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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156775/monophosphoryl-lipid-a-attenuates-radiation-injury-through-tlr4-activation
#1
Jiaming Guo, Yuanyuan Chen, Xiao Lei, Yang Xu, Zhe Liu, Jianming Cai, Fu Gao, Yanyong Yang
Ionizing radiation causes severe damage to human body, and normal tissue toxicity in cancer radiotherapy also limits its further application. It is urgently required to develop safe and effective radioprotector. Our previous study has shown that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) was dispensable for basal radiation resistance. However, severe toxicity of its traditional agonist lipopolysaccharide limits the clinical application. In present study, we demonstrated that monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), a potent TLR4 agonist with low toxicity, effectively attenuated radiation injury on in vitro and in vivo...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156688/frequency-of-expression-and-generation-of-t-cell-responses-against-antigens-on-multiple-myeloma-cells-in-patients-included-in-the-gmmg-mm5-trial
#2
Michael Schmitt, Angela G Hückelhoven, Michael Hundemer, Anita Schmitt, Susanne Lipp, Martina Emde, Hans Salwender, Mathias Hänel, Katja Weisel, Uta Bertsch, Jan Dürig, Anthony D Ho, Igor Wolfgang Blau, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Anja Seckinger, Dirk Hose
Background: Raising T-cell response against antigens either expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells (e.g. HM1.24) or aberrantly on myeloma cells only (e.g. cancer testis antigens, CTA) by vaccination is a potential treatment approach for multiple myeloma. Results: Expression by GEP is found for HM1.24 in all, HMMR in 318/458 (69.4%), MAGE-A3 in 209/458 (45.6%), NY-ESO-1/2 in 40/458 (8.7%), and WT-1 in 4/458 (0.8%) of samples with the pattern being confirmed by RNA-sequencing...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155017/p-glycoprotein-mdr1-abcb1-and-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-bcrp-abcg2-affect-brain-accumulation-and-intestinal-disposition-of-encorafenib-in-mice
#3
Jing Wang, Changpei Gan, Rolf W Sparidans, Els Wagenaar, Stéphanie van Hoppe, Jos H Beijnen, Alfred H Schinkel
Encorafenib (LGX818) is a promising BRAF(V600E) inhibitor that has efficacy against metastatic melanoma. To better understand its pharmacokinetics, we studied its interactions with the multidrug efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 and the multidrug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A. In polarized MDCK-II cells, encorafenib was efficiently transported by canine and human ABCB1 and ABCG2 and by mouse Abcg2. Upon oral administration to wild-type, Abcb1a/1b(-/-), Abcg2(-/-), and Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-) mice, encorafenib was absorbed very quickly and to very high plasma levels, but without clear changes in oral availability between the strains...
November 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151956/strategies-for-bispecific-single-chain-antibody-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Shu-Juan Zhou, Jia Wei, Shu Su, Fang-Jun Chen, Yu-Dong Qiu, Bao-Rui Liu
Genetic engineering has resulted in more than 50 recombinant bispecific antibody formats over the past two decades. Bispecific scFv antibodies represent a successful and promising immunotherapy platform that retargets cytotoxic T cells to tumor cells, with one scFv directed to tumor-associated antigens and the other to T cells. Based on this antibody construct, strategies for both specific tumor targeting and T cell activation are reviewed here. Three distinct types of tumor antigens are considered to optimize specificity and safety in bispecific scFv based treatment: cancer-testis antigens, neo-antigens and virus-associated antigens...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140422/multidisciplinary-clinic-approach-improves-overall-survival-outcomes-of-patients-with-metastatic-germ-cell-tumors
#5
C Albany, N Adra, A C Snavely, C Cary, T A Masterson, R S Foster, K Kesler, T M Ulbright, L Cheng, M Chovanec, F Taza, K Ku, M J Brames, N H Hanna, L H Einhorn
Background: To report our experience utilizing a multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) at Indiana University (IU) since the publication of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG), and to compare our overall survival to that of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients with metastatic germ cell tumor (GCT) seen at IU from 1998-2014...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138811/high-expression-of-mage-a9-contributes-to-stemness-and-malignancy-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Youping Wei, Yanqin Wang, Jing Gong, Lihua Rao, Zhiwei Wu, Teng Nie, Dongling Shi, Liming Zhang
MAGE-A9, a well-characterized cancer testis antigen (CTA), belongs to a member of melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family. In human malignancies, aberrant expression of MAGE genes correlated with poor clinical prognosis, increased tumor growth, metastases, and enrichment in stem cell populations of certain cancers. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to contribute to the major malignant phenotypes of liver cancer, including recurrence, metastasis and chemoresistance. However, expression and potential role of MAGE-A9 in liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) still remain unclear...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130960/piwi-proteins-and-piwi-interacting-rna-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#7
Yi-Neng Han, Yuan Li, Sheng-Qiang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jun-Hua Zheng, Wei Li
P-Element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a type of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and interact with PIWI proteins. piRNAs were primarily described in the germline, but emerging evidence revealed that piRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner among multiple human somatic tissue types as well and play important roles in transposon silencing, epigenetic regulation, gene and protein regulation, genome rearrangement, spermatogenesis and germ stem-cell maintenance. PIWI proteins were first discovered in Drosophila and they play roles in spermatogenesis, germline stem-cell maintenance, self-renewal, retrotransposons silencing and the male germline mobility control...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129333/pitfalls-in-the-interpretation-of-specimens-from-patients-with-testicular-tumours-with-an-emphasis-on-variant-morphologies
#8
REVIEW
Thomas M Ulbright
Accurate diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumours is essential in testicular cancer. While many cases are straightforward, some pose difficulties, especially when variant morphologies occur. Seminoma with 'atypical' features, including increased nuclear pleomorphism and crowding and greater cytoplasmic density with loss of membrane definition, mimics embryonal carcinoma, although ancillary features (fibrous septa, lymphocytes) and immunohistochemistry are of great help. Other deceptive seminoma features include prominent to exclusive intertubular growth, microcystic/tubular patterns, and signet-ring tumour cells...
November 9, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123667/paternal-obesity-how-bad-is-it-for-sperm-quality-and-progeny-health
#9
Georges Raad, Mira Hazzouri, Silvia Bottini, Michele Trabucchi, Joseph Azoury, Valérie Grandjean
There is substantial evidence that paternal obesity is associated not only with an increased incidence of infertility, but also with an increased risk of metabolic disturbance in adult offspring. Apparently, several mechanisms may contribute to the sperm quality alterations associated with paternal obesity, such as physiological/hormonal alterations, oxidative stress, and epigenetic alterations. Along these lines, modifications of hormonal profiles namely reduced androgen levels and elevated estrogen levels, were found associated with lower sperm concentration and seminal volume...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118547/benign-testicular-neoplasm-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patient-masquerading-as-testicular-cancer
#10
Mansi Oberoi, Thanmaya Reddy, Jennifer B Gordetsky, John V Thomas, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, benign neoplasm comprising spindle myoepithelial cells in the background of inflammatory cells. It can involve multiple anatomic sites in the body but rarely involves the testis. We report a case of 52-year-old male patient with a history of human immunodeficiency virus who presented with a painless, testicular mass for 2 months. Despite being treated with prolonged antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, scrotal ultrasound demonstrated an increase in the size of the lesion...
October 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104087/long-term-survival-of-good-risk-germ-cell-tumor-patients-after-postchemotherapy-retroperitoneal-lymph-node-dissection-a-comparison-of-bep%C3%A2-%C3%A3-3-vs-ep%C3%A2-%C3%A3-4-and-treating-institution
#11
Clint Cary, Joseph M Jacob, Costantine Albany, Timothy A Masterson, Nasser H Hanna, Lawrence H Einhorn, Richard S Foster
BACKGROUND: Patients with International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) good-risk testicular cancer might receive either 4 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP × 4) or 3 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP × 3). We sought to examine differences in survival after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) between patients who received EP × 4 compared with BEP × 3. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Indiana University Testis Cancer database was queried to identify IGCCCG good-risk PC-RPLND patients who received either EP × 4 or BEP × 3 induction chemotherapy...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100813/testicular-tumour-size-and-rete-testis-invasion-as-prognostic-factors-for-the-risk-of-relapse-of-clinical-stage-i-seminoma-testis-patients-under-surveillance-a-systematic-review-by-the-testicular-cancer-guidelines-panel
#12
REVIEW
Joost L Boormans, Javier Mayor de Castro, Lorenzo Marconi, Yuhong Yuan, M Pilar Laguna Pes, Carsten Bokemeyer, Nicola Nicolai, Ferran Algaba, Jan Oldenburg, Peter Albers
CONTEXT: Patients with clinical stage I (CS I) seminoma testis with large primary tumours and/or rete testis invasion (RTI) might have an increased risk of relapse. In recent years, these risk factors have frequently been employed to decide on adjuvant treatment. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on tumour size and RTI as risk factors for relapse in CS I seminoma testis patients under surveillance. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Relevant databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to November 2016...
October 31, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094183/a-phase-i-vaccination-study-with-dendritic-cells-loaded-with-ny-eso-1-and-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-induction-of-polyfunctional-t-cells-in-high-risk-melanoma-patients
#13
Olivier Gasser, Katrina J Sharples, Catherine Barrow, Geoffrey M Williams, Evelyn Bauer, Catherine E Wood, Brigitta Mester, Marina Dzhelali, Graham Caygill, Jeremy Jones, Colin M Hayman, Victoria A Hinder, Jerome Macapagal, Monica McCusker, Robert Weinkove, Gavin F Painter, Margaret A Brimble, Michael P Findlay, P Rod Dunbar, Ian F Hermans
Vaccines that elicit targeted tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses have the potential to be used as adjuvant therapy in patients with high risk of relapse. However, the responses induced by vaccines in cancer patients have generally been disappointing. To improve vaccine function, we investigated the possibility of exploiting the immunostimulatory capacity of type 1 Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a cell type enriched in lymphoid tissues that can trigger improved antigen-presenting function in dendritic cells (DCs)...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079177/sinonasal-nut-carcinoma-clinicopathological-and-cytogenetic-analysis-with-autopsy-findings
#14
Hiroshi Minato, Eriko Kobayashi, Satoko Nakada, Nozomu Kurose, Mio Tanaka, Yukichi Tanaka, Shioto Suzuki, Fumihiko Tanioka, Yutaka Saikawa, Takaki Miwa, Takayuki Nojima
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) carcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm with an undifferentiated morphology. Its diagnosis is often difficult, especially as the sinonasal tract gives rise to many tumors with undifferentiated morphologies. Not many cases of sinonasal NUT carcinomas have been reported, and its clinicopathological features have not been sufficiently clarified. In this study, we performed a clinicopathological study of 4 patients with sinonasal NUT carcinoma, including wide-ranging immunohistochemical tests and cytogenetic analyses using fluorescence in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing...
October 24, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072050/long-non-coding-rna-expression-intersecting-cancer-and-spermatogenesis-a-systematic-review
#15
Ali Dianatpour, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Background: Numerous similarities have been noted between gametogenic and tumorigenic programs in features such as global hypomethylation, immune evasion, immortalization, meiosis induction, and migration. In addition, aberrant expression of testis specific genes has been detected in various cancers which has led to categorization of these genes as “cancer-testis genes”. Most of the examples identified in this category are protein encoding. However, recent studies have revealed that non-coding RNAs, including long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs), may have essential regulatory roles in telomere biology, chromatin dynamics, modulation of gene expression and genome structural organization...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070998/an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-metachronous-testicular-primary-nonseminoma-and-seminoma-separated-by-two-decades-and-a-testicular-cancer-literature-review
#16
Dennis Andrew Buck, Tristan Dean Smith, Wilbur Nelson Montana
INTRODUCTION: Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-40 years [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Its incidence comprises 0.8% of all male cancers worldwide, with a mortality rate of 0.1%. The incidence has nearly doubled from 1975 to 2007 leading to the concern of environmental causes [Thomas: Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178: 1240-1245]. Testicular cancer presents as a painless testicular mass without transillumination. Testicular cancer is subcategorized under germ cell testicular cancer or sex cord-stromal tumors...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069438/loss-of-heparan-sulfate-in-the-niche-leads-to-tumor-like-germ-cell-growth-in-the-drosophila-testis
#17
Daniel C Levings, Hiroshi Nakato
The stem cell niche normally prevents aberrant stem cell behaviors that lead to cancer formation. Recent studies suggest that some cancers are derived from endogenous populations of adult stem cells that have somehow escaped from normal control by the niche. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the niche retains stem cells locally and tightly controls their divisions are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of heparan sulfate (HS), a class glygosaminoglycan chains, in the Drosophila germline stem cell niche prevents tumor formation in the testis...
October 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062715/testis-cancer-incidentally-found-following-delayed-presentation-of-traumatic-testicular-rupture
#18
Jillian R Scambia, Sarah P Psutka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058301/cancer-testis-antigens-as-new-candidate-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-transitional-cell-carcinoma-of-bladder
#19
Mandana Afsharpad, Mohammad Reza Nowroozi, Maryam Beigom Mobasheri, Mohsen Ayati, Leila Nekoohesh, Mojtaba Saffari, Kazem Zendehdel, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi
To evaluate the diagnostic potential of 23 candidate genes, belonging to a category of tumor-specific antigens known as cancer-testis antigens (CTAs), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) patients. The expression of 16 known candidate CTAs and seven testis restricted/selective genes, predominantly expressed in the testis, was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Urinary exfoliated cells (UECs) and cancerous tissues of 73 TCC patients were used as cases, while 25 tumor-free adjacent bladder tissue specimens along with bladder tissue specimens and UECs of five non-TCC individuals were analyzed as controls...
October 20, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045966/-immune-effects-of-specific-ctls-response-induced-by-dendritic-cells-pulsed-with-ny-eso-1-peptide
#20
J W Liu, X Lu, Z M Yang, L J Deng, L Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with caner/testis antigen NY-ESO-1 peptides in inducing specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTLs) response and antineoplastic immune function of specific CTLs. METHODS: Fifteen patients with II to III stage positive HLA -A0201(+) and NY-ESO-1(+) were enrolled in the Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences on the basis of preclinical experiments from November 2014 to October 2015, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were isolated...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
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