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Drug resistance microbial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634472/antifungal-activity-against-filamentous-fungi-of-ts1-a-multifunctional-toxin-from-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom
#1
Welligton M Santussi, Karla C F Bordon, Ana P N Rodrigues Alves, Camila T Cologna, Suraia Said, Eliane C Arantes
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The search for new AMPs has increased in recent years, due to the growing development of microbial resistance to therapeutical drugs. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv), its fractions and its major toxin Ts1, a beta-neurotoxin, on fungi growth. The fractions were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography of Tsv. The growth inhibition of 11 pathogenic and non-pathogenic filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631909/-characterization-of-microbial-flora-in-patients-suspected-of-having-urogenital-tuberculosis
#2
A G Cherednichenko, E V Kulchavenya
INTRODUCTION: In the structure of tuberculosis morbidity, urogenital tuberculosis (UGT) ranks second or third only to pulmonary tuberculosis. Every fourth patient has the stage of cavern formation at first presentation. Seventy five percent of nephrotuberculosis cases co-occur with nonspecific pyelonephritis, which excludes "sterile pyuria". We aimed to determine the microbial spectrum of urine and gonadal appendages in patients with suspected UGT and to investigate the susceptibility of the isolated microorganisms to the main antibacterial drugs...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631632/risk-of-cardiac-pacemaker-pocket-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#3
Jaswinder Singh Gill, Navreet Singh, S P Khanna
BACKGROUND: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs) is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013-February 2016) from all the patients with PPI...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630195/topical-antimicrobial-treatments-can-elicit-shifts-to-resident-skin-bacterial-communities-and-reduce-colonization-by-staphylococcus-aureus-competitors
#4
Adam J SanMiguel, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Joseph Horwinski, Qi Zheng, Elizabeth A Grice
The skin microbiome is a complex ecosystem with important implications for cutaneous health and disease. Topical antibiotics and antiseptics are often employed to preserve the balance of this population, and inhibit colonization by more pathogenic bacteria. Despite their widespread use, however, the impact of these interventions on broader microbial communities remains poorly understood. Here we report the longitudinal effects of topical antibiotics and antiseptics on skin bacterial communities and their role in Staphylococcus aureus colonization resistance...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627277/anti-acne-drugs-in-phase-1-and-2-clinical-trials
#5
Christos C Zouboulis, Clio Dessinioti, Fragkiski Tsatsou, Harald P M Gollnick
Despite the impressive increase of knowledge on acne etiology accumulated during the last 20 years, few efforts have been overtaken to introduce new therapeutic regiments targeting the ideal treatment of acne. The increasing emergence of microbial resistance associated with antibiotics, teratogenicity, particularly associated with systemic isotretinoin, and the need for an adverse drug profile, which can be tolerated by the patient, make the need of new pathogenesis relevant anti-acne agents an emerging issue...
June 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625995/novel-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-from-agricultural-soil-exposed-to-antibiotics-widely-used-in-human-medicine-and-animal-farming
#6
Calvin Ho-Fung Lau, Kalene van Engelen, Stephen Gordon, Justin Renaud, Edward Topp
Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623719/the-crispr-cas-app-goes-viral
#7
REVIEW
Marie-Laurence Lemay, Philippe Horvath, Sylvain Moineau
If biology laboratories were smartphones, CRISPR-Cas would be the leading app. Nowadays, technology users rely on apps to communicate, get directions, entertain, and more. Likewise, many life scientists now rely on CRISPR-Cas systems to study the interactions between microbes and their viruses, to track strains as well as to modify and modulate genomes. Considering their high level of polymorphism, CRISPR arrays can increase the resolution of a microbial typing scheme. As dynamic systems, they allow the identification and the tracking of specific sequences, which is highly valuable for epidemiological studies...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623298/constraint-based-modeling-identifies-new-putative-targets-to-fight-colistin-resistant-a-baumannii-infections
#8
Luana Presta, Emanuele Bosi, Leila Mansouri, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Renato Fani, Marco Fondi
Acinetobacter baumannii is a clinical threat to human health, causing major infection outbreaks worldwide. As new drugs against Gram-negative bacteria do not seem to be forthcoming, and due to the microbial capability of acquiring multi-resistance, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic targets. Here we have derived a list of new potential targets by means of metabolic reconstruction and modelling of A. baumannii ATCC 19606. By integrating constraint-based modelling with gene expression data, we simulated microbial growth in normal and stressful conditions (i...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622509/antibacterial-nucleoside-analog-inhibitor-of-bacterial-rna-polymerase
#9
Sonia I Maffioli, Yu Zhang, David Degen, Thomas Carzaniga, Giancarlo Del Gatto, Stefania Serina, Paolo Monciardini, Carlo Mazzetti, Paola Guglierame, Gianpaolo Candiani, Alina Iulia Chiriac, Giuseppe Facchetti, Petra Kaltofen, Hans-Georg Sahl, Gianni Dehò, Stefano Donadio, Richard H Ebright
Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens pose an urgent public-health crisis. Here, we report the discovery, from microbial-extract screening, of a nucleoside-analog inhibitor that inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and exhibits antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens: pseudouridimycin (PUM). PUM is a natural product comprising a formamidinylated, N-hydroxylated Gly-Gln dipeptide conjugated to 6'-amino-pseudouridine. PUM potently and selectively inhibits bacterial RNAP in vitro, inhibits bacterial growth in culture, and clears infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes peritonitis...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620453/parallel-pathways-in-the-biosynthesis-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics
#10
REVIEW
Yi Yu, Qi Zhang, Zixin Deng
Despite their inherent toxicity and the global spread of bacterial resistance, aminoglycosides (AGs), an old class of microbial drugs, remain a valuable component of the antibiotic arsenal. Recent studies have continued to reveal the fascinating biochemistry of AG biosynthesis and the rich potential in their pathway engineering. In particular, parallel pathways have been shown to be common and widespread in AG biosynthesis, highlighting nature's ingenuity in accessing diverse natural products from a limited set of genes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614735/enhanced-biomimic-bactericidal-surfaces-by-coating-with-positively-charged-zif-nano-dagger-arrays
#11
Yuan Yuan, Yugen Zhang
Cicada wing surfaces are covered with dense patterns of nano-pillar structure that prevent bacterial growth by rupturing adhered microbial cells. To mimic the natural nano-pillar structure, we developed a general and simple method to grow metal organic framework (MOF) nano-dagger arrays on a wide range of surfaces. These nano-daggers possess high bactericidal activity, with log reduction >7 for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was hypothesized that the positively-charged ZIF-L nano-dagger surfaces enhance bacterial cell adhesion, facilitating selective and efficient bacteria killing by the rigid and sharp nano-dagger tips...
June 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613991/microbial-characteristics-of-nosocomial-infections-and-their-association-with-the-utilization-of-hand-hygiene-products-a-hospital-wide-analysis-of-78-344-cases
#12
Song Liu, Meng Wang, Gefei Wang, Xiuwen Wu, Wenxian Guan, Jianan Ren
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections are the main adverse events during health care delivery. Hand hygiene is the fundamental strategy for the prevention of nosocomial infections. Microbial characteristics of nosocomial infections in the Asia-Pacific region have not been investigated fully. Correlation between the use of hand hygiene products and the incidence of nosocomial infections is still unknown. This study investigates the microbial characteristics of nosocomial infections in the Asia-Pacific region and analyzes the association between the utilization of hand hygiene products and the incidence of nosocomial infections...
June 14, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606053/protein-kinase-inhibitors-as-potential-antimicrobial-drugs-against-tuberculosis-malaria-and-hiv
#13
Yong Cheng, Jeffrey S Schorey, Cheng-Cai Zhang, Xuejuan Tan
Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic microbes such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi remain the top major cause of death across the world, particularly in low income countries, and may be transmitted from person to person, or from insects or animals. In general, infectious diseases may be treated with antimicrobial agents including antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal or antiparasitic medications. The therapeutic application of antimicrobial drugs in the 20th century substantially contributed to the global control of infectious diseases worldwide...
June 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597192/pre-banking-microbial-contamination-of-donor-conjunctiva-and-storage-medium-for-penetrating-keratoplasty
#14
Takenori Inomata, Koichi Ono, Tsuyoshi Matsuba, Tina Shiang, Antonio Di Zazzo, Satoru Nakatani, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki Ebihara, Akira Murakami
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of positive donor tissue cultures before transfer to preservation medium (Optisol™-GS) for penetrating keratoplasty, to verify the efficacy of antibiotics contained in Optisol™-GS by examining the drug susceptibility and to assess the relationship between the results of our microbial assessments as well as donor factors and the incidence of contamination. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study using Juntendo Eye Bank records for all corneal transplantations...
June 8, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592933/prevalence-of-biofilm-producing-aerobic-bacterial-isolates-in-burn-wound-infections-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-india
#15
S Asati, U Chaudhary
Burn wounds frequently get infected due to a break in skin integrity and prolonged hospitalization. Microbial flora originating from the patient's own flora colonize and infect the burn wounds. Bacterial biofilms in particular are postulated as the culprit for the development of non-healing burn wounds by inducing chronic inflammation in these patients. In the present study, 190 wound isolates obtained from patients admitted to the burn ward at the Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, were evaluated for biofilm formation along with Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST)...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591972/-one-carrier-of-robinsoniella-peoriensis-in-china
#16
Jing-Yu Yang, Xiao-Xia Zhang, Ru-Jia Yu, Ping Feng, Zhi-Yong Zong
OBJECTIVES: To study morphological feature, biochemical characteristic and antibiotic resistance of Robinsoniella peoriensis (R.peoriensis) strain. METHODS: The clinical R.peoriensis strain was isolated from ananus swab samples being screened in ICU. Biochemical characteristic of the strain was completed by fully automatic microbial identification and drug susceptibility analysis system (BioMérieux, Marcy-l'éE toile, France) with the ANC Vitek2. Antibiotic susceptibility in vitro was performed using agar dilution...
July 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584143/linezolid-dose-that-maximizes-sterilizing-effect-while-minimizing-toxicity-and-resistance-emergence-for-tuberculosis
#17
Shashikant Srivastava, Gesham Magombedze, Thearith Koeuth, Carleton Sherman, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Prithvi Raj, Edward Wakeland, Devyani Deshpande, Tawanda Gumbo
Linezolid has excellent sterilizing effect in tuberculosis patients, but high adverse event rates. The dose that would maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity is unknown. We performed linezolid dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies in the hollow fiber system model of tuberculosis (HFS-TB) for sterilizing effect. HFS-TB units were treated with several doses to mimic human-like linezolid intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics, and repetitively sampled for drug concentration, total bacterial burden, linezolid-resistant subpopulations, and RNA sequencing over 2 months...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569339/high-resolution-melting-as-a-rapid-reliable-accurate-and-cost-effective-emerging-tool-for-genotyping-pathogenic-bacteria-and-enhancing-molecular-epidemiological-surveillance-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#18
M Tamburro, G Ripabelli
INTRODUCTION: Rapid, reliable and accurate molecular typing methods are essential for outbreaks detection and infectious diseases control, for monitoring the evolution and dynamics of microbial populations, and for effective epidemiological surveillance. The introduction of a novel method based on the analysis of melting temperature of amplified products, known as High Resolution Melting (HRM) since 2002, has found applications in epidemiological studies, either for identification of bacterial species or molecular typing, as well as an extensive and increasing use in many research fields...
July 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558440/chemical-composition-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-iranian-propolis
#19
Houshang Afrouzan, Tahghighi Azar, Sedigheh Zakeri, Es-haghi Ali
Background: With considering the importance of natural products for their remedial and therapeutic value, this research was aimed to analyze the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of four propolis samples from different areas of Iran (Chenaran, Taleghan, Morad Beyg, and Kalaleh) with various climates and flora. Methods: ethanolic (70% EtOH) and dichlromethane (DCM) extracts of Iranian propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods, and antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion antimicrobial method...
May 31, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539745/effect-of-tamarindus-indica-l-and-manihot-esculenta-extracts-on-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#20
Zenon Machado Lima, Lenilson Santos da Trindade, Genelane Cruz Santana, Francine Ferreira Padilha, Marcelo da Costa Mendonça, Luiz Pereira da Costa, Jorge A López, Maria Lucila Hernández Macedo
BACKGROUND: The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
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