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Innate memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535390/spatial-memory-mice-quickly-learn-a-safe-haven
#1
S E Roian Egnor
New work on innate escape behavior shows that mice spontaneously form a spatially precise memory of the location of shelter, which is laid down quickly and updated continuously.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#2
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522597/alcohol-aging-and-innate-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Lisbeth A Boule, Elizabeth J Kovacs
The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520969/cell-mediated-immunity-to-target-the-persistent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoir
#4
James L Riley, Luis J Montaner
Effective clearance of virally infected cells requires the sequential activity of innate and adaptive immunity effectors. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, naturally induced cell-mediated immune responses rarely eradicate infection. However, optimized immune responses could potentially be leveraged in HIV cure efforts if epitope escape and lack of sustained effector memory responses were to be addressed. Here we review leading HIV cure strategies that harness cell-mediated control against HIV in stably suppressed antiretroviral-treated subjects...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507513/appetitive-olfactory-learning-and-long-term-associative-memory-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Saori Nishijima, Ichiro N Maruyama
Because of the relative simplicity of its nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model organism to study learning and memory at cellular and molecular levels. For appetitive conditioning in C. elegans, food has exclusively been used as an unconditioned stimulus (US). It may be difficult to analyze neuronal circuits for associative memory since food is a multimodal combination of olfactory, gustatory, and mechanical stimuli. Here, we report classical appetitive conditioning and associative memory in C...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506528/emerging-roles-of-basophils-in-allergic-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Kensuke Miyake, Hajime Karasuyama
Basophils have long been neglected in immunological studies because they were regarded as only minor relatives of mast cells. However, recent advances in analytical tools for basophils have clarified the non-redundant roles of basophils in allergic inflammation. Basophils play crucial roles in both IgE-dependent and -independent allergic inflammation, through their migration to the site of inflammation and secretion of various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and proteases. Basophils are known to produce large amounts of IL-4 in response to various stimuli...
May 11, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500047/self-reactive-vh4-34-expressing-igg-b-cells-recognize-commensal-bacteria
#7
Jean-Nicolas Schickel, Salomé Glauzy, Yen-Shing Ng, Nicolas Chamberlain, Christopher Massad, Isabelle Isnardi, Nathan Katz, Gulbu Uzel, Steven M Holland, Capucine Picard, Anne Puel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Eric Meffre
The germline immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy chain 4-34 (VH4-34) gene segment encodes in humans intrinsically self-reactive antibodies that recognize I/i carbohydrates expressed by erythrocytes with a specific motif in their framework region 1 (FWR1). VH4-34-expressing clones are common in the naive B cell repertoire but are rarely found in IgG memory B cells from healthy individuals. In contrast, CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells from patients genetically deficient for IRAK4 or MYD88, which mediate the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except TLR3, contained VH4-34-expressing clones and showed decreased somatic hypermutation frequencies...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491025/change-of-rin1-and-stathmin-in-the-animal-model-of-traumatic-stresses
#8
Fang Han, Jingzhi Jiang, Jinlan Ding, Hong Liu, Bing Xiao, Yuxiu Shi
The molecular mechanism of fear memory is poorly understood. Therefore, the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whose symptom presentation can enhance fear memory, remains largely unclear. Recent studies with knockout animals have reported that Rin1 and stathmin regulate fear memory. Rin1 inhibits acquisition and promotes memory extinction, whereas stathmin regulates innate and basal fear. The aim of our study was to examine changes in the expression of Rin1 and stathmin in different animal models of stress, particluarly traumatic stress...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487694/human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-induce-cd141-cd123-dc-sign-flt3-monocytes-that-promote-allogeneic-th17-differentiation
#9
Amiq Gazdhar, Fabian Blank, Valerie Cesson, Alban Lovis, John David Aubert, Romain Lazor, Francois Spertini, Anne Wilson, Katrin Hostettler, Laurent P Nicod, Carolina Obregon
Little is known about monocyte differentiation in the lung mucosal environment and about how the epithelium shapes monocyte function. We studied the role of the soluble component of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) obtained under basal culture conditions in innate and adaptive monocyte responses. Monocytes cultured in bronchial epithelial cell-conditioned media (BEC-CM) specifically upregulate CD141, CD123, and DC-SIGN surface levels and FLT3 expression, as well as the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. BEC-conditioned monocytes stimulate naive T cells to produce IL-17 through IL-1β mechanism and also trigger IL-10 production by memory T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487051/planarians-set-new-paths-for-innate-immune-memory
#10
Samuel T Keating, Niels P Riksen, Mihai G Netea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484079/intrinsic-antiproliferative-activity-of-the-innate-sensor-sting-in-t-lymphocytes
#11
Silvia Cerboni, Nadia Jeremiah, Matteo Gentili, Ulf Gehrmann, Cécile Conrad, Marie-Claude Stolzenberg, Capucine Picard, Bénédicte Neven, Alain Fischer, Sébastian Amigorena, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Nicolas Manel
Activation of the cyclic dinucleotide sensor stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) is critical for IFN and inflammatory gene expression during innate immune responses. However, the role of STING in adaptive immunity is still unknown. In this study, we show that STING activation reduces the proliferation of T lymphocytes. This activity was independent of TBK1 and IRF3 recruitment and of type I IFN but required a distinct C-terminal domain of STING that activates NF-κB. Inhibition of cell proliferation by STING required its relocalization to the Golgi apparatus and caused mitotic errors...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480897/antigen-inexperienced-memory-cd8-t-cells-where-they-come-from-and-why-we-need-them
#12
REVIEW
Jason T White, Eric W Cross, Ross M Kedl
Memory-phenotype CD8(+) T cells exist in substantial numbers within hosts that have not been exposed to either foreign antigen or overt lymphopenia. These antigen-inexperienced memory-phenotype T cells can be divided into two major subsets: 'innate memory' T cells and 'virtual memory' T cells. Although these two subsets are nearly indistinguishable by surface markers alone, notable developmental and functional differences exist between the two subsets, which suggests that they represent distinct populations...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476750/programming-and-memory-dynamics-of-innate-leukocytes-during-tissue-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Christina Lee, Shuo Geng, Yao Zhang, Allison Rahtes, Liwu Li
The field of innate immunity is witnessing a paradigm shift regarding "memory" and "programming" dynamics. Past studies of innate leukocytes characterized them as first responders to danger signals with no memory. However, recent findings suggest that innate leukocytes, such as monocytes and neutrophils, are capable of "memorizing" not only the chemical nature but also the history and dosages of external stimulants. As a consequence, innate leukocytes can be dynamically programmed or reprogrammed into complex inflammatory memory states...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464964/bactrocera-oleae-induced-olive-vocs-routing-mate-searching-in-psyttalia-concolor-males-impact-of-associative-learning
#14
G Giunti, G Benelli, V Palmeri, A Canale
Olfaction is a key sense routing foraging behaviour in parasitoids. Preferences for food, mate and host stimuli can be innate in parasitic wasps. Alternatively, learning-mediated mechanisms play a crucial role. Females of the braconid parasitoid Psyttalia concolor exploit olfactory cues arising from tephritid hosts and related microhabitats. However, little is known on the olfactory stimuli routing males searching for mates. In this study, we focused on the attractiveness of Bactrocera oleae-induced olive volatiles towards P...
May 3, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461702/bach-transcription-factors-in-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Kazuhiko Igarashi, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Rahul Roychoudhuri
BTB and CNC homology (BACH) proteins are transcriptional repressors of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family. Recent studies indicate widespread roles of BACH proteins in controlling the development and function of the innate and adaptive immune systems, including the differentiation of effector and memory cells of the B and T cell lineages, CD4(+) regulatory T cells and macrophages. Here, we emphasize similarities at a molecular level in the cell-type-specific activities of BACH factors, proposing that competitive interactions of BACH proteins with transcriptional activators of the bZIP family form a common mechanistic theme underlying their diverse actions...
May 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459470/multivalent-bi-specific-nanobioconjugate-engager-for-targeted-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
Hengfeng Yuan, Wen Jiang, Christina A von Roemeling, Yaqing Qie, Xiujie Liu, Yuanxin Chen, Yifan Wang, Robert E Wharen, Kyuson Yun, Guojun Bu, Keith L Knutson, Betty Y S Kim
Tumour-targeted immunotherapy offers the unique advantage of specific tumouricidal effects with reduced immune-associated toxicity. However, existing platforms suffer from low potency, inability to generate long-term immune memory and decreased activities against tumour-cell subpopulations with low targeting receptor levels. Here we adopted a modular design approach that uses colloidal nanoparticles as substrates to create a multivalent bi-specific nanobioconjugate engager (mBiNE) to promote selective, immune-mediated eradication of cancer cells...
May 1, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455167/protective-and-pathogenic-memory-plasma-cells
#17
REVIEW
Bimba F Hoyer, Andreas Radbruch
The immune system can be divided into two major parts: innate and adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity is characterized by its major cellular players: the B and T cells. B cells will, in the context of an immune reaction, differentiate into plasma cells. These plasma cells produce antibodies, which are secreted. Antibodies are characterized by their specificity against a selected antigen and by their isotype. The isotype changes with the duration or phase of the immune reaction. Early immune reactions are usually characterized by the predominant production of IgM antibodies...
April 25, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453484/can-better-management-of-periodontal-disease-delay-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443224/the-effect-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ptcc-1643-on-cultured-intestinal-epithelial-cells-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis
#19
Mona Moshiri, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Farhad Rezaei, Masoumeh Douraghi, Laleh Sharifi, Zahra Noroozbabaei, Mehrdad Gholami, Abbas Mirshafiey
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal disorders caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SesE) are a significant health problem around the globe. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have positive effects on the immune responses. Lactobacillus acidophilus was examined for its capability to influence the innate immune response of HT29 intestinal epithelial cells towards SesE. The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of L. acidophilus PTCC 1643 on cultured intestinal epithelial cells infected with SesE...
February 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443098/the-lysine-methyltransferase-g9a-in-immune-cell-differentiation-and-function
#20
REVIEW
Sebastian Scheer, Colby Zaph
G9a (KMT1C, EHMT2) is a lysine methyltransferase (KMT) whose primary function is to di-methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2). G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is associated with gene silencing and acts primarily through the recruitment of H3K9me2-binding proteins that prevent transcriptional activation. Gene repression via G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is critically required in embryonic stem (ES) cells for the development of cellular lineages by repressing expression of pluripotency factors. In the immune system, lymphoid cells such as T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can differentiate from a naïve state into one of several effector lineages that require both activating and repressive mechanisms to maintain the correct gene expression program...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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