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Elke Abbeloos, Satu Pyörälä, Päivi Rajala-Schultz, Vesa Myllys
The aim of this study was to determine the intramammary dose of benzylpenicillin required to maintain a concentration in the milk above the MIC for the Gram-positive bacteria that cause mastitis. The product used in this study was a commercially available procaine benzylpenicillin in an oily suspension with micronized particles. Three dose levels were used: 200,000, 300,000, and 600,000 IU. Concentrations of benzylpenicillin in cow milk and plasma were determined after a single intramammary dose was administered into one quarter of each of the five cows in each treatment group...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Claudia Chirollo, Antonio Vassallo, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Barbara Lamagna, Gennaro Tortora, Gianluca Neglia, Nunziatina De Tommasi, Lorella Severino
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the persistence of penicillin G and dihydrostreptomycin in milk of lactating buffaloes following intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin G (200,000 IU/mL) and dihydrostreptomycin sulfate (250 mg/mL) every 24 h for 3 days. Milk samples were collected twice daily up to 13th milking post-treatment and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical method has been validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mohamed Zeineldin, Brian Aldridge, Benjamin Blair, Katherine Kancer, James Lowe
The continuous administration of antimicrobials in swine production has been widely criticized with the increase of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and dysbiosis of the beneficial microbial communities. While an increasing number of studies investigate the effects of antimicrobial administration on swine gastrointestinal microbiota biodiversity, the impact of their use on the composition and diversity of nasal microbial communities has not been widely explored. The objective of this study was to characterize the short-term impact of different parenteral antibiotics administration on the composition and diversity of nasal microbial communities in growing pigs...
May 24, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Aysun Ankay Yilbas, Basak Akca, Berkem Buyukakkus, Elham Bahador Zirh, Dilara Zeybek, Filiz Uzumcugil, Fatma Saricaoglu
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular local anaesthetics are widely used for providing postoperative analgesia and decreasing the need for opioids. Procaine has proven positive effects in carpal tunnel syndrome and chondromalacia patella. However, the effect of procaine on articular cartilage has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular procaine injection on the articular cartilage and the synovium. METHODS: Twenty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in the study...
May 9, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
L Y Hardefeldt, J R Gilkerson, H Billman-Jacobe, M A Stevenson, K Thursky, G F Browning, K E Bailey
Antimicrobial resistance is a public health emergency, placing veterinary antimicrobial use under growing scrutiny. Antimicrobial stewardship, through appropriate use of antimicrobials, is a response to this threat. The need for antimicrobial stewardship in Australian veterinary practices has had limited investigation. A 2016 survey undertaken to investigate antimicrobial usage patterns by Australian veterinarians found that antimicrobial dose rates were varied and often inappropriate. Doses of procaine penicillin in horses and cattle were often low, with 68% and 90% of respondents, respectively, reporting doses that were unlikely to result in plasma concentrations above minimum inhibitory concentrations for common equine and bovine pathogens...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
John A W Wildsmith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
S V Revenko, L N Tikhomirova, A V Nesterov, I A Tarakanov
In experiments on narcotized rats, BP in the left femoral artery as well as local electrical potential and electrical impedance of the symmetric segment of the right femoral artery were simultaneously recorded in situ with two extracellular nonpolarizable Ag/AgCl electrodes located along the artery at a distance of 3 mm from each other. The pulsatile arterial electrical potentials with amplitude of 100-200 μV and duration of about 50 msec were recorded, which coincided with the front of BP wave corrected for a 10-msec delay of the pressure transducer...
April 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Muhammad Nur Salim, Dian Masyitha, Abdul Harris, Ummu Balqis, Cut Dahlia Iskandar, Muhammad Hambal, Darmawi
Aim: The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential of Jatropha curcas latex in the cream formulation on CD68 immune expression (macrophages) during inflammatory phase wound healing process in mice skin. Materials and Methods: Amount of 12 two-months-old male mice were used between 30 and 40 g. To surgical procedures, wound skin incision was performed 2.0 cm in length until subcutaneous on the paravertebral of each animal. The treatment was carried under locally anesthetized with procaine cream...
February 2018: Veterinary World
Gerhard van der Horst, Monique Bennett, John D D Bishop
Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus...
April 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Fan Wu, Jintao Wang, Jianming Sun, Liman Shen, Meijuan Liu, Erjun Zhao
The present study aimed to investigate whether procaine may upregulate the expression of aquaporin‑5 (AQP5) in human salivary gland ductal cells and the underlying mechanisms of this upregulation. Immortalized normal human salivary gland ductal cells (NS‑SV‑DC), lacking AQP5 protein expression, were used to measure the glandular secretion rate following treatment with procaine, and the protein expression levels of AQP5 in NS‑SV‑DC cells were measured by western blotting. In order to investigate the mechanism of procaine action on AQP5 protein expression, the protein expression and activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1, and the CpG methylation of AQP5, were investigated further...
June 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Stephen Hodgins
Severe bacterial infections remain one of the three leading causes of newborn death world-wide. Most such deaths could be prevented with timely and appropriate antibiotic treatment. However in low-income countries, there are many such cases for which, practically speaking, it is not currently feasible to offer gold-standard, in-patient treatment with 7 days of parenteral antibiotics. Recent trial results, however, provide evidence for efficacy using simpler out-patient antibiotic regimens, equivalent to treatment with 7 days of procaine penicillin and gentamicin, given on an outpatient basis...
March 27, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Mohamed Zeineldin, Brian Aldridge, Benjamin Blair, Katherine Kancer, James Lowe
While antimicrobials are cost-effective tools for prevention and treatment of infectious disease, the impact of their use on potentially beneficent mucosal microbial communities of growing pigs has not been widely explored. The objective of this study was to characterize the impact of parenteral antibiotics administration on the composition and diversity of the resident fecal microbiota in growing pigs. Five antimicrobial treatment groups, each consisting of four, eight-week old piglets, were administered one of the antimicrobials; Ceftiofur Crystalline free acid (CCFA), Ceftiofur hydrochloride (CHC), Oxytetracycline (OTC), Procaine Penicillin G (PPG) and Tulathromycin (TUL) at label dose and route...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Loretta T Ford, Jonathan D Berg
Introduction Novel psychotropic substances also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for novel psychoactive substances. In 2015, we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service search dog training team to advise on which novel psychoactive substances to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for novel psychotropic substances during routine searches of prison mail rooms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Svetlana S Efimova, Evgeny G Chulkov, Olga S Ostroumova
The effects of local anesthetics (LAs), namely, lidocaine (LDC), prilocaine (PLC), mepivacaine (MPV), bupivacaine (BPV), procaine (PC), and tetracaine (TTC), on the steady-state transmembrane conductance induced by the cis-side addition of the antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotic, nystatin (NYS), in planar lipid bilayers were studied. The addition of TTC to model membranes comprising DOPC and cholesterol (33 mol%) led to a nearly twenty-fold increase in the steady-state NYS-induced membrane conductance...
June 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Marianne Knuth, Oliver Temme, Thomas Daldrup, Evelyn Pawlik
For different reasons, street cocaine is often diluted with pharmacologically active substances, the so-called adulterants such as levamisole or hydroxyzine. A controversial debate exists currently on the uptake of adulterants from cocaine preparations and drug-related death. Previous research convincingly argues that serious adverse side effects that affect the central nervous and cardiovascular systems can be a consequence of adulterated cocaine. AIMS: Having identified the presence of adulterants in lung tissue and blood, the concentrations of these substances in brain, an important target location, was of interest...
April 2018: Forensic Science International
Susan Tuddenham, Khalil G Ghanem
After reaching a nadir at the turn of the century, syphilis rates in the United States have increased since 2000. Treponema pallidum may disseminate to the central nervous system within hours to days after inoculation. In this review, we focus on knowledge gaps and areas of controversy in neurosyphilis epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Modern estimates of the prevalence of neurosyphilis are hindered by the lack of consistent reporting data and are based on relatively small retrospective cohort studies...
March 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
G Touzot-Jourde, A Relun, N Cesbron, R Guatteo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Tatiana D Viena, Stephanie B Linley, Robert P Vertes
The hippocampal formation (HF) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) play critical roles in spatial working memory (SWM). The nucleus reuniens (RE) of the ventral midline thalamus is an important anatomical link between the HF and mPFC, and as such is crucially involved in SWM functions that recruit both structures. Little is known, however, regarding the role of RE in other behaviors mediated by this circuit. In the present study, we examined the role of RE in spatial working memory and executive functioning following reversible inactivation of RE with either muscimol or procaine...
April 2018: Hippocampus
Markus Zilker, Fritz Sörgel, Ulrike Holzgrabe
Pharmaceutical manufacturers have to study the stability of drug products before marketing according to ICH guideline Q1A(R2); data of those investigations aim to set expiry dates. The expiry date on the container of a remedy assures the physician and the patient a stability of the drug in its formulation i.e. within a specification of 95-105%. Only few studies show that shelf-lives of pharmaceutical products are often longer than expiration dates. The objective of the study presented here was determining the content of nine expired ampoules manufactured in the last century and identifying the impurity profile by means of HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS, respectively...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Zhengyin Yan, Susan Wong, Jane Kelly, Hoa Le, Ning Liu, Mika Kosaka, Suzanne Tey, Peter Vuong, Albert Li
A recent advancement in isolation and cryopreservation has resulted in commercially available primary human enterocytes that express various drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters. The main objective of this study was to further evaluate the utility of pooled cryopreserved enterocytes, specifically MetMax™ cryopreserved human enterocytes (In Vitro ADMET Laboratories), as an in vitro model for assessing intestinal clearance in comparison to hepatocytes. It was found that, for CYP3A4 substrates such as midazolam, amprenavir and loperamide, in vitro metabolic clearance is generally lower in enterocytes compared to that of hepatocytes, which is consistent with the relative abundance of the enzyme between the intestine and liver...
December 12, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
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