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Drug resistance microbial

Khurram Muaz, Muhammad Riaz, Saeed Akhtar, Sungkwon Park, Amir Ismail
Poultry production is among the most rapidly growing industries around the globe, and poultry is one of the major sources of meat. Poultry farmers use disease preventive and growth promoter antibiotics for faster growth of chickens in the shortest possible time to increase the rate of feed assimilation and to lower the incidence of mortality caused by a pathogen attack. Antibiotics may result in dysfunctionality of beneficial gut microbiota and increase resistance among microbial pathogens in poultry. Residues of these antibiotics in poultry meat have been determined in many of the studies globally and are considered one of the possible causes of antibacterial resistance in human pathogens...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Kunal Jani, Dhiraj Dhotre, Jayashree Bandal, Yogesh Shouche, Mangesh Suryavanshi, Vinay Rale, Avinash Sharma
Kumbh Mela is one of the largest religious mass gathering events (MGE) involving bathing in rivers. The exponential rise in the number of devotees, from around 0.4 million in 1903 to 120 million in 2013, bathing in small specified sites can have a dramatic impact on the river ecosystem. Here, we present the spatiotemporal profiling of bacterial communities in Godavari River, Nashik, India, comprising five sites during the Kumbh Mela, held in 2015. Assessment of environmental parameters indicated deterioration of water quality...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Pierre H H Schneeberger, Jean T Coulibaly, Gordana Panic, Claudia Daubenberger, Morgan Gueuning, Jürg E Frey, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease burdening millions of people. One drug, praziquantel, is currently used for treatment and control. Clinically relevant drug resistance has not yet been described, but there is considerable heterogeneity in treatment outcomes, ranging from cure to only moderate egg reduction rates. The objectives of this study are to investigate potential worm-induced dysbacteriosis of the gut microbiota and to assess whether a specific microbiome profile could influence praziquantel response...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Faiza H Waghu, Shaini Joseph, Sanket Ghawali, Elvis A Martis, Taruna Madan, Kareenhalli V Venkatesh, Susan Idicula-Thomas
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gaining attention as substitutes for antibiotics in order to combat the risk posed by multi-drug resistant pathogens. Several research groups are engaged in design of potent anti-infective agents using natural AMPs as templates. In this study, a library of peptides with high sequence similarity to Myeloid Antimicrobial Peptide (MAP) family were screened using popular online prediction algorithms. These peptide variants were designed in a manner to retain the conserved residues within the MAP family...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Asher M Siddiqui, Jitendra A Sattigeri, Kalim Javed, Syed Shafi, M Shamim, Smita Singhal, Zubbair M Malik
Gram-positive bacteria are among the most common human pathogens associated with clinical infections which range from mild skin infections to sepsis. Resistance towards existing class of drugs by Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is a growing concern. There is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics which are active against resistant strains of Gram positive bacteria. We report herein a novel class of spiropyrimidinetrione oxazolidinone derivatives as novel antibacterial agents...
March 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos Ramos, Patrícia Bento Da Silva, Larissa Spósito, Luciani Gaspar De Toledo, Bruna Vidal Bonifácio, Camila Fernanda Rodero, Karen Cristina Dos Santos, Marlus Chorilli, Taís Maria Bauab
Since the dawn of civilization, it has been understood that pathogenic microorganisms cause infectious conditions in humans, which at times, may prove fatal. Among the different virulent properties of microorganisms is their ability to form biofilms, which has been directly related to the development of chronic infections with increased disease severity. A problem in the elimination of such complex structures (biofilms) is resistance to the drugs that are currently used in clinical practice, and therefore, it becomes imperative to search for new compounds that have anti-biofilm activity...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Luigi Rosa, Antimo Cutone, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Mellani Jinnett Scotti, Maria Pia Conte, Rosalba Paesano, Piera Valenti
Human and bovine lactoferrin (hLf and bLf) are multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein constitutively synthesized and secreted by glandular epithelial cells and by neutrophils following induction. HLf and bLf possess very high similarity of sequence. Therefore, most of the in vitro and in vivo studies are carried out with commercial bLf (cbLf), available in large quantities and recognized by Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA) as a safe substance. Physico-chemical heterogeneity of different cbLf preparations influences their effectiveness...
March 7, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Jannigje G Kers, Francisca C Velkers, Egil A J Fischer, Gerben D A Hermes, J A Stegeman, Hauke Smidt
The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marthandam Asokan Shibu, M Ravichandran, M Shanmugavadivu, Bharath Kumar Velmurugan
This article recapitulates the existing in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on the effects of neferine-an alkaloid derivative of lotus plant, in various disease models and its effects on key signaling molecules. The review also compiles a large number of research studies that demonstrate methods for isolation and extraction, biosynthetic pathway, pharmacological activity and mode of action of neferine and their underlying mechanisms at cellular level. Neferine is a unique bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid that possesses a number of therapeutic effects such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-aging, anti-microbial, anti-thrombotic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory and even anti-HIV...
February 27, 2018: Life Sciences
Keith S Kaye, Tanaya Bhowmick, Symeon Metallidis, Susan C Bleasdale, Olexiy S Sagan, Viktor Stus, Jose Vazquez, Valerii Zaitsev, Mohamed Bidair, Erik Chorvat, Petru Octavian Dragoescu, Elena Fedosiuk, Juan P Horcajada, Claudia Murta, Yaroslav Sarychev, Ventsislav Stoev, Elizabeth Morgan, Karen Fusaro, David Griffith, Olga Lomovskaya, Elizabeth L Alexander, Jeffery Loutit, Michael N Dudley, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
Importance: Meropenem-vaborbactam is a combination carbapenem/beta-lactamase inhibitor and a potential treatment for severe drug-resistant gram-negative infections. Objective: To evaluate efficacy and adverse events of meropenem-vaborbactam in complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including acute pyelonephritis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, multicenter, multinational, randomized clinical trial (TANGO I) conducted November 2014 to April 2016 and enrolling patients (≥18 years) with complicated UTI, stratified by infection type and geographic region...
February 27, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Rebecca L Bartles, James E Leggett, Shannan Hove, Catherine D Kashork, Lian Wang, Margret Oethinger, Lynda Baxter, Jack J Brandabur
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a pilot study (8) we demonstrated that current guidelines for duodenoscope and linear echoendoscope (DLE) reprocessing using a single cycle of high-level disinfection (HLD) in an automated reprocessor may be inadequate. In August 2015, the FDA offered double-HLD as a possible response to address this concern. As a result, Providence Health & Services adopted double-HLD as standard procedure for DLE, but no rigorous clinical studies supported this practice. We undertook a quality improvement (QI) study to compare single-HLD versus double-HLD at 4 of our 34 hospitals...
February 21, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Ming-Yeh Yang, Kai-Chih Chang, Liang-Yu Chen, Po-Ching Wang, Chih-Chiang Chou, Zhong-Bin Wu, Anren Hu
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a non-invasive and safe therapeutic method for microbial infections. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is caused by antibiotics abuse. Drug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. is a serious problem in hospitals around the world. These pathogens from nosocomial infections have high mortality rates in frailer people, and Acinetobacter spp. is commonly found in immunocompromised patients. Visible light is safer than ultraviolet light (UV) for PDI of nosocomial pathogens with mammalian cells...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Stephen V Gordon, Tanya Parish
MΦ, Macrophage; DC, Dendritic cell; CORD, Cord factor; MDR, Multidrug resistance.Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an expert and deadly pathogen, causing the disease tuberculosis (TB) in humans. It has several notable features: the ability to enter non-replicating states for long periods and cause latent infection; metabolic remodelling during chronic infection; a thick, waxy cell wall; slow growth rate in culture; and intrinsic drug resistance and antibiotic tolerance. As a pathogen, M. tuberculosis has a complex relationship with its host, is able to replicate inside macrophages, and expresses diverse immunomodulatory molecules...
February 21, 2018: Microbiology
Andrés González, María F Fillat, Ángel Lanas
Antibiotics have saved millions of lives over the past decades. However, the accumulation of so many antibiotic resistance genes by some clinically relevant pathogens has begun to lead to untreatable infections worldwide. The current antibiotic resistance crisis will require greater efforts by governments and the scientific community to increase the research and development of new antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action. A major challenge is the identification of novel microbial targets, essential for in vivo growth or pathogenicity, whose inhibitors can overcome the currently circulating resistome of human pathogens...
February 20, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Zia Ul Haq Khan, Amjad Khan, Young Mei Chen, Noor S Shah, Arif Ullah Khan, Nawshad Muhammad, Kamran Tahir, Hidayat Ullah Shah, Zia Ullah Khan, Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Imran, Pingyu Wan
The drug resistant bacteria and textile contaminations of water cause different sever health problem throughout the world. To overcome this issue, new environmental benign materials and methods are needed. Plant metabolites directed synthesis of nanoparticles is considered eco-friendly and easy in synthesis. Therefore, it was explicit for the synthesis of AgNPs. The prepared AgNPs were evaluated for antibacterial, antioxidant, photo-catalytic and electrochemical degradation properties as well as toxicity of degradation products on aquatic life...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Noor Akbar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Mazhar Iqbal, K Sagathevan, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Here, we hypothesized that the microbial gut flora of animals/pests living in polluted environments, produce substances to thwart bacterial infections. The overall aim of this study was to source microbes inhabiting unusual environmental niches for potential antimicrobial activity. Two cockroach species, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar) and Blaptica dubia (Dubia) were selected. The gut bacteria from these species were isolated and grown in RPMI 1640 and conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media were tested against a panel of Gram-positive (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria, as well as the protist pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii...
February 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Giorgia Letizia Marcone, Elisa Binda, Francesca Berini, Flavia Marinelli
Glycopeptide antibiotics are drugs of last resort for treating severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. First-generation glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are produced by soil-dwelling actinomycetes. Second-generation glycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin) are semi-synthetic derivatives of the progenitor natural products. Herein, we cover past and present biotechnological approaches for searching for and producing old and new glycopeptide antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Meric A Altinoz, Aysel Ozpinar, Ilhan Elmaci
Female gender, contraceptives, and menopausal hormone replacement treatments containing progesterone analogues associate with higher risk of meningiomas yet with lower risk of gliomas. Progesterone receptor (PR) expression and mifepristone treatment was highly discussed for meningiomas. However, much less is known in regard to progesterone actions in gliomas despite PR expression strongly correlates with their grade. Meningiomas and gliomas may grow faster during gestation; but paradoxically, parousity reduces lifetime risk of gliomas which can be explained with dichotomous cell growth-stimulating and inhibitory actions of progesterone at low versus high levels...
February 17, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Aradhana Mishra, Satyendra Pratap Singh, Sahil Mahfooz, Surendra Pratap Singh, Arpita Bhattacharya, Nishtha Mishra, C S Nautiyal
Endophytes have been explored to perform an important role in plant health. However, their effects on the host physiological function and disease management remains elusive. The present study was aimed to assess the potential of endophytes singly as well as in combination on various physiological parameters and systemic defense mechanism against Alternaria alternata in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Seed priming with endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens individually and in combination demonstrated enhanced vigor index and germination rate...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Deniz Gazel, Mehmet Yılmaz
Antimicrobial chemotherapy and surgery are classical methods for treating infectious diseases. However, there is a need for alternative methods to cure infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens, recurrent or chronic infections, and unreachable local infections in which the use of drugs or surgery is anatomically and physically restricted. Several microorganisms are known to be sensitive to mild hyperthermia, and this sensitivity is one of the potential benefits proposed for the host during an episode of fever...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
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