadoo, Keshav H Pujari, Ashok P Giri, Vidya S Gupta
Alphonso is known as the "King of mangos" due to its unique flavor, attractive color, low fiber pulp and long shelf life. We analyzed the transcriptome of Alphonso mango through Illumina sequencing from seven stages of fruit development and ripening as well as flower. Total transcriptome data from these stages ranged between 65 and 143 Mb. Importantly, 20,755 unique transcripts were annotated and 4,611 were assigned enzyme commission numbers, which encoded 142 biological pathways. These included ethylene and flavor related secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, as well as those involved in metabolism of starch, sucrose, amino acids and fatty acids...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821550/crystal-structure-of-the-tetr-family-repressor-alkx-from-dietzia-sp-dq12-45-1b-implicated-in-biodegradation-of-n-alkanes
#9
Jie-Liang Liang, Yuan Gao, Zheng He, Yong Nie, Meng Wang, Jing-Hong JiangYang, Xuejun C Zhang, Wen-Sheng Shu, Xiao-Lei Wu
n-Alkanes are ubiquitous in nature and are widely used by microorganisms as carbon sources. Alkane hydroxylation by alkane monooxygenases is a critical step in the aerobic biodegradation of n-alkanes, which plays important roles in natural alkane attenuation and is used in industrial and environmental applications. The alkane oxidation operon, alkW1-alkX, in an alkane-degrading strain Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b, is negatively auto-regulated by the TetR family repressor, AlkX, via a product positive feedback mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821397/cardiac-metabolism-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-heart-failure
#10
REVIEW
Hannah Noordali, Brodie L Loudon, Michael P Frenneaux, Melanie Madhani
Heart failure, with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although many established pharmacological interventions exist for those patients with HFrEF, hospitalization and death rates remain high, and in those with HFpEF (over half of all heart failure patients), there are no effective therapies. Recently, the role of impaired cardiac energetic status in heart failure has gained increasing recognition with the identification of reduced metabolic capacity for carbohydrates and fatty acids, impaired function of the electron transport chain, reduced capacity to transfer ATP to the cytosol, and inefficient utilization of the energy produced...
August 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821394/activation-of-ampk-to-the-neuroprotection-in-the-oxidative-stress-by-advanced-glycosylation-end-products-in-human-neural-stem-cells
#11
Chien-Hung Lin, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Christopher J Nicol, Kuan-Hung Lin, Chia-Hui Yen, Ming-Chang Chiang
Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) formation is correlated with the pathogenesis of diabetic neuronal damage, but its links with oxidative stress are still not well understood. Metformin, one of the most widely used anti-diabetic drugs, exerts its effects in part by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Once activated, AMPK regulates many pathways central to metabolism and energy balance including, glucose uptake, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. AMPK is also present in neurons, but its role remains unclear...
August 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821393/nutritional-status-brain-network-organization-and-general-intelligence
#12
Marta K Zamroziewicz, M Tanveer Talukdar, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood...
August 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820912/impact-of-novel-palmitoylated-prolactin-releasing-peptide-analogs-on-metabolic-changes-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#13
Veronika Pražienková, Martina Holubová, Helena Pelantová, Martina Bugáňová, Zdenko Pirník, Barbora Mikulášková, Andrea Popelová, Miroslava Blechová, Martin Haluzík, Blanka Železná, Marek Kuzma, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820493/marine-lipids-on-cardiovascular-diseases-and-other-chronic-diseases-induced-by-diet-an-insight-provided-by-proteomics-and-lipidomics
#14
REVIEW
Lucía Méndez, Gabriel Dasilva, Nùria Taltavull, Marta Romeu, Isabel Medina
Marine lipids, especially ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have largely been linked to prevention of diet-induced diseases. The anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic properties of EPA and DHA supplementation have been well-described. However, there is still a significant lack of information about their particular mechanism of action. Furthermore, repeated meta-analyses have not shown conclusive results in support of their beneficial health effects...
August 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820120/spiribacter-aquaticus-sp-nov-a-novel-member-of-the-genus-spiribacter-isolated-from-a-saltern
#15
María José León, Borja Aldeguer-Riquelme, Josefa Antón, Cristina Sánchez-Porro, Antonio Ventosa
A moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain SP30T, was isolated from a solar saltern located in Santa Pola, Alicante, on the East coast of Spain. It was a Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic bacterium, able to grow in 7.5-25 % (w/v) NaCl and optimally in 12.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that the novel isolate is a member of the genus Spiribacter, with the most closely related species being Spiribacter roseus SSL50T (99.9 % sequence similarity) and Spiribacter curvatus UAH-SP71T (99...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820005/inhibition-of-endocannabinoid-metabolizing-enzymes-in-peripheral-tissues-following-developmental-chlorpyrifos-exposure-in-rats
#16
Robert W Buntyn, Navatha Alugubelly, Rachel L Hybart, Afzaal N Mohammed, Carole A Nail, Greta C Parker, Matthew K Ross, Russell L Carr
Repeated developmental exposure to the organophosphate (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) inhibits brain fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity at low levels, whereas at higher levels, it inhibits brain monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) activity. FAAH and MAGL hydrolyze the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), respectively. Peripherally, AEA and 2-AG have physiological roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and immune function, and altering the normal levels of these lipid mediators can negatively affect these processes...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819881/resveratrol-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-by-stimulating-the-sirt1-ampk%C3%AE-foxo1-signalling-pathway-in-bovine-intramuscular-adipocytes
#17
Xiaomu Liu, Hongbo Zhao, Qing Jin, Wei You, Haijian Cheng, Yifan Liu, Enliang Song, Guifen Liu, Xiuwen Tan, Xianglun Zhang, Fachun Wan
Sirtuin type 1 (SIRTl) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) play important roles in regulating energy metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation, ageing, apoptosis, and metabolism. The effect of 100, 200, and 400 μm Resveratrol (RES), an activator of SIRT1, on apoptosis of bovine intramuscular adipocytes was investigated by nuclear staining, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting. Results show that RES inhibited adipogenesis, decreased cell viability, and increased apoptotic rates in a dose-dependent way...
August 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819274/distinct-carbon-sources-affect-structural-and-functional-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Cláudia Correia, Alexey Koshkin, Patrícia Duarte, Dongjian Hu, Ana Teixeira, Ibrahim Domian, Margarida Serra, Paula M Alves
The immature phenotype of human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) constrains their potential in cell therapy and drug testing. In this study, we report that shifting hPSC-CMs from glucose-containing to galactose- and fatty acid-containing medium promotes their fast maturation into adult-like CMs with higher oxidative metabolism, transcriptional signatures closer to those of adult ventricular tissue, higher myofibril density and alignment, improved calcium handling, enhanced contractility, and more physiological action potential kinetics...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819187/administration-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-before-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-attenuates-kidney-injury-and-may-modulate-renal-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#19
Pauline Erpicum, Pascal Rowart, Laurence Poma, Jean-Marie Krzesinski, Olivier Detry, François Jouret
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been demonstrated to attenuate renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage in rodent models. The mechanisms of such nephro-protection remain largely unknown. Furthermore, the optimal timing of MSC administration has been poorly investigated. Here, we compare the impact of MSC injection 7 days before (MSCD - 7) versus 1 day after (MSCD + 1) renal I/R in rats. Control groups received equivalent volumes of saline at similar time-points (SD - 7 and SD + 1). Right nephrectomy was performed, and left renal ischemia lasted 45 min...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818464/one-pot-synthesis-of-bioactive-cyclopentenones-from-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid
#20
Daniel Maynard, Sara Mareike Müller, Monika Hahmeier, Jana Löwe, Ivo Feussner, Harald Gröger, Andrea Viehhauser, Karl-Josef Dietz
Oxidation products of the poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are bioactive in plants and animals as shown for the cyclopentenones prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 and PGA2, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (12-OPDA), and 14-A-4 neuroprostane. In this study an inexpensive and simple enzymatic multi-step one-pot synthesis is presented for 12-OPDA, which is derived from α-linolenic acid, and the analogous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived cyclopentenone [(4Z,7Z,10Z)-12-[[-(1S,5S)-4-oxo-5-(2Z)-pent-2-en-1yl]-cyclopent-2-en-1yl] dodeca-4,7,10-trienoic acid, OCPD]...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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