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Drug resistance microbial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143719/microbial-protein-targets-towards-understanding-and-intervention
#1
Paul W Denny
The rise of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with a lack of industrial focus on antimicrobial discovery over preceding decades, has brought the world to a crisis point. With both human and animal health set to decline due to increased disease burdens caused by near untreatable microbial pathogens, there is an urgent need to identify new antimicrobials. Central to this is the elucidation of new, robustly validated, drug targets. Informed by industrial practice and concerns, the use of both biological and chemical tools in validation is key...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138082/synthesis-of-chitosan-alginate-cs-alg-microspheres-with-high-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-microbial-pathogens
#2
Rajagopalan Thaya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Jeyachandran Sivakamavalli, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Mohammed N Al-Anbr, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The successful treatment of multi-drug resistant microbial pathogens represents a major challenge for public health management. Here, chitosan-alginate (CS/ALG) microspheres with narrow size distribution were fabricated by ionically cross linking method using Ca(2+) ions as agents for polymer solidification. The physicochemical properties of CS/ALG microspheres, such as surface morphology and size were studied by SEM and the functional group interactions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
November 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133644/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-an-emerging-entity-for-cluster-endophthalmitis
#3
Sarita Beri, Anurag Shandil, Rajiv Garg
PURPOSE: This was a study of acute cluster endophthalmitis along with clinical features, culture results, and visual outcomes of 10 eyes of 10 patients after intravitreal injection of Avastin (bevacizumab) in one sitting from a single vial. METHODS: Retrospective review of intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg/0.05 ml bevacizumab that was given to 10 eyes of 10 patients on the same day from a freshly opened vial. All patients manifested with endophthalmitis the next day...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132828/lactoferrin-chitosan-and-melaleuca-alternifolia-natural-products-that-show-promise-in-candidiasis-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Lorena de Oliveira Felipe, Willer Ferreira da Silva Júnior, Katialaine Corrêa de Araújo, Daniela Leite Fabrino
The evolution of microorganisms resistant to many medicines has become a major challenge for the scientific community around the world. Motivated by the gravity of such a situation, the World Health Organization released a report in 2014 with the aim of providing updated information on this critical scenario. Among the most worrying microorganisms, species from the genus Candida have exhibited a high rate of resistance to antifungal drugs. Therefore, the objective of this review is to show that the use of natural products (extracts or isolated biomolecules), along with conventional antifungal therapy, can be a very promising strategy to overcome microbial multiresistance...
November 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129658/overcoming-antibiotic-resistance-is-siderophore-trojan-horse-conjugation-an-answer-to-evolving-resistance-in-microbial-pathogens
#5
REVIEW
Kalyani Dhusia, Archana Bajpai, P W Ramteke
Comparative study of siderophore biosynthesis pathway in pathogens provides potential targets for antibiotics and host drug delivery as a part of computationally feasible microbial therapy. Iron acquisition using siderophore models is an essential and well established model in all microorganisms and microbial infections a known to cause great havoc to both plant and animal. Rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial as well as fungal pathogens has drawn us at a verge where one has to get rid of the traditional way of obstructing pathogen using single or multiple antibiotic/chemical inhibitors or drugs...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119168/nanowire-sensors-monitor-bacterial-growth-kinetics-and-response-to-antibiotics
#6
B Ibarlucea, T Rim, C K Baek, J A G M de Visser, L Baraban, G Cuniberti
Miniaturized and cost-efficient methods aiming at high throughput analysis of microbes are of great importance for the surveillance and control of infectious diseases and the related issue of antimicrobial resistance. Here we demonstrate a miniature nanosensor based on a honeycomb-patterned silicon nanowire field effect transistor (FET) capable of detection of bacterial growth and antibiotic response in microbiologically relevant nutrient media. We determine the growth kinetics and metabolic state of Escherichia coli cells in undiluted media via the quantification of changes in the source-drain current caused by varying pH values...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118410/the-microbiological-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-picc-related-bloodstream-infections-in-intensive-care-unit
#7
Shumin Zhang, Xiaofeng Sun, Yan Lei
The study was aimed to investigate the pathogens distribution and risk factors for PICC-related bloodstream infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. 402 patients placed with PICC in ICU were recruited in the study. The microbiological characteristics of PICC-related infection were investigated by Vitek 2 Compact automated microbial system. Antibiotics sensitivity was performed with disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Multivariate logistic and cox analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for PICC-related infection in ICU patients...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113051/antibacterial-activity-of-the-non-cytotoxic-peptide-p-bthtx-i-%C3%A2-and-its-serum-degradation-product-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#8
Norival A Santos-Filho, Rafaela S Fernandes, Bruna F Sgardioli, Matheus A S Ramos, Julia P Piccoli, Ilana L B C Camargo, Tais M Bauab, Eduardo M Cilli
Antimicrobial peptides can be used systemically, however, their susceptibility to proteases is a major obstacle in peptide-based therapeutic development. In the present study, the serum stability of p-BthTX-I (KKYRYHLKPFCKK) and (p-BthTX-I)₂, a p-BthTX-I disulfide-linked dimer, were analyzed by mass spectrometry and analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antimicrobial activities were assessed by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth...
November 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111322/phytochemical-analysis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-gentiana-macrophylla-extract-against-bacteria-isolated-from-burn-wound-infections
#9
Chaohong Yin, Longwei Xie, Yun Guo
The management of burn wound victims is often considered a difficult task due to frequent infections. Moreover, the treatment with conventional antibiotics is associated with the upsurge of drug resistant bacterial strains. Therefore there is pressing need to explore antimicrobials that could overcome these problems. Plant extracts have been used as antimicrobials in different systems of medicine. Gentiana species have been widely used in Chinese system of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including microbial infections...
October 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107872/inflammation-and-gut-brain-axis-link-obesity-to-cognitive-dysfunction-plausible-pharmacological-interventions
#10
REVIEW
Maite Solas, Fermin I Milagro, María J Ramírez, J Alfredo Martínez
Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105344/disruption-of-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone-specific-signalling-and-virulence-in-clinical-pathogens-by-marine-sponge-bacteria
#11
José A Gutiérrez-Barranquero, F Jerry Reen, María L Parages, Ronan McCarthy, Alan D W Dobson, Fergal O'Gara
In recent years, the marine environment has been the subject of increasing attention from biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. A combination of unique physicochemical properties and spatial niche-specific substrates, in wide-ranging and extreme habitats, underscores the potential of the marine environment to deliver on functionally novel bioactivities. One such area of ongoing research is the discovery of compounds that interfere with the cell-cell signalling process called quorum sensing (QS). Described as the next generation of antimicrobials, these compounds can target virulence and persistence of clinically relevant pathogens, independent of any growth-limiting effects...
November 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104645/combined-effect-of-linolenic-acid-and-tobramycin-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-formation-and-quorum-sensing
#12
Warren Chanda, Thomson Patrick Joseph, Arshad Ahmed Padhiar, Xuefang Guo, Liu Min, Wendong Wang, Sainyugu Lolokote, Anhong Ning, Jing Cao, Min Huang, Mintao Zhong
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram negative opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe nosocomial infections in humans, and tobramycin is currently used to treat P. aeruginosa associated lung infections. Quorum sensing regulates biofilm formation which allows the bacterium to result in fatal infections forcing clinicians to extensively use antibiotics to manage its infections leading to emerging multiple drug resistant strains. As a result, tobramycin is also becoming resistant. Despite extensive studies on drug discovery to alleviate microbial drug resistance, the continued microbial evolution has forced researchers to focus on screening various phytochemicals and dietary compounds for antimicrobial potential...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091031/inter-species-population-dynamics-enhance-microbial-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance
#13
Robert M Cooper, Lev Tsimring, Jeff Hasty
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a major role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. Of particular concern are Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria, which recently emerged as global pathogens, with nosocomial mortality rates reaching 19-54% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013; Joly Guillou, 2005; Talbot et al., 2006). Acinetobacter gains antibiotic resistance remarkably rapidly (Antunes et al., 2014; Joly Guillou, 2005), with multi drug-resistance (MDR) rates exceeding 60% (Antunes et al., 2014; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013)...
November 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072532/antibacterial-efficacy-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-ethyl-acetate-s-metabolites-of-the-potent-halophilic-marine-bacterium-bacillus-cereus-a30-on-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#14
Dhayalan Arul, Govindasamy Balasubramani, Velramar Balasubramanian, Thillainathan Natarajan, Pachiappan Perumal
Bacteria are generally responsible for the prevalence of several diseases and pathogenic bacteria are showing increasing resistance to different antibacterials. During the present study an extremophilic bacterium-A30 isolated from the marine waters was characterized and evaluated against four multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens, viz; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sensitivity pattern of the selected pathogens was tested with 31 antibiotics...
October 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062330/molecular-screening-of-antibiotic-resistant-determinants-among-multidrug-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-proteus-mirabilis-from-southwest-nigeria
#15
Olumuyiwa Samuel Alabi, Nuno Mendonça, Olufemi Ezekiel Adeleke, Gabriela Jorge da Silva
BACKGROUND: Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating problem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported. OBJECTIVES: This study screened for presence of transferable resistance genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as integron among multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. mirabilis. METHODS: A total of 108 P...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062048/nacre-mimic-reinforced-ag-reduced-graphene-oxide-sodium-alginate-composite-film-for-wound-healing
#16
Xu Yan, Fei Li, Kang-Di Hu, Jingzhe Xue, Xiao-Feng Pan, Tao He, Liang Dong, Xiang-Ying Wang, Ya-Dong Wu, Yong-Hong Song, Wei-Ping Xu, Yang Lu
With the emerging of drug-resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens, there raise the interest of utilizing versatile antimicrobial biomaterials to treat the acute wound. Herein, we report the spraying mediated assembly of a bio-inspired Ag@reduced graphene-sodium alginate (AGSA) composite film for effective wound healing. The obtained film displayed lamellar microstructures similar to the typical "brick-and-mortar" structure in nacre. In this nacre-mimic structure, there are abundant interfacial interactions between nanosheets and polymeric matrix, leading to remarkable reinforcement...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055163/microbial-sensor-for-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Zhi-Tao Zhang, Dian-Bing Wang, Chuan-You Li, Jiao-Yu Deng, Ji-Bin Zhang, Li-Jun Bi, Xian-En Zhang
AIMS: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is critical in treating tuberculosis. We demonstrate the possibility of using a microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. METHODS AND RESULTS: The sensor is made of an oxygen electrode with M. tuberculosis cells attached to its surface. This sensor monitors the residual oxygen consumption of M. tuberculosis cells after treatment with anti-TB drugs with glycerine as a carbon source...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050770/genomic-plasticity-between-human-and-mycobacterial-dna-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Lawal Danjuma, Mok Pooi Ling, Rukman Awang Hamat, Akon Higuchi, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Marlina, Giovanni Benelli, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Mariappan Rajan, Suresh Kumar Subbiah
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a remarkable ability of long-term persistence despite vigorous host immunity and prolonged therapy. The bacteria persist in secure niches such as the mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow and reactivate the disease, leading to therapeutic failure. Many bacterial cells can remain latent within a diseased tissue so that their genetic material can be incorporated into the genetic material of the host tissue. This incorporated genetic material reproduces in a manner similar to that of cellular DNA...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049952/learn-from-microbial-intelligence-for-avermectins-overproduction
#19
REVIEW
Qiang Gao, Gao-Yi Tan, Xuekui Xia, Lixin Zhang
Microbial strains are amazingly clever by homeostasis of their own survival and optimization for the overproduction of a desired phenotype, for example drugable secondary metabolites through coordination of key genes overexpression and media optimizations. Besides their pesticide activities, avermectins (AVMs) are identified as potent antibiotic agents for a wide range of drug-resistant pathogens by a high-throughput synergy screening strategy. To rewire the genetic circuitry controlling low yields, we summarized the work on balancing the biological chassis with functional parts, and optimized their dynamical process, as well as predicted favorable effective overproduction of AVMs by 5Ms strategy...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047424/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-children-china-2006-2015
#20
Ning-Ning Tao, Xiao-Chun He, Xian-Xin Zhang, Yao Liu, Chun-Bao Yu, Huai-Chen Li
Microbial drug resistance has become a major public health concern worldwide. To acquire epidemiologic data on drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) among children, a major cause of illness and death for this population, we conducted a retrospective study of 2006-2015 data from 36 TB prevention and control institutions in Shandong Province, China. A total of 14,223 new TB cases, among which children (<18 years of age) accounted for only 5.5%, were caused by culture-confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Among children with TB, 18...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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