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Fatty acid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691457/metabolic-and-cardiac-adaptation-to-chronic-pharmacologic-blockade-of-facilitative-glucose-transport-in-murine-dilated-cardiomyopathy-and-myocardial-ischemia
#1
Monique R Heitmeier, Maria A Payne, Carla Weinheimer, Attila Kovacs, Richard C Hresko, Patrick Y Jay, Paul W Hruz
GLUT transgenic and knockout mice have provided valuable insight into the role of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, but compensatory physiological changes can hinder interpretation of these models. To determine whether adaptations occur in response to GLUT inhibition in the failing adult heart, we chronically treated TG9 mice, a transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, with the GLUT inhibitor ritonavir. Glucose tolerance was significantly improved with chronic treatment and correlated with decreased adipose tissue retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and resistin...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691147/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-early-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-alters-cardiac-metabolism-in-sprague-dawley-rat-offspring
#2
K A De Jong, S Barrand, R J Wood-Bradley, D L de Almeida, J K Czeczor, G D Lopaschuk, J A Armitage, S L McGee
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Maternal high fat diets (mHFD) have been associated with an increased offspring cardiovascular risk. Recently we found that the class IIa HDAC-MEF2 pathway regulates gene programs controlling fatty acid oxidation in striated muscle. This same pathway controls hypertrophic responses in the heart. We hypothesized that mHFD is associated with activation of signal controlling class II a HDAC activity and activation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cardiac hypertrophy in offspring...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690638/neurotensin-is-a-lipid-induced-gastrointestinal-peptide-associated-with-visceral-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obesity
#3
Ilaria Barchetta, Flavia Agata Cimini, Danila Capoccia, Laura Bertoccini, Valentina Ceccarelli, Caterina Chiappetta, Frida Leonetti, Claudio Di Cristofano, Gianfranco Silecchia, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander, Maria Gisella Cavallo
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and the development of insulin-resistance. In humans, higher plasma levels of pro-NT, which is the stable circulating precursor of NT, predict obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. In obesity, the presence of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation leads to unfavorable metabolic outcomes and is associated with the development of T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
April 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690611/the-role-of-ppar-and-its-cross-talk-with-car-and-lxr-in-obesity-and-atherosclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Pengfei Xu, Yonggong Zhai, Jing Wang
The prevalence of obesity and atherosclerosis has substantially increased worldwide over the past several decades. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), as fatty acids sensors, have been therapeutic targets in several human lipid metabolic diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and liver X receptors (LXRs) were also reported as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and atherosclerosis, respectively...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689727/vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-the-gut-microbiota
#5
Sinian Li, Yiming Shao, Kanglan Li, Changmei HuangFu, Wenjie Wang, Zhou Liu, Zhiyou Cai, Bin Zhao
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), the second most common cause of dementia in elderly people, is a term that refers to all forms of cognitive disorders that can be attributed to cerebrovascular disease such as manifestations of discrete infarctions, brain hemorrhages, and white matter lesions. The gut microbiota (GM) has emerged recently as an essential player in the development of VCI. The GM may affect the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions through the brain-gut axis via neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689264/disruption-of-epithelial-hdac3-in-intestine-prevents-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#6
Jordan Whitt, Vivienne Woo, Patrick Lee, Jessica Moncivaiz, Yael Haberman, Lee Denson, Patrick Tso, Theresa Alenghat
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulate metabolism and associate closely with epithelial cells in the intestine. In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) integrates microbiota-derived signals to control intestinal homeostasis. We investigated whether HDAC3 in IECs regulates metabolism and the development of obesity in mice. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 (control) mice and mice with constitutive or inducible IEC-specific disruption of Hdac3 (HDAC3ΔIEC mice) were placed on a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat)...
April 21, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688606/constitutive-bip-protein-accumulation-in-arabidopsis-mutants-defective-in-a-gene-encoding-chloroplast-resident-stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase
#7
Yuji Iwata, Tsukasa Iida, Toshihiro Matsunami, Yu Yamada, Kei-Ichiro Mishiba, Takumi Ogawa, Tetsuya Kurata, Nozomu Koizumi
The unfolded protein response (UPR) occurs when protein folding and maturation are disturbed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During the UPR, a number of genes including those encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones are induced. In Arabidopsis, BiP3 has been used as a UPR marker gene whose expression is strongly induced in response to ER stress. In this study, we mutagenized Arabidopsis plants expressing β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under the control of BiP3 promoter and isolated a mutant that exhibits strong GUS activity without treatment with ER stress inducers...
April 24, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688484/effect-of-the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-inhibitors-tolcapone-and-entacapone-on-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-heparg-cells
#8
David Grünig, Andrea Felser, Urs Duthaler, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
Tolcapone and entacapone are catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors used in patients with Parkinson's disease. For tolcapone, patients with liver failure have been reported with microvesicular steatosis observed in the liver biopsy of one patient. We therefore investigated the impact of tolcapone and entacapone on fatty acid metabolism in HepaRG cells exposed for 24 hours and on acutely exposed mouse liver mitochondria. In HepaRG cells, tolcapone induced lipid accumulation starting at 100µM, whereas entacapone was ineffective up to 200µM...
April 23, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688022/multiplatform-metabolomics-investigation-of-anti-adipogenic-effects-on-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-a-potent-diarylheptanoid
#9
Dan Du, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Lisa Bettcher, Meng Gong, Wen Zheng, Liqiang Hu, Xinyu Zhang, Renke Zhang, Dongfang Wang, Daniel Raftery
Obesity is fast becoming a serious health problem worldwide. Of the many possible anti-obesity strategies, one interesting approach focuses on blocking adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation to counteract the rise in fat storage. However, there is currently no drug available for the treatment of obesity that works by inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Here we use a broad-based metabolomics approach to interrogate and better understand metabolic changes that occur during adipocyte differentiation...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687890/intestinal-cd36-and-other-key-proteins-of-lipid-utilization-role-in-absorption-and-gut-homeostasis
#10
Vincenza Cifarelli, Nada A Abumrad
Several proteins have been implicated in fatty acid (FA) transport by enterocytes including the scavenger receptor CD36 (SR-B2), the scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) a member of the CD36 family and the FA transport protein 4 (FATP4). Here, we review the regulation of enterocyte FA uptake and its function in lipid absorption including prechylomicron formation, assembly and transport. Emphasis is given to CD36, which is abundantly expressed along the digestive tract of rodents and humans and has been the most studied...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687645/gut-microbes-and-health-a-focus-on-the-mechanisms-linking-microbes-obesity-and-related-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Marialetizia Rastelli, Claude Knauf, Patrice D Cani
The past decade has been characterized by tremendous progress in the field of the gut microbiota and its impact on host metabolism. Although numerous studies show a strong relationship between the composition of gut microbiota and specific metabolic disorders associated with obesity, the key mechanisms are still being studied. The present review focuses on specific complex pathways as well as key interactions. For instance, the nervous routes are explored by examining the enteric nervous system, the vagus nerve, and the brain, as well as the endocrine routes (i...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687585/bone-another-potential-target-to-treat-prevent-and-predict-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Dong-Mei Liu, Ioanna Mosialou, Jian-Min Liu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is now a worldwide health problem with increasing prevalence. Mounting efforts have been made to treat, prevent and predict this chronic disease. In recent years, increasing evidence from mice and clinical studies suggest that bone-derived molecules modulate glucose metabolism. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of the interplay between bone and glucose metabolism and highlight potential new means for therapeutic intervention. The first molecule recognized as a link between bone and glucose metabolism in mice is osteocalcin, which functions in its active form, i...
April 23, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687558/a-single-exercise-session-increases-insulin-sensitivity-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-obese-adolescents
#13
Kevin R Short, Lauren V Pratt, April M Teague
We measured the effect of an aerobic exercise session on postprandial glucose control in adolescents with habitually low physical activity. The goal was to determine if the acute or residual response of exercise was altered by overweight/obesity (OW/Ob). Eleven normal weight (NW, BMI = 48 ± 13 percentile) and 12 OW/Ob (BMI = 91 ± 5 percentile) participants completed three trials. In the no exercise (No Ex) trial, participants rested quietly before and after consuming a test meal. In the other 2 trials, a 45-minute aerobic exercise session was performed either 17-hours (Prior Day Ex) or 40 minutes (Same Day Ex) before the test meal...
April 23, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687353/gut-microbiome-of-moroccan-colorectal-cancer-patients
#14
Imane Allali, Noureddine Boukhatem, Leila Bouguenouch, Hanaa Hardi, H Abir Boudouaya, M Belen Cadenas, Karim Ouldim, Saaïd Amzazi, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Hassan Ghazal
Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death in Morocco, there are no studies of the microbiome changes associated with the disease in the Moroccan population. The aim of our study was to compare the stool microbiome of Moroccan cancer patients with healthy individuals. We analyzed the microbiome composition of samples from 11 CRC patients and 12 healthy individuals by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis of samples revealed defined cancer versus healthy clusters. Our findings showed that cancer samples had higher proportions of Firmicutes (T = 50...
April 23, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686857/population-specific-transcriptional-differences-associated-with-freeze-tolerance-in-a-terrestrial-worm
#15
Tjalf E de Boer, Dick Roelofs, Riet Vooijs, Martin Holmstrup, Mónica J B Amorim
Enchytraeus albidus is a terrestrial earthworm widespread along the coasts of northern Europe and the Arctic. This species tolerates freezing of body fluids and survives winters in a frozen state. Their acclimatory physiological mechanisms behind freeze tolerance involve increased fluidity of membrane lipids during cold exposure and accumulation of cryoprotectants (glucose) during the freezing process. Gene regulatory processes of these physiological responses have not been studied, partly because no gene expression tools were developed...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686297/microbiota-accessible-carbohydrates-suppress-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-murine-model
#16
Andrew J Hryckowian, William Van Treuren, Samuel A Smits, Nicole M Davis, Jackson O Gardner, Donna M Bouley, Justin L Sonnenburg
Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic diarrhoeal pathogen, and C. difficile infection (CDI) represents a major health care concern, causing an estimated 15,000 deaths per year in the United States alone 1 . Several enteric pathogens, including C. difficile, leverage inflammation and the accompanying microbial dysbiosis to thrive in the distal gut 2 . Although diet is among the most powerful available tools for affecting the health of humans and their relationship with their microbiota, investigation into the effects of diet on CDI has been limited...
April 23, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685968/impact-of-dietary-gut-microbial-metabolites-on-the-epigenome
#17
REVIEW
Clarissa Gerhauser
Within the past decade, epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by natural products have gained increasing interest. Dietary bioactive compounds from various sources, including green tea, soya, fruit and berries, cruciferous vegetables, whole grain foods, fish and others, have been shown to target enzymes involved in epigenetic gene regulation, including DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases, deacetylases and demethylases in vitro and in cell culture. Also, many dietary agents were shown to alter miRNA expression...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685707/supplemental-flaxseed-modulates-ovarian-functions-of-weanling-gilts-via-the-action-of-selected-fatty-acids
#18
Radoslava Vlčková, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Drahomíra Sopková, Zdenka Hertelyová, Katarzyna Kozioł, Marek Koziorowski, Soňa Gancarčíková
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of dietary flaxseed on the endocrine and ovarian functions of weanling gilts challenged with E. coli and Coronavirus infections treated with dietary probiotic cheeses and to understand the possible mechanisms of its effects on ovarian function. Probiotics were used as a natural substitution for antibiotics and 10% dietary flaxseed is an effective prebiotic which supports the action of probiotics and has other beneficial effects on the organism. Probiotics with or without flaxseed were fed to weanling gilts starting 10 days before and lasting up until 14 days after weaning...
April 18, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685019/effect-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-perioperative-temperature-glucose-level-and-fat-metabolism-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-tumors
#19
L Y Wen, Y S Zhang, X Zhou, G Li, C Y Hu, Y Li, L J Jin
This study aimed to investigate the effect of branched chain amino acids (BCCAs) on perioperative temperature, glucose and fat metabolism in patients with gastrointestinal tumors. Fifty-six patients undergoing gastrointestinal tumor surgery were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups of 28 patients each: an experimental and a control group. During surgery, the experimental group received 5.64mL·Kg-1·h-1(4KJ·Kg-1·h-1) of BCCAs intravenously, through an infusion pump, and the control group received an equal volume of NaCl 0...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684791/the-role-of-promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-in-steatosis-associated-hepatic-tumors-related-to-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#20
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
The persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a risk factor for the development of steatosis-associated tumors in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, yet little is known about the metabolic link with this factor. We correlated HBV-related pathogenesis in genetically engineered mice and human carriers with metabolic proteomics and lipogenic gene expression profiles. The immunohistochemistry showed that the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML, a tumor suppressor involved in genome maintenance and fatty acid oxidation), being inversely influenced by the dynamic HBsAg levels from acute phase to seroclearance, appeared as a lipo-metabolic switch linking HBsAg-induced steatosis (lipogenesis) to HBsAg-lost fat-burning hepatocarcinogenesis (lipolysis)...
April 20, 2018: Translational Oncology
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