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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913994/sox2-inhibition-promotes-promoter-demethylation-of-cdx2-to-facilitate-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia
#2
Haijing Niu, Yuchen Jia, Tao Li, Bingzhong Su
BACKGROUND: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is regarded as a premalignant lesion, conferring risks for gastric cancer development. An intestinal transcription factor, CDX2, plays a vital role in establishing and maintaining IM. SOX2, an HMG-box transcription factor, is expressed in normal gastric mucosa and downregulated in IM. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the mutual interaction of SOX2 and CDX2 in gastric IM. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the negative correlation between SOX2 and CDX2 in mRNA expression and promoter methylation and to illuminate the effect of SOX2 on the promoter methylation of CDX2...
December 2, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913470/role-of-the-intestinal-mucosa-in-acute-gastrointestinal-gvhd
#3
Jonathan U Peled, Alan M Hanash, Robert R Jenq
Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The intestinal mucosa comprises the inner lining of the intestinal tract and maintains close proximity with commensal microbes that reside within the intestinal lumen. Recent advances have significantly improved our understanding of the interactions between the intestinal mucosa and the enteric microbiota. Changes in host mucosal tissue and commensals posttransplant have been actively investigated, and provocative insights into mucosal immunity and the enteric microbiota are now being translated into clinical trials of novel approaches for preventing and treating acute GVHD...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913053/intestinal-metaplasia-of-appendiceal-endometriosis-is-not-uncommon-and-may-mimic-appendiceal-mucinous-neoplasm
#4
Monika Vyas, Serena Wong, Xuchen Zhang
Endometriosis of the appendix can be an incidental finding or a cause of appendicitis, intussusception, perforation or retention mucocele. Intestinal metaplasia of appendiceal endometriosis may occur, which can lead to a misdiagnosis of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. On a retrospective search of the pathology database from 2001 to 2015, we identified 78 appendiceal endometriosis cases and intestinal metaplasia was present in 10/78 (13%) cases. In most of the cases (90%), the foci of intestinal metaplasia were mainly localized close to the mucosa...
October 25, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913042/objective-analysis-of-cancer-stem-cell-marker-expression-using-immunohistochemistry
#5
T J Miller, M J McCoy, C Hemmings, M K Bulsara, B Iacopetta, C F Platell
Analysis of immunohistochemical expression is often a subjective and semiquantitative process that can lead to the inconsistent reporting of results. To assess the effect that region selection and quantification method have on results, five different cancer stem cell markers were used in this study to compare tissue scoring with digital analysis methods that used three different tissue annotation methods. Samples of tumour and normal mucosa were used from 10 consecutive stage II colon cancer patients and stained for the putative cancer stem cell markers ALDH1, CD44v6, CD133, Lgr5 and SOX2...
November 29, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912972/fate-of-males-with-urethral-y-duplication-40-year-long-follow-up-in-8-patients
#6
Mario Lima, Francesca Destro, Neil Di Salvo, Tommaso Gargano, Giovanni Ruggeri
PURPOSE: The spectrum of male urethral duplication is heterogeneous and it includes the Y-duplication. The malformation is rare and there is only a few case series reported in the literature. The management of Y-forms remains challenging for the surgeon and the long-term follow-up is still scarcely investigated. We report our 40-year experience in the management of patients with Y-duplication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a restrospective analysis collecting information of patients with urethral Y-duplication treated at our department from April 1975 to April 2015...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912775/a-novel-long-non-coding-rna-lnc-gnat1-1-is-low-expressed-in-colorectal-cancer-and-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-through-regulating-rkip-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-snail-circuit
#7
Chunxiang Ye, Zhanlong Shen, Bo Wang, Yansen Li, Tao Li, Yang Yang, Kewei Jiang, Yingjiang Ye, Shan Wang
BACKGROUND: The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression has not fully been elucidated. This study was designed to report the identification of a novel lncRNA, lnc-GNAT1-1, and its functional role in CRC progression. METHODS: lncRNA expression profile microarray was performed in three paired primary and liver metastatic tissues of CRC, and a novel lncRNA, lnc-GNAT1-1, was identified to be a potential functional lncRNA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect its expression in CRC tissues, cell lines, and patients' plasma, cell fractionation was used to evaluate its subcellular location...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909963/pathogenic-features-of-dysuria-in-young-women-with-secondary-amenorrhea-caused-by-body-weight-loss
#8
N V Shelkovnikova, A I Neimark, T S Taranina, A K Pichigina, O P Molodyh, E L Lushnikova
We examined 11 women aged 19-26 years (mean age 22.5±3.5 years) with secondary amenorrhea complaining frequent urination over 1.5 years and repeatedly, but unsuccessful treated for overactive bladder and chronic cystitis. The rare cause of sustained urination disorders in young female patients of reproductive age was established: development of secondary amenorrhea caused by weight loss ("cosmetic" amenorrhea) with subsequent estrogene deficit and urogenital atrophy. Morphological examination of the bladder mucosa, an important clue to the diagnosis, helps to identify the true cause of dysuria, urogenital atrophy of the bladder mucosa, in secondary ("cosmetic") amenorrhea, and determine future course of etiopathogenic treatment of sustained dysuria in young women...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909555/effect-of-dual-type-oligosaccharides-on-constipation-in-loperamide-treated-rats
#9
Sung Hee Han, Ki Bae Hong, Eun Young Kim, So Hyun Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909548/microvasculature-of-the-esophagus-and-gastroesophageal-junction-lesson-learned-from-submucosal-endoscopy
#10
REVIEW
Roberta Maselli, Haruhiro Inoue, Haruo Ikeda, Manabu Onimaru, Akira Yoshida, Esperanza Grace Santi, Hiroki Sato, Bu'Hussain Hayee, Shin-Ei Kudo
Advanced therapeutic endoscopy, in particular endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection, per-oral endoscopic myotomy, submucosal endoscopic tumor resection opened a new era where direct esophageal visualization is possible. Combining these information with advanced diagnostic endoscopy, the esophagus is organized, from the luminal side to outside, into five layers (epithelium, lamina propria with lamina muscularis mucosa, submucosa, muscle layer, adventitia). A specific vascular system belonging to each layer is thus visible: Mucosa with the intra papillary capillary loop in the epithelium and the sub-epithelial capillary network in the lamina propria and, at the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) level with the palisade vessels; submucosa with the drainage vessels and the spindle veins at LES level; muscle layer with the perforating vessels; peri-esophageal veins in adventitia...
November 16, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#11
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908629/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-mucus-permeation-capacity-of-several-surface-modified-poly-anhydride-nanoparticles-designed-for-oral-drug-delivery
#12
T Iglesias, A López de Cerain, Juan Manuel Irache, N Martín-Arbella, M Wilcox, J Pearson, A Azqueta
The main concerns with drugs designed for oral administration are their inactivation or degradation in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, their poor solubility through the gastrointestinal mucus gel layer, the poor intestinal epithelium permeability that limits their absorption, and their toxicity. In this context, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are capable of protecting the drug from the harsh environment, reduce the drug's toxicity and, by virtue of surface modification, to enhance or reduce their mucus permeability and the bioadhesion to specific target cells...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908373/management-of-panurethral-stricture
#13
REVIEW
Sanjay Kulkarni, Jyotsna Kulkarni, Sandesh Surana, Pankaj M Joshi
Panurethral stricture, involving the penile and bulbar urethra, is seen across the world .It is a complex disease with a relative paucity of literature on the subject. In India, Lichen Sclerosus is the most common cause of panurethral stricture followed by iatrogenic causes. The article presents the authors' experiences of Panurethral stricture repair using a single stage, One side dissection, dorsal onlay repair with oral mucosa graft.
February 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908370/graft-use-in-bulbar-urethroplasty
#14
REVIEW
Mya E Levy, Sean P Elliott
The gold standard for bulbar urethroplasty has been excision and primary anastomosis. Application of this approach is generally limited to strictures that are 2 cm or less in the bulbar urethra due to penile shortening. Strictures greater than 2 cm are successfully treated with augmentation urethroplasty wherein the narrowed segment is not excised but widened with the use of a skin flap or a tissue graft. Buccal mucosa is the most prevalent tissue for bulbar urethral stricture repair for strictures greater than 2 cm...
February 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908367/use-of-alternative-techniques-and-grafts-in-urethroplasty
#15
REVIEW
Brendan Michael Browne, Alex J Vanni
The current management for complex urethral strictures commonly uses open reconstruction with buccal mucosa urethroplasty. However, there are multiple situations whereby buccal mucosa is inadequate (eg, pan-urethral stricture or prior buccal harvest) or inappropriate for utilization (eg, heavy tobacco use or oral radiation). Multiple options exist for use as alternatives or adjuncts to buccal mucosa in complex urethral strictures. This article reviews the current state of alternate techniques for urethral stricture treatment besides buccal mucosa, including injectable antifibrotic agents, augmentation urethroplasty with skin flaps, lingual mucosa, colonic mucosa, and new developments in tissue engineering for urethral graft material...
February 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908364/management-of-urethral-strictures-after-hypospadias-repair
#16
REVIEW
Warren T Snodgrass, Nicol C Bush
Strictures of the neourethra after hypospadias surgery are more common after skin flap repairs than urethral plate or neo-plate tubularizations. The diagnosis of stricture after hypospadias repair is suspected based on symptoms of stranguria, urinary retention, and/or urinary tract infection. It is confirmed by urethroscopy during anticipated repair, without preoperative urethrography. The most common repairs for neourethra stricture after hypospadias surgery are single-stage dorsal inlay graft and 2-stage labial mucosa replacement urethroplasty...
February 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907206/intestinal-fluid-permeability-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-is-affected-by-dietary-protein-source
#17
Haibin Hu, Trond M Kortner, Karina Gajardo, Elvis Chikwati, John Tinsley, Åshild Krogdahl
In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906777/asymptomatic-bacteriuria-to-screen-or-not-to-screen-and-when-to-treat
#18
Tommaso Cai, Bela Koves, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary treatment. The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the management of ABU. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of ABU management has been evaluated in several patient subgroups: healthy patients without identified risk factors, pregnant women, postmenopausal women, women with recurrent UTI, patients with diabetes, elderly institutionalized patients, patients with renal transplants, patients with indwelling catheters and prior to surgery...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906093/microrna-140-5p-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis-by-targeting-adamts5-and-igfbp5
#19
Lihui Yu, Ying Lu, Xiaocui Han, Wenyue Zhao, Jiazhi Li, Jun Mao, Bo Wang, Jie Shen, Shujun Fan, Lu Wang, Mei Wang, Lianhong Li, Jianwu Tang, Bo Song
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. microRNA-140-5p (miR-140) has been shown to be involved in cartilage development and osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Some contradictions still exist concerning the role of miR-140 in tumor progression and metastasis, and the underlying mechanism is uncertain. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expressions of ADAMTS5 and IGFBP5 in CRC tissues. Human CRC cell lines HCT116 and RKO were transfected with miR-140 mimic, inhibitor, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) against ADAMTS5 or IGFBP5, respectively, using oligofectamine or lipofectamine 2000...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905296/a-pathogenic-role-for-the-integrin-cd103-in-experimental-allergic-airways-disease
#20
Vanessa S Fear, Siew Ping Lai, Graeme R Zosky, Kara L Perks, Shelley Gorman, Fabian Blank, Christophe von Garnier, Philip A Stumbles, Deborah H Strickland
The integrin CD103 is the αE chain of integrin αEβ7 that is important in the maintenance of intraepithelial lymphocytes and recruitment of T cells and dendritic cells (DC) to mucosal surfaces. The role of CD103 in intestinal immune homeostasis has been well described, however, its role in allergic airway inflammation is less well understood. In this study, we used an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced, CD103-knockout (KO) BALB/c mouse model of experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD) to investigate the role of CD103 in disease expression, CD4(+) T-cell activation and DC activation and function in airways and lymph nodes...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
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