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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138984/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-and-hypertension-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Matthew A Bailey
The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome...
November 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137141/steroid-and-xenobiotic-receptor-signalling-in-apoptosis-and-autophagy-of-the-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Agnieszka Wnuk, Małgorzata Kajta
Apoptosis and autophagy are involved in neural development and in the response of the nervous system to a variety of insults. Apoptosis is responsible for cell elimination, whereas autophagy can eliminate the cells or keep them alive, even in conditions lacking trophic factors. Therefore, both processes may function synergistically or antagonistically. Steroid and xenobiotic receptors are regulators of apoptosis and autophagy; however, their actions in various pathologies are complex. In general, the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors mediate anti-apoptotic signalling, whereas the androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors participate in pro-apoptotic pathways...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129576/cardiometabolic-outcomes-and-mortality-in-medically-treated-primary-aldosteronism-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Gregory L Hundemer, Gary C Curhan, Nicholas Yozamp, Molin Wang, Anand Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are the recommended medical therapy for primary aldosteronism. Whether this recommendation effectively reduces cardiometabolic risk is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the risk of incident cardiovascular events in patients with primary aldosteronism treated with MR antagonists compared with patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: We did a cohort study using patients from a research registry from Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and their affiliated partner hospitals...
November 9, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127314/modulation-of-transcriptional-mineralocorticoid-receptor-activity-by-casein-kinase-2
#4
Stefanie Ruhs, Nicole Strätz, Katja Quarch, Antonia Masch, Mike Schutkowski, Michael Gekle, Claudia Grossmann
The pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is a multifunctional process in which the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, is involved as proven by numerous clinical studies. The development of pathophysiological MR actions depends on the existence of additional factors e.g. inflammatory cytokines and seems to involve posttranslational MR modifications e.g. phosphorylation. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that can be activated under inflammatory conditions as the MR...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126194/central-and-peripheral-slow-pressor-mechanisms-contributing-to
#5
Jiao Lu, Hong-Wei Wang, Monir Ahmad, Marzieh Keshtkar-Jahromi, Mordecai P Blaustein, John Hamlyn, Frans H H Leenen
Aims: High salt intake markedly enhances hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). We explored central and peripheral slow-pressor mechanisms which may be activated by Ang II and salt. Methods and Results: In Protocol I, Wistar rats were infused subcutaneously with low- dose Ang II (150 ng/kg/min) and fed regular (0.4%) or high salt (2%) diet for 14 days. In Protocol II, Ang II -high salt was combined with intracerebroventricular infusion of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockers (eplerenone, spironolactone), epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker (benzamil), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (losartan) or vehicles...
November 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121365/irvine-gass-macular-edema-responding-to-the-combination-of-oral-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-with-dexamethasone-drops
#6
Alexandre Matet, Alejandra Daruich, Francine Behar-Cohen
Long-lasting postoperative macular edema is a therapeutic challenge. The authors report an efficient combination therapy of oral mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (eplerenone [Inspra; Pfizer, New York City, NY] or spironolactone, 25 mg/day to 50 mg/day) and topical dexamethasone (four times/day and progressive dose tapering) in three refractory cases following complex cataract or retinal detachment surgery. In Case 1, central macular thickness (CMT) decreased from 523 μm to 214 μm and visual acuity (VA) improved from 20/200 to 20/50 during a 6-month period...
November 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105481/different-therapeutic-options-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-due-to-bilateral-macronodular-adrenal-hyperplasia
#7
Nora M Albiger, Daniela Regazzo, Maurizio Iacobone, Carla Scaroni
Bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) is a relatively rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS). In recent years, growing evidence has shown that steroidogenesis is regulated by aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expression and their ligands, in a significant proportion of patients with BMAH. The screening of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrate the frequent expression of several GPCR that opened the option to potential therapeutic applications. Thus, several studies have demonstrated that targeting the involved receptor with specific antagonists, may result in a more or less effective control of cortisol excess...
November 3, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102802/psychosocial-stress-sensitizes-neuroendocrine-and-inflammatory-responses-to-escherichia-coli-challenge-in-domestic-piglets
#8
Margret Tuchscherer, Birger Puppe, Armin Tuchscherer, Ellen Kanitz
Exposure to psychosocial stress can have a profound impact on immune reactivity and health mediated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. However, current knowledge regarding the mechanisms involved in cross-sensitization between stress and the immune system is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of a single social isolation followed by repeated oral Escherichia coli (E. coli) applications on cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the blood; on clinical signs of disease; and on mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2), TNF-α and IL-6 in the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and spleen of 7-, 21- and 35-day-old piglets...
November 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100174/the-role-of-genetic-variation-in-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-nr3c1-and-mineralocorticoid-receptor-nr3c2-in-the-association-between-cortisol-response-and-cognition-under-acute-stress
#9
Thomas Plieger, Andrea Felten, Hanna Splittgerber, Éilish Duke, Martin Reuter
Although HPA - axis reactivity has repeatedly been related to cognitive functioning, ambiguity remains regarding the direction of the effect, i.e. whether it benefits or impairs functioning. Genetic factors that contribute to HPA - axis reactivity on the one hand and to cognitive functioning on the other could therefore help clarify the association between stress and cognition. We genotyped 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the NR3C1 gene (rs10482682, rs33389, rs10482633, rs10515522, rs2963156, rs4128428, rs9324918, rs41423247, rs6189, rs10052957) coding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 4 SNPs on the NR3C2 gene (rs6810951, rs4635799, rs11099695, rs2070950) coding for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and required N=126 healthy males to perform tasks assessing attention and reasoning before and after experiencing an acute laboratory stressor (the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, SECPT)...
October 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099925/quality-of-life-in-primary-aldosteronism-a-comparative-effectiveness-study-of-adrenalectomy-and-medical-treatment
#10
Marieke Velema, Tanja Dekkers, Ad Hermus, Henri Timmers, Jacques Lenders, Hans Groenewoud, Leo Schultze Kool, Johan Langenhuijsen, Aleksander Prejbisz, Gert-Jan van der Wilt, Jaap Deinum
Context: In primary aldosteronism (PA) two subtypes are distinguished: aldosterone-producing adenoma and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. In general these are treated by adrenalectomy and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists respectively. Objective: To compare the effects of surgical treatment and medical treatment on quality of life (QoL). Design: Post-hoc comparative effectiveness study within the SPARTACUS trial. Setting: Twelve Dutch hospitals and one Polish hospital...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097746/quality-of-medical-therapy-in-heart-failure-patients-undergoing-elective-revascularisation-a-protective-effect-of-disease-modifying-therapy-at-discharge
#11
Raphael Wurm, Martin Huelsmann, Marius Hienert, Veronika Seidl, Dominik Wiedemann, Guenther Laufer, Alfred Kocher, Christopher Adlbrecht, Martin Andreas
The STICH(-ES) trial showed that coronary artery bypass grafting was superior to medical therapy alone in treating ischemic heart failure. However, dosages of disease modifying drugs were not reported. We included 128 (84% male, mean age 66 ± 11 years) consecutive patients with ischemic heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤35% undergoing isolated elective coronary artery bypass grafting. We defined optimal medical therapy (OMT) as prescription of ≥50% dosages of guideline recommended medications (i...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092740/preoperative-aldosterone-receptor-blockade-and-outcomes-of-cardiac-surgery-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease%C3%A2
#12
Linda Shavit, Shuli Silberman, Rachel Tauber, Ofer Merin, Daniel Bitran, Daniel Fink
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent clinical evidence demonstrates that chronic low-dose mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA), when added to optimal treatment, result in reductions in cardiovascular mortality. However, continuation of MRAs before cardiac surgery in patients with CKD has never been evaluated and its potential benefit or harm in this specific clinical setting is largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational study that included adult CKD patients undergoing cardiac surgery...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081780/deletion-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-myeloid-cells-attenuates-central-nervous-system-autoimmunity
#13
Elena Montes-Cobos, Nils Schweingruber, Xiao Li, Henrike J Fischer, Holger M Reichardt, Fred Lühder
Myeloid cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Monocytes, macrophages, and microglia can adopt two distinct phenotypes, with M1-polarized cells being more related to inflammation and autoimmunity while M2-polarized cells contribute to tissue repair and anti-inflammatory processes. Here, we show that deletion of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in bone marrow-derived macrophages and peritoneal macrophages caused their polarization toward the M2 phenotype with its distinct gene expression, altered phagocytic and migratory properties, and dampened NO production...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081661/managing-resistant-hypertension-focus-on-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists
#14
REVIEW
Juan Carlos Yugar-Toledo, Rodrigo Modolo, Ana Paula de Faria, Heitor Moreno
Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists (MRAs) have proven to be effective in some types of hypertension, especially in resistant hypertension (RHTN). In this phenotype of hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway plays an important role, with MRAs being especially effective in reducing blood pressure. In this review, we show the relevance of aldosterone in RHTN, as well as some clinical characteristics of this condition and the main concepts involving its pathophysiology and cardiovascular damage...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079406/aldosterone-induced-protein-kinase-signalling-and-the-control-of-electrolyte-balance
#15
REVIEW
Brian J Harvey, Warren Thomas
Aldosterone acts through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to modulate gene expression in target tissues. In the kidney, the principal action of aldosterone is to promote sodium conservation in the distal nephron and so indirectly enhance water conservation under conditions of hypotension. Over the last twenty years the rapid activation of protein kinase signalling cascades by aldosterone has been described in various tissues. This review describes the integration of rapid protein kinase D signalling responses with the non-genomic actions of aldosterone and transcriptional effects of MR activation...
October 24, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061727/aldosterone-target-ngal-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-is-involved-in-cardiac-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-through-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#16
Ernesto Martínez-Martínez, Mathieu Buonafine, Ines Boukhalfa, Jaime Ibarrola, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Peter Kolkhof, Patrick Rossignol, Nicolas Girerd, Paul Mulder, Natalia López-Andrés, Antoine Ouvrard-Pascaud, Frédéric Jaisser
Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied by cardiac fibrosis, which contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have beneficial effects in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after MI. We herein investigated the role of the MR target NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in post-MI cardiac damages. Both higher baseline NGAL and a greater increase in serum NGAL levels during follow-up were significantly associated with lower 6-month LV ejection fraction recovery in a cohort of 119 post-MI patients, as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging...
October 23, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061719/mineralocorticoid-receptor-dependent-adverse-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-mediated-by-ungalant-activation-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#17
EDITORIAL
Johann Bauersachs, Daniela Fraccarollo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056546/extended-fasting-does-not-affect-the-liver-innate-immune-response-in-rainbow-trout
#18
Anju M Philip, Even H Jørgensen, Alec G Maule, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Activation of immune response pathway is energy demanding. We tested the hypothesis that negative energy balance will curtail the liver's capacity to evoke an immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were either fed or fasted for 118 d and challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine the liver capacity to elicit an immune response. Fasting led to negative specific growth rate, reduced tissue metabolite levels, and higher transcript abundance of SOCS-2. LPS treatment increased the liver transcript abundances of IL-1β and IL-8 and serum amyloid protein A, while SOCS-2 was reduced...
October 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055972/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-%C3%AE-blocker-treatment-in-asian-patients-with-heart-failure
#19
Yoshiaki Kubota, Wan Ting Tay, Kuniya Asai, Koji Murai, Ikutaro Nakajima, Nobuhisa Hagiwara, Takanori Ikeda, Takashi Kurita, Tiew-Hwa Katherine Teng, Inder Anand, Carolyn S P Lam, Wataru Shimizu
AIMS: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) are increasingly frequent in Asia and commonly coexist in patients. However, the prevalence of COPD among Asian patients with HF and its impact on HF treatment are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared clinical characteristics and treatment approaches between patients with or without a history of COPD, before and after 1:2 propensity matching (for age, sex, geographical region, income level, and ethnic group) in 5232 prospectively recruited patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, <40%) from 11 Asian regions (Northeast Asia: South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China; South Asia: India; Southeast Asia: Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, and Singapore)...
October 21, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052707/the-spectrum-of-subclinical-primary-aldosteronism-and-incident-hypertension-a-cohort-study
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jenifer M Brown, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Matthew A Allison, Rene Baudrand, Joachim H Ix, Bryan Kestenbaum, Ian H de Boer, Anand Vaidya
Background: Primary aldosteronism is recognized as a severe form of renin-independent aldosteronism that results in excessive mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation. Objective: To investigate whether a spectrum of subclinical renin-independent aldosteronism that increases risk for hypertension exists among normotensive persons. Design: Cohort study. Setting: National community-based study. Participants: 850 untreated normotensive participants in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with measurements of serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA)...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
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