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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237801/inactivation-of-the-medial-mammillary-nucleus-attenuates-theta-rhythm-activity-in-the-hippocampus-in-urethane-anesthetized-rats
#1
Witold Żakowski, Łukasz Braszka, Piotr Zawistowski, Jolanta Orzeł-Gryglewska, Edyta Jurkowlaniec
Although the importance of the mammillary body for memory and learning processes is well known, its exact role has remained vague. The fact, that many neurons in one nucleus of the mammillary body in rats, i.e. the medial mammillary nucleus (MM), fires according with hippocampal theta rhythm, makes this structure crucial for a theta rhythm signaling in so-called extended hippocampal system. These neurons are driven by descending projections from the hippocampal formation, but it is still unknown whether the mammillary body only conveys theta rhythm or may also modulate it...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213242/cocaine-profiling-implementation-of-a-predictive-model-by-atr-ftir-coupled-with-chemometrics-in-forensic-chemistry
#2
Stefano Materazzi, Adolfo Gregori, Luigi Ripani, Azzurra Apriceno, Roberta Risoluti
In this study, a strategy based on Infrared Spectroscopy with Fourier Transformed and Attenuated Total Reflectance associated with chemometrics (ATR-FTIR) is proposed to identify the chemical "fingerprint" of cocaine samples. To this end, standard mixtures of cocaine and cuttings at differents ratio were investigated in order to develop a multivariate classification model to simultaneously predict the composition of the samples and to obtain a profile of adulteration of cocaine seizures. In addition, the application of a Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) calibration approaches were found to be a useful tool to predict the content of cocaine, caffeine, procaine, lidocaine and phenacetin in drug seizures...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045911/do-quiescence-and-wasp-venom-induced-lethargy-share-common-neuronal-mechanisms-in-cockroaches
#3
Stav Emanuel, Frederic Libersat
The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017670/presynaptic-facilitation-by-tetracaine-of-glutamatergic-spontaneous-excitatory-transmission-in-the-rat-spinal-substantia-gelatinosa-involvement-of-trpa1-channels
#4
Lian-Hua Piao, Tsugumi Fujita, Ting Yu, Eiichi Kumamoto
The amide-type local anesthetic (LA) lidocaine activates transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channels to facilitate spontaneous L-glutamate release onto spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, which play a crucial role in regulating nociceptive transmission. In contrast, the ester-type LA procaine reduces the spontaneous release of L-glutamate in SG neurons. In order to determine whether TRPA1 activation by LAs is specific to amide-types, we examined the actions of tetracaine, another ester-type LA, and other amide-type LAs on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in SG neurons by focusing on TRP activation...
December 22, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988146/simplified-antibiotic-regimens-for-treatment-of-clinical-severe-infection-in-the-outpatient-setting-when-referral-is-not-possible-for-young-infants-in-pakistan-simplified-antibiotic-therapy-trial-satt-a-randomised-open-label-equivalence-trial
#5
Fatima Mir, Imran Nisar, Shiyam S Tikmani, Benazir Baloch, Sadia Shakoor, Fyezah Jehan, Imran Ahmed, Simon Cousens, Anita K M Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Parenteral antibiotic therapy for young infants (aged 0-59 days) with suspected sepsis is sometimes not available or feasible in countries with high neonatal mortality. Outpatient treatment could save lives in such settings. We aimed to assess the equivalence of two simplified antibiotic regimens, comprising fewer injections and oral rather than parenteral administration, compared with a reference treatment for young infants with clinical severe infection. METHODS: We undertook the Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial (SATT), a three-arm, randomised, open-label, equivalence trial in five communities in Karachi, Pakistan...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966316/evaluation-of-cutaneous-anthrax-cases-during-an-outbreak-in-the-east-region-of-turkey
#6
Esra Kural Ünüvar, Deniz Bahar Akgün Karapınar, Nazlı Dizen Namdar
BACKGROUND/AIM: Anthrax is a zoonotic infection caused by Bacillus anthracis. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate cutaneous anthrax cases that occurred during an outbreak in eastern Turkey (Hakkari-Yüksekova), where people mostly earn their living from animal husbandry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six cutaneous anthrax patients that were admitted to the hospital during a very short duration of 3 months (June-August 2011) were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 46 patients, 27 (52%) were women and 19 (48%) were men...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906420/the-effect-of-low-dosage-of-procaine-on-lung-cancer-cell-proliferation
#7
X-W Ma, Y Li, X-C Han, Q-Z Xin
OBJECTIVE: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of human lung cancer leading cause of cancer death worldwide. However, first-line drugs such as gefitinib and erlotinib showed great drug resistance in the clinical. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay; gene expression was detected by qPCR assay. The protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Our results showed that in mouse models of lung cancer by A549 or NCI-H1975 xenograft, the local anesthetic drug Procaine (PCA) with 50 mg/kg specifically attenuated tumors compared with the vehicle-treated group...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860187/autophagy-activated-by-tuberin-mtor-p70s6k-suppression-is-a-protective-mechanism-against-local-anaesthetics-neurotoxicity
#8
Jingwei Xiong, Qiuyue Kong, Leyang Dai, He Ma, Xiaofei Cao, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding
The local anaesthetics (LAs) are widely used for peripheral nerve blocks, epidural anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia and pain management. However, exposure to LAs for long duration or at high dosage can provoke potential neuronal damages. Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process for proteins and organelles. However, both the effects of LAs on autophagy in neuronal cells and the effects of autophagy on LAs neurotoxicity are not clear. To answer these questions, both lipid LAs (procaine and tetracaine) and amide LAs (bupivacaine, lidocaine and ropivacaine) were administrated to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843649/procaine-induces-epigenetic-changes-in-hct116-colon-cancer-cells
#9
Hussein Sabit, Mariam B Samy, Osama A M Said, Mokhtar M El-Zawahri
Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, and it is the major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The present study aimed at treating colon cancer cell line (HCT116) with different chemotherapeutic drug/drug combinations (procaine, vorinostat "SAHA," sodium phenylbutyrate, erlotinib, and carboplatin). Two different final concentrations were applied: 3 μM and 5 μM. Trypan blue test was performed to assess the viability of the cell before and after being treated with the drugs...
2016: Genetics Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687921/effects-of-preoperative-carprofen-on-cardio-respiratory-hormonal-and-metabolic-stress-response-in-calves-during-umbilical-surgery-under-isoflurane-inhalation-anaesthesia
#10
I Schulze, E M Poos, H Meyer, A K List, S B R Kaestner, J Rehage
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preoperative carprofen on the cardiorespiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response during umbilical surgery under isoflurane anaesthesia combined with local anaesthesia, in calves. A randomised, blinded experimental study was conducted in 24 calves. Carprofen (n = 12; 1.4 mg/kg) or physiological saline solution (controls; n = 12) was administered 1 h prior to surgery. Anaesthesia was induced with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM) and, after the onset of sedation (i...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673664/effect-of-ondansetron-on-the-thermal-antinociceptive-effects-of-procaine-in-the-rat-paw
#11
B Hanedan, A O Saltali, I Duman, A Mermer, S B Taylan, M Sari, S Apiliogulari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651668/strangles-in-arabian-horses-in-egypt-clinical-epidemiological-hematological-and-biochemical-aspects
#12
Ahmed N F Neamat-Allah, Hend M El Damaty
AIM: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin...
August 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595866/platelet-rich-plasma-and-hyaluronic-acid-an-efficient-biostimulation-method-for-face-rejuvenation
#13
Betul Gozel Ulusal
BACKGROUND: Cosmetic applications of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are new, and reports are scarce and dispersed in the literature. There are a variety of commercially available kits and injection techniques, and the number and intervals of injections vary. New investigations should focus on developing a standardized procedure for PRP preparation and application methods to augment its efficacy and potency. OBJECTIVES: In this report, we aim to provide data and commentary to assist and add to current guidelines...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592116/local-anesthetics-affect-gramicidin-a-channels-via-membrane-electrostatic-potentials
#14
Svetlana S Efimova, Anastasiia A Zakharova, Ludmila V Schagina, Olga S Ostroumova
The effects of local anesthetics (LAs), including aminoamides and aminoesters, on the characteristics of single gramicidin A (GA) channels in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers were studied. Aminoamides, namely lidocaine (LDC), prilocaine (PLC), mepivacaine (MPV), and bupivacaine (BPV), reduced the conductance of GA channels. Aminoesters influenced the current fluctuations induced by GA differently; procaine (PC) did not affect the fluctuations, whereas tetracaine (TTC) distinctly reduced the conductance of single GA channels...
December 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557558/study-of-procaine-and-tetracaine-in-the-lipid-bilayer-using-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#15
Seifollah Jalili, Marzieh Saeedi
Despite available experimental results, the molecular mechanism of action of local anesthetics upon the nervous system and contribution of the cell membrane to the process are still controversial. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of two clinically used local anesthetics, procaine and tetracaine, on the structure and dynamics of a fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer. We focused on comparing the main effects of uncharged and charged drugs on various properties of the lipid membrane: mass density distribution, diffusion coefficient, order parameter, radial distribution function, hydrogen bonding, electrostatic potential, headgroup angle, and water dipole orientation...
August 24, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530113/procaine-attenuates-pain-behaviors-of-neuropathic-pain-model-rats-possibly-via-inhibiting-jak2-stat3
#16
Donghua Li, Yurong Yan, Lingzhi Yu, Yong Duan
Neuropathic pain (NPP) is the main culprit among chronic pains affecting the normal life of patients. Procaine is a frequently-used local anesthesia with multiple efficacies in various diseases. However, its role in modulating NPP has not been reported yet. This study aims at uncovering the role of procaine in NPP. Rats were pretreated with procaine by intrathecal injection. Then NPP rat model was induced by sciatic nerve chronic compression injury (CCI) and behavior tests were performed to analyze the pain behaviors upon mechanical, thermal and cold stimulations...
September 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487517/flow-cytometric-assessment-of-activation-of-peripheral-blood-platelets-in-dogs-with-normal-platelet-count-and-asymptomatic-thrombocytopenia
#17
M Żmigrodzka, M Guzera, A Winnicka
Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484247/in-silico-optimisation-of-two-dimensional-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-the-determination-of-australian-methamphetamine-seizure-samples
#18
Luke M Andrighetto, Niki K Burns, Paul G Stevenson, James R Pearson, Luke C Henderson, Christopher J Bowen, Xavier A Conlan
In-silico optimisation of a two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) separation protocol has been developed for the interrogation of methamphetamine samples including model, real world seizure, and laboratory synthesised samples. The protocol used Drylab(®) software to rapidly identify the optimum separation conditions from a library of chromatography columns. The optimum separation space was provided by the Phenomonex Kinetex PFP column (first dimension) and an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (second dimension)...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474581/physically-and-chemically-cross-linked-cellulose-cryogels-structure-properties-and-application-for-controlled-release
#19
Diana Ciolacu, Cyrielle Rudaz, Mihai Vasilescu, Tatiana Budtova
Porous cellulose matrices were prepared via cellulose dissolution in 8wt% NaOH-water, physical gelation and chemical cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH), coagulation in water and lyophilisation. Cellulose and cross-linker concentration were varied. The behaviour of gels upon coagulation and the swelling of cryogels in water were analysed. An anomalous high swelling at cross-linker concentration around stoichiometric molar ratio with cellulose was observed. Cellulose cryogel morphology, crystallinity and density were studied...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257912/procaine-inhibits-osteo-odontogenesis-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-inactivation
#20
Carmen Herencia, Juan Miguel Diaz-Tocados, Lidia Jurado, Addy Montes de Oca, Maria Encarnación Rodríguez-Ortiz, Carmen Martín-Alonso, Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Noemi Vergara, Mariano Rodríguez, Yolanda Almadén, Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda
INTRODUCTION: Periodontitis is a complex pathology characterized by the loss of alveolar bone. The causes and the mechanisms that promote this bone resorption still remain unknown. The knowledge of the critical regulators involved in the alteration of alveolar bone homeostasis is of great importance for developing molecular therapies. Procaine is an anesthetic drug with demethylant properties, mainly used by dentists in oral surgeries. The inhibitor role of Wnt signaling of procaine was described in vitro in colon cancer cells...
2016: PloS One
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