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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981180/characterization-of-extracellular-ca-2-dependent-full-type-hyperactivation-in-ejaculated-boar-spermatozoa-preincubated-with-a-camp-analog
#1
Nagisa Otsuka, Hiroshi Harayama
Ejaculated boar spermatozoa exhibit two types of hyperactivation: full and non-full. Full-type hyperactivation is characterized by the asymmetrical bending of the entire middle piece-principal piece and a twisting/figure-8-like trajectory, and can be induced by simple incubation with CaCl2 after preincubation with a cAMP analog (Sp-5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate [cBiMPS]). Here, we compared the sperm flagellar motility after treatments with elevators of [Ca(2+) ]i (cBiMPS/CaCl2 , thimerosal, procaine, and 4-aminopyridine) to characterize the regulatory mechanism of extracellular Ca(2+) -dependent, full-type hyperactivation in ejaculated boar spermatozoa, and examined the possible involvement of Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 3 (TRPC3) in this event using the specific inhibitor Pyr3...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966098/difference-in-substrate-specificity-of-carboxylesterase-and-arylacetamide-deacetylase-between-dogs-and-humans
#2
Tomohiro Yoshida, Tatsuki Fukami, Takaya Kurokawa, Saki Gotoh, Akifumi Oda, Miki Nakajima
Carboxylesterase (CES) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) are the major enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of various clinical drugs. Our recent study demonstrated that the identity of the responsible hydrolase can be roughly surmised based on the chemical structures of compounds in humans. Dogs are used for preclinical studies in drug development, but the substrate specificities of dog CES and AADAC remain to be clarified. The purpose of this study is to characterize their substrate specificities. We prepared recombinant dog CES1, CES2, and AADAC...
September 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953509/procaine-and-local-anesthetic-toxicity-a-collaboration-between-the-clinical-and-basic-sciences
#3
James Seth Jacob, Anthony L Kovac
In 1924, the Therapeutic Research Committee of the American Medical Association appointed a special committee to investigate deaths following the administration of local anesthetics. The Committee for the Study of Toxic Effects of Local Anesthetics found procaine, although a safer clinical alternative to cocaine, was capable of causing death when large doses were injected into tissues and advised that it should be used with caution. This article describes a collaboration beginning in 1928 between Dr John Lundy of the Mayo Clinic and Dr Robert Isenberger of the University of Kansas, which arose from a controversy surrounding systemic adverse reactions to procaine...
November 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932686/a-positive-rapid-strep-test-in-a-young-adult-with-acute-pharyngitis-be-careful-what-you-wish-for
#4
Burke A Cunha
In young adults with acute pharyngitis, the main differential diagnosis is between GAS pharyngitis, EBV infectious mononucleosis, or other causes of viral pharyngitis. A positive RST does not differentiate GAS colonization from infection as is well illustrated by this case. Laboratory test results must be interpreted in the appropriate clinical context to be diagnostically meaningful. The RST only detects group A streptococci, but does not, of itself, implicate a causative role in the patient's pharyngitis...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926119/procaine-is-a-specific-dna-methylation-inhibitor-with-anti-tumor-effect-for-human-gastric-cancer
#5
Yong-Chao Li, Yun Wang, Dan-Dan Li, Ying Zhang, Tian-Cheng Zhao, Chang-Feng Li
DNA hypermethylation and the silencing of tumor suppressor genes caused by DNA hypermethylation is considered as a molecular hallmark of many kinds of cancers. Procaine, a local anesthetic, has been shown as a potential DNA methylation inhibitor in some types of cancers. However, the influence of procaine on DNA methylation regulation as well as the biological function in gastric cancer is still unknown. We report here that procaine represses the DNA-methylation level and promotes the proliferation arrest and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893972/cross-sectional-study-of-antimicrobials-used-for-surgical-prophylaxis-by-bovine-veterinary-practitioners-in-australia
#6
Laura Y Hardefeldt, Glen F Browning, Karin A Thursky, James R Gilkerson, Helen Billman-Jacobe, Mark A Stevenson, Kirsten E Bailey
Antimicrobials are widely used in veterinary practices, but there has been no investigation of antimicrobial classes used or the appropriateness of their use in bovine practice. This study investigated antimicrobial use for surgical prophylaxis in bovine practice in Australia. A cross-sectional study of veterinarian antimicrobial usage patterns was conducted using an online questionnaire. Information solicited included respondent's details, the frequency with which antimicrobials were used for specific surgical conditions (including the dose, timing and duration of therapy) and details of practice antimicrobial use policies and sources of information about antimicrobials...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844761/the-effect-of-pharmacological-inactivation-of-the-mammillary-body-and-anterior-thalamic-nuclei-on-hippocampal-theta-rhythm-in-urethane-anesthetized-rats
#7
Witold Żakowski, Piotr Zawistowski, Łukasz Braszka, Edyta Jurkowlaniec
The mammillary body (MB) and the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are closely related structures, which take part in learning and memory processes. However, the exact role of these structures has remained unclear. In both structures neurons firing according to hippocampal theta rhythm have been found, mainly in the medial mammillary nucleus (MM) and anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV). These neurons are driven by descending projections from the hippocampal formation and are thought to convey theta rhythm back to the hippocampus (HP)...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829094/amphiphilic-carbosilane-dendrons-as-a-novel-synthetic-platform-toward-micelle-formation
#8
Carlos E Gutierrez-Ulloa, Marina Yu Buyanova, Evgeny K Apartsin, Alya G Venyaminova, F Javier de la Mata, Mercedes Valiente, Rafael Gómez
A novel family of amphiphilic ionic carbosilane dendrons containing fatty acids at the focal point were synthesized and characterized. They spontaneously self-assembled in aqueous solution into micelles both in the absence and presence of salt, as confirmed by surface tension, conductivity, and DLS measurements. Dendron based micelles have spherical shapes and increase in size on decreasing dendron generation. These dendritic micelles have been demonstrated to be able to form complexes with therapeutic macromolecules such as siRNA and show a high loading capacity for drugs such as procaine, suggesting their potential use as nanocarriers for therapeutics...
September 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614439/residual-volume-in-vials-of-antibiotics-used-in-pediatrics
#9
Caroline Magna Pessoa Chaves, Carolina Martins Bezerra, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira Lima, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Viviane Martins da Silva
OBJECTIVE: Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. METHOD: This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%...
June 12, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611605/different-roles-for-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-and-central-complex-in-visual-learning-of-colored-lights-in-an-aversive-conditioning-assay
#10
Jenny A Plath, Brian V Entler, Nicholas H Kirkerud, Ulrike Schlegel, C Giovanni Galizia, Andrew B Barron
The honey bee is an excellent visual learner, but we know little about how and why it performs so well, or how visual information is learned by the bee brain. Here we examined the different roles of two key integrative regions of the brain in visual learning: the mushroom bodies and the central complex. We tested bees' learning performance in a new assay of color learning that used electric shock as punishment. In this assay a light field was paired with electric shock. The other half of the conditioning chamber was illuminated with light of a different wavelength and not paired with shocks...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608525/antimicrobials-used-for-surgical-prophylaxis-by-equine-veterinary-practitioners-in-australia
#11
L Y Hardefeldt, G F Browning, K Thursky, J R Gilkerson, H Billman-Jacobe, M A Stevenson, K E Bailey
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are widely used in Australian veterinary practices, but no investigation into the classes of antimicrobials used or the appropriateness of use in horses has been conducted. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe antimicrobial use for surgical prophylaxis in equine practice in Australia. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. METHODS: An online questionnaire was used to document antimicrobial usage patterns...
June 13, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580612/utility-of-basophil-activation-testing-to-assess-perioperative-anaphylactic-reactions-in-real-world-practice
#12
Bernadette Eberlein, Sibylle Wigand, Heidrun Lewald, Eberhard Kochs, Johannes Ring, Tilo Biedermann, Ulf Darsow
INTRODUCTION: Perioperative anaphylactic reactions due to drugs and substances associated with general anesthesia can potentially be life-threatening. The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of the basophil activation test (BAT) for allergy diagnosis work up. METHODS: A total of 14 patients (5 men, 9 women; mean age: 57.8 years) with clinical records of anaphylactic reactions under general anesthesia were studied by means of anesthesia records, skin and serological tests...
June 5, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536632/avoiding-the-side-effects-of-electric-current-pulse-application-to-electroporated-cells-in-disposable-small-volume-cuvettes-assures-good-cell-survival
#13
Maciej Grys, Zbigniew Madeja, Włodzimierz Korohoda
BACKGROUND: The harmful side effects of electroporation to cells due to local changes in pH, the appearance of toxic electrode products, temperature increase, and the heterogeneity of the electric field acting on cells in the cuvettes used for electroporation were observed and discussed in several laboratories. If cells are subjected to weak electric fields for prolonged periods, for example in experiments on cell electrophoresis or galvanotaxis the same effects are seen. In these experiments investigators managed to reduce or eliminate the harmful side effects of electric current application...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526693/a-simple-laboratory-exercise-with-rat-isolated-esophagus-and-stomach-fundus-to-reveal-functional-differences-between-striated-and-smooth-muscle-cells
#14
Francisco José Batista-Lima, Kalinne Kelly Lima Gadelha, Daniel Maia Oliveira, Thiago Brasileiro Vasconcelos, Teresinha Silva Brito, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
This study describes an undergraduate student laboratory activity using isolated preparations from rat gastrointestinal tissues that possess contractile profiles typically exhibited by striated and smooth muscle cells. While students are introduced to an ex vivo methodology, they can compare differences in trace experiments, twitch aspects, phasic and tonic properties, force-frequency relationships, and pharmacological responsiveness of esophageal (striated) and fundic (smooth muscle) segments. Muscle strips were subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) applied by platinum electrodes immersed in the physiological solution...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492141/procaine-inhibits-proliferation-and-migration-of-colon-cancer-cells-through-inactivation-of-the-erk-mapk-fak-pathways-by-regulation-of-rhoa
#15
Chang Li, Shuohui Gao, Xiaoping Li, Chang Li, Lianjun Ma
Colon cancer is one of the lethal varieties of cancer. Chemotherapy remains to be one of the principal treatment approaches for colon cancer. Anticancer activity of procaine (PCA), which is a local anesthetic drug, has been explored in different studies. In our study, we aimed to explore the anticancer effect of PCA on colon cancer and its underlying mechanism. The results showed that PCA significantly inhibited cell viability, increased the percentage of apoptotic cells and decreased the expression level of RhoA in HCT116 cells in a dose dependent manner (P<0...
May 11, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482477/stereocomplex-poly-lactic-acid-nanocoated-chitosan-microparticles-for-the-sustained-release-of-hydrophilic-drugs
#16
Laura Pastorino, Elena Dellacasa, Paola Petrini, Orietta Monticelli
In this work, novel chitosan based microparticles were developed by the layer-by-layer deposition of poly(lactic acid) stereocomplex films on their surface in the view of controlling the release of encapsulated hydrophilic drugs. As first step, the quartz crystal microbalance technique was used to monitor the step-by-step deposition of the stereocomplex layers onto chitosan by evaluating the deposited mass for each layer. Chitosan microparticles, with a size ranging between 40 and 90μm, were then produced by an aerodynamically-assisted jetting technique and covered by a poly(lactic acid) stereocomplex shell...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338089/neurotoxicity-comparison-of-two-types-of-local-anaesthetics-amide-bupivacaine-versus-ester-procaine
#17
Xu-Jiao Yu, Wei Zhao, Yu-Jie Li, Feng-Xian Li, Zhong-Jie Liu, Hua-Li Xu, Lu-Ying Lai, Rui Xu, Shi-Yuan Xu
Local anaesthetics (LAs) may lead to neurological complications, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Many neurotoxicity research studies have examined different LAs, but none have comprehensively explored the distinct mechanisms of neurotoxicity caused by amide- (bupivacaine) and ester- (procaine) type LAs. Here, based on a CCK8 assay, LDH assay, Rhod-2-AM and JC-1 staining, 2',7'-dichlorohy-drofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium probes, an alkaline comet assay, and apoptosis assay, we show that both bupivacaine and procaine significantly induce mitochondrial calcium overload and a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as overproduction of ROS, DNA damage and apoptosis (P < 0...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285862/comparing-the-effectiveness-of-vapocoolant-spray-and-lidocaine-procaine-cream-in-reducing-pain-of-intravenous-cannulation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Asghar Dalvandi, Hadi Ranjbar, Maryam Hatamizadeh, Abolfazl Rahgoi, Colleen Bernstein
INTRODUCTION: Venous cannulation is the most common procedure in emergency departments. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of vapocoolant spray and EMLA cream in reduction of pain during venous cannulation in 6-12years old children. METHODS: The study was a randomized clinical trial with a crossover design. It took place between June and December 2015 at Ali-Asghar hospital in Tehran, Iran. 40 Thalassemic children who need regular blood transfusions were randomly assigned in two groups...
August 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285487/load-carriage-related-paresthesias-part-2-meralgia-paresthetica
#19
REVIEW
Joseph J Knapik, Katy Reynolds, Robin Orr, Rodney Pope
This is the second of a two-part series addressing symptoms, evaluation, and treatment of load carriage- related paresthesias. Part 1 addressed rucksack palsy and digitalgia paresthetica; here, meralgia paresthetica (MP) is discussed. MP is a mononeuropathy involving the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). MP has been reported in load carriage situations where the LFCN was compressed by rucksack hipbelts, pistol belts, parachute harnesses, and body armor. In the US military, the rate of MP is 6.2 cases/10,000 personyears...
December 0: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267672/local-anesthetic-effects-of-bupivacaine-loaded-lipid-polymer-hybrid-nanoparticles-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#20
Pengju Ma, Ting Li, Huaixin Xing, Suzhen Wang, Yingui Sun, Xiugui Sheng, Kaiguo Wang
PURPOSE: There is a compelling need for prolonged local anesthetic that would be used for analgesia with a single administration. However, due to the low molecular weight of local anesthetics (LA) (lidocaine, bupivacaine, procaine, dibucaine, etc), they present fast systemic absorption. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate bupivacaine lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (BVC LPNs), and compared with BVC loaded PLGA nanoparticles (BVC NPs)...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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