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Innate memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432326/a-novel-mechanism-linking-memory-stem-cells-with-innate-immunity-in-protection-against-hiv-1-infection
#1
Yufei Wang, Trevor Whittall, Stuart Neil, Gary Britton, Mukesh Mistry, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Xuesong Yu, Alicia Sato, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jerome H Kim, Thomas Lehner
HIV infection affects 37 million people and about 1.7 million are infected annually. Among the phase III clinical trials only the RV144 vaccine trial elicited significant protection against HIV-1 acquisition, but the efficacy and immune memory were inadequate. To boost these vaccine functions we studied T stem cell memory (TSCM) and innate immunity. TSCM cells were identified by phenotypic markers of CD4(+) T cells and they were further characterised into 4 subsets. These expressed the common IL-2/IL-15 receptors and another subset of APOBEC3G anti-viral restriction factors, both of which were upregulated...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428787/a-possible-role-for-idiotype-anti-idiotype-b-t-cell-interactions-in-maintaining-immune-memory
#2
Victor I Seledtsov, Galina V Seledtsova
Variable regions of both B-cell receptors (BCRs) and T-cell receptors (TCRs) are completely formed in the postnatal period, and, consequently, no innate immune tolerance against these structures exists in adulthood. Indeed, antibodies (Abs) specific to TCRs have been found in both animals and humans. These facts clearly indicate the existence of B cells able to directly interact with T cells through binding of BCRs to TCRs without implicating major histocompatibility complex molecules. A novel paradigm is proposed in that the immune memory is based on idiotype/anti-idiotype interactions occurring between BCRs and TCRs following clearance of the antigen that elicited immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424894/the-integrity-of-the-nucleus-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract-is-essential-for-the-normal-functioning-of-the-olfactory-system
#3
Ricardo P Vaz, Armando Cardoso, Susana I Sá, Pedro A Pereira, M Dulce Madeira
The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is a relatively small component of the cortical pallial amygdala, with peculiar neurogenic, neurochemical and connectivity patterns. Although it has been suggested that it might be involved in non-pheromonal olfactory-guided behaviors, particularly feeding, the functional implications of the nLOT have never been investigated. In view of this fact, we have tackled this subject by performing a series of behavioral tests and by quantifying biological and biochemical parameters in sexually naïve adult male rats that were submitted to bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the nLOT...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416448/immunological-memory-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#4
REVIEW
Itziar Martinez-Gonzalez, Laura Mathä, Catherine A Steer, Fumio Takei
Immunological memory has long been described as a property of the adaptive immune system that results in potent responses on exposure to an antigen encountered previously. While this definition appears to exclude cells that do not express antigen receptors, recent studies have shown that innate immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, and, more recently, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can record previous activations and respond more vigorously on reactivation. Here we review the similarities and differences between these forms of memory and the underlying mechanisms...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416117/rapid-spatial-learning-controls-instinctive-defensive-behavior-in-mice
#5
Ruben Vale, Dominic A Evans, Tiago Branco
Instinctive defensive behaviors are essential for animal survival. Across the animal kingdom, there are sensory stimuli that innately represent threat and trigger stereotyped behaviors such as escape or freezing [1-4]. While innate behaviors are considered to be hard-wired stimulus-responses [5], they act within dynamic environments, and factors such as the properties of the threat [6-9] and its perceived intensity [1, 10, 11], access to food sources [12-14], and expectations from past experience [15, 16] have been shown to influence defensive behaviors, suggesting that their expression can be modulated...
April 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414896/nk-cells-in-self-limited-hcv-infection-exhibit-a-more-extensively-differentiated-but-not-memory-like-repertoire
#6
Rik A de Groen, Zwier M A Groothuismink, Gertine van Oord, Neeltje A Kootstra, Harry L A Janssen, Maria Prins, Janke Schinkel, André Boonstra
Natural killer (NK) cells have long been thought of as a purely innate immune cell population, but increasing reports have described developmental and functional qualities of NK cells that are commonly associated with cells of the adaptive immune system. Of these features, the ability of NK cells to acquire functional qualities associated with immunological memory and continuous differentiation resulting in the formation of specific NK cell repertoires has recently been highlighted in viral infection settings...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413021/regulation-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-by-tgf%C3%AE
#7
Aoife Kelly, Stephanie A Houston, Eleanor Sherwood, Joshua Casulli, Mark A Travis
Immune regulation by cytokines is crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis, promoting responses to infection, resolving inflammation, and promoting immunological memory. Additionally, cytokine responses drive pathology in immune-mediated disease. A crucial cytokine in the regulation of all aspects of an immune response is transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Although best known as a crucial regulator of T cell responses, TGFβ plays a vital role in regulating responses mediated by virtually every innate and adaptive immune cell, including dendritic cells, B cells, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, and granulocytes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411547/mechanical-properties-and-state-of-miscibility-in-poly-racd-l-lactide-co-glycolide-l-lactide-co-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-blends
#8
S Petisco-Ferrero, A Etxeberria, J R Sarasua
Polymers based on lactic acid (PLA) are a very promising category of biopolymers. As they are multi-stimuli responsive, can, in many ways, positively interact with the host, stimulating the innate reparative machinery of the human body. Since biopolymers for medical applications are subject to restrictive regulations, blending stands out as an effective method for obtaining tailored properties within a reduced time to market if compared to synthesis. Hence, in this study a set of PDLGA/PLCL blends was obtained by means of thermoplastic techniques and then further characterized...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396661/phenotype-of-nk-like-cd8-t-cells-with-innate-features-in-humans-and-their-relevance-in-cancer-diseases
#9
Alice Barbarin, Emilie Cayssials, Florence Jacomet, Nicolas Gonzalo Nunez, Sara Basbous, Lucie Lefèvre, Myriam Abdallah, Nathalie Piccirilli, Benjamin Morin, Vincent Lavoue, Véronique Catros, Eliane Piaggio, André Herbelin, Jean-Marc Gombert
Unconventional T cells are defined by their capacity to respond to signals other than the well-known complex of peptides and major histocompatibility complex proteins. Among the burgeoning family of unconventional T cells, innate-like CD8(+) T cells in the mouse were discovered in the early 2000s. This subset of CD8(+) T cells bears a memory phenotype without having encountered a foreign antigen and can respond to innate-like IL-12 + IL-18 stimulation. Although the concept of innate memory CD8(+) T cells is now well established in mice, whether an equivalent memory NK-like T-cell population exists in humans remains under debate...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381403/decreased-vector-gene-expression-from-e2b-deleted-ad5-vaccines-intensifies-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses
#10
Dionisia Quiroga, Yasser A Aldhamen, Sarah Godbehere, Laura Harding, Andrea Amalfitano
Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors are promising vaccine candidates due to their intrinsic immunogenicity and potent transgene expression, however, widespread pre-existing Ad5 immunity has been considered a developmental impediment to the use of traditional, first-generation (Ad5[E1-]) vaccines. Even in the presence of anti-Ad5 immunity, recent murine and human studies have confirmed E2b-deleted Ad5 (Ad5[E1-,E2b-]) vaccines to be highly efficacious inducers of transgene-specific memory responses and significantly less toxic options than Ad5[E1-] vaccines...
April 5, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377925/isolation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-deciduous-teeth-pulp
#11
Aileen I Tsai, Hsiang-Hsi Hong, Wey-Ran Lin, Jen-Fen Fu, Chih-Chun Chang, I-Kuan Wang, Wen-Hung Huang, Cheng-Hao Weng, Ching-Wei Hsu, Tzung-Hai Yen
This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377130/food-restriction-affects-y-maze-spatial-recognition-memory-in-developing-mice
#12
Yu Fu, Yanmei Chen, Liane Li, Yumei Wang, Xiangyang Kong, Jianhong Wang
The ambiguous effects of food restriction (FR) on cognition in rodents have been mostly explored in the aged brain by a variety of paradigms, in which either rewards or punishments are involved. This study aims to examine the effects of chronic and acute FR with varying intensities on spatial recognition memory in developing mice. We have used a Y-maze task that is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments. In chronic FR, mice had 70-30% chow of control for seven weeks. In acute FR, mice were food restricted for 12-48h before the tests...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316773/vitamin-d-treatment-during-pregnancy-prevents-autism-related-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#13
Stephanie Vuillermot, Wei Luan, Urs Meyer, Darryl Eyles
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infection is a recognized environmental risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders of developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. Experimental work in animals indicates that this link is mediated by maternal immune activation (MIA) involving interactions between cytokine-associated inflammatory events, oxidative stress, and other pathophysiological processes such as hypoferremia and zinc deficiency. Maternal administration of the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in mice produces several behavioral phenotypes in adult offspring of relevance to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289977/location-function-and-ontogeny-of-pulmonary-macrophages-during-the-steady-state
#14
REVIEW
Natalio Garbi, Bart N Lambrecht
The lung is continuously exposed to potentially hazardous environmental challenges in the form of inert material and microbes. Pulmonary macrophages are critical in maintaining a low inflammatory context in the lung to facilitate optimal gas exchange. During infection, however, they mediate the immediate response to invading microorganisms in coordination with epithelial cells and other tissue-resident immune cells including dendritic cells, innate lymphocytes and memory T cells, and pulmonary interstitial macrophages...
March 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284950/naloxone-exacerbates-memory-impairments-and-depressive-like-behavior-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-in-mice-with-upregulated-opioid-system-activity
#15
Anna Lesniak, Pawel Leszczynski, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny, Chaim G Pick, Mariusz Sacharczuk
The neuroprotective role of the endogenous opioid system in the pathophysiological sequelae of brain injury remains largely ambiguous. Noteworthy, almost no data is available on how its genetically determined activity influences the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury. Thus, the aim of our study was to examine the effect of opioid receptor blockage on cognitive impairments produced by mild traumatic brain injury in mice selectively bred for high (HA) and low (LA) swim-stress induced analgesia that show innate divergence in opioid system activity...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279805/what-vaccination-studies-tell-us-about-immunological-memory-within-the-innate-immune-system-of-cultured-shrimp-and-crayfish
#16
Yu-Hsuan Chang, Ramya Kumar, Tze Hann Ng, Han-Ching Wang
The possibility of immunological memory in invertebrates is a topic that has recently attracted a lot of attention. Today, even vertebrates are known to exhibit innate immune responses that show memory-like properties, and since these responses are triggered by cells that are involved in the innate immune system, it seems that immune specificity and immune memory do not necessarily require the presence of B cells and T cells after all. This kind of immune response has been called "immune priming" or "trained immunity"...
March 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279590/transcription-factor-t-bet-orchestrates-lineage-development-and-function-in-the-immune-system
#17
REVIEW
Axel Kallies, Kim L Good-Jacobson
T-bet was originally described as the key transcription factor defining type 1 T helper (Th) cells. However, it is now clear that it drives the orchestrated generation of effector and memory cells in multiple different lymphocyte lineages. In addition to Th1 cells, CD8 T cells, B cells and some innate lymphocyte populations require T-bet for their development or differentiation in response to antigen. Furthermore, other Th cell populations, including T follicular helper and Th17, as well as regulatory T cells can co-opt T-bet expression to promote functional diversification and colocalization...
April 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279335/trained-immunity-an-ancient-way-of-remembering
#18
Mihai G Netea, Jos W M van der Meer
The innate arm of the immune system has generally been regarded as primitive and non-specific and, in contrast to adaptive immunity, not to possess memory. Here we review the growing body of evidence that innate immunity has an important capacity to adapt, a de facto innate immune memory (also termed trained immunity), and this provides broad protection against infections.
March 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275186/cpg-in-combination-with-an-inhibitor-of-notch-signaling-suppresses-fi-rsv-enhanced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-inflammation-through-inhibiting-th17-memory-responses-and-promoting-tissue-resident-memory-cells-in-lungs
#19
Lei Zhang, Hongyong Li, Yan Hai, Wei Yin, Wenjian Li, Boyang Zheng, Xiaomin Du, Na Li, Zhengzheng Zhang, Yuqing Deng, Ruihong Zeng, Lin Wei
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood hospitalizations. The formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccine enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) has been an obstacle to the development of a safe and effective killed RSV vaccine. Agonists of Toll-like receptor (TLR) have been shown to regulate immune responses induced by FI-RSV. Notch signaling plays critical roles during the differentiation and effector function phases of innate and adaptive immune responses. Cross-talk between TLR and Notch signaling pathways results in fine tuning of TLR-triggered innate inflammatory responses...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268256/cannabidiol-regulation-of-emotion-and-emotional-memory-processing-relevance-for-treating-anxiety-related-and-substance-abuse-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Francisco S Guimarães, Carl W Stevenson
Learning to associate cues or contexts with potential threats or rewards is adaptive and enhances survival. Both aversive and appetitive memories are therefore powerful drivers of behaviour, but the inappropriate expression of conditioned responding to fear- and drug-related stimuli can develop into anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders respectively. These disorders are associated with abnormally persistent emotional memories and inadequate treatment, often leading to symptom relapse. Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT1A and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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