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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719264/the-human-microbiome-in-the-fight-against-tuberculosis
#1
Madeleine R Wood, Elaine A Yu, Saurabh Mehta
AbstractThe human microbiome is an intriguing potentially modifiable risk factor in our arsenal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading infectious disease killer globally. Previous studies have shown associations between the human microbiome and pulmonary disease states; however, etiological links between the microbiome and tuberculosis (TB) infection or disease remain unclear. Immunomodulatory roles of the microbiome may prove to be a critical asset in the host response against TB, including in preventing TB infection, reducing progression from latency, mitigating disease severity, and lowering the incidence of drug resistance and coinfections...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716567/moving-the-goalposts-a-comparison-of-different-definitions-for-primary-external-ventricular-drain-infection-and-its-risk-factors-a-multi-center-study-of-2575-patients
#2
Peter Y M Woo, Hoi-Tung Wong, Jenny K S Pu, Wai-Kei Wong, Larry Y W Wong, Michael W Y Lee, Kwong-Yui Yam, Wai-Man Lui, Wai-Sang Poon
External ventricular drainage is the most common procedure performed in daily neurosurgical practice. One devastating complication is ventriculostomy-associated infection, but the establishment of evidence-based management guidelines has been hindered by the lack of an universal definition. There is also limited data with regard to the utility of comorbidity health indices and surgery-related factors in predicting infection. This study aims to compare the incidence of infection according to five commonly used definitions and to identify risk factors for this complication...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713083/regional-features-of-the-microbial-landscape-of-urine-and-comparative-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-children-with-cystitis
#3
Tetyana O Kryuchko, Vira P Kharshman, Inna M Nesina, Nataliia V Kuzmenko, Jaroslava M Oleksiienko
INTRODUCTION: Growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics, including cross-resistance to other antimicrobial classes that are used in the treatment of recurrent infections of the lower urinary system in children demands constant control of issues of regional antibiotic resistance. In the present days, in the empirical treatment of such patients physicians still choose medications with preserved activity in relation to E. coli. The aim of our study was to investigate the regional features of microbial landscape of urine in children with cystitis and study the efficacy of 7-day administration of Furamag medicinal drug for the treatment of recurrent episodes of this disease in children...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701174/normal-milk-microbiome-is-reestablished-following-experimental-infection-with-escherichia-coli-independent-of-intramammary-antibiotic-treatment-with-a-third-generation-cephalosporin-in-bovines
#4
Erika K Ganda, Natalia Gaeta, Anja Sipka, Brianna Pomeroy, Georgios Oikonomou, Ynte H Schukken, Rodrigo C Bicalho
BACKGROUND: The use of antimicrobials in food animals and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance are global concerns. Ceftiofur is the only third-generation cephalosporin labeled for veterinary use in the USA, and it is the drug of choice in the majority of dairy farms for the treatment of mastitis. Here, we use next-generation sequencing to describe longitudinal changes that occur in the milk microbiome before, during, and after infection and treatment with ceftiofur. Twelve animals were intramammary challenged with Escherichia coli in one quarter and randomly allocated to receive intramammary treatment with ceftiofur (5d) or untreated controls...
July 12, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699872/in-vitro-synergistic-effects-of-a-short-cationic-peptide-and-clinically-used-antibiotics-against-drug-resistant-isolates-of-brucella-melitensis
#5
Zohreh Mohammadi Azad, Hoda Moravej, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Faramarz Masjedian, Raziyeh Nazari, Reza Mirnejad, Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam
PURPOSE: In the last few decades, increasing microbial resistance to common antibiotics has attracted researchers' attention to the development of new classes of antibiotics such as antimicrobial peptides. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to evaluate antimicrobial effects of the CM11 peptide alone and combined with common antibiotics against drug-resistant isolates of Brucella melitensis. METHODOLOGY: A total of 50 pathogenic samples of B. melitensis were isolated from patients and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was evaluated by E-test...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696944/mitoriboscins-mitochondrial-based-therapeutics-targeting-cancer-stem-cells-cscs-bacteria-and-pathogenic-yeast
#6
Bela Ozsvari, Marco Fiorillo, Gloria Bonuccelli, Anna Rita Cappello, Luca Frattaruolo, Federica Sotgia, Rachel Trowbridge, Richard Foster, Michael P Lisanti
The "endo-symbiotic theory of mitochondrial evolution" states that mitochondrial organelles evolved from engulfed aerobic bacteria, after millions of years of symbiosis and adaptation. Here, we have exploited this premise to design new antibiotics and novel anti-cancer therapies, using a convergent approach. First, virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) and computational chemistry were used to identify novel compounds binding to the 3D structure of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. The resulting library of ~880 compounds was then subjected to phenotypic drug screening on human cancer cells, to identify which compounds functionally induce ATP-depletion, which is characteristic of mitochondrial inhibition...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696238/the-sterilizing-effect-of-ertapenem-clavulanate-in-a-hollow-fiber-model-of-tuberculosis-and-implications-on-clinical-dosing
#7
Sander P van Rijn, Shashikant Srivastava, Mireille A Wessels, Dick van Soolingen, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Tawanda Gumbo
Carbapenems are now being explored for treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in conjunction with clavulanate. Clinical use is constrained by the need for multiple parenteral doses per day, and lack of knowledge of the optimal dose for sterilizing effect. Our objective was to identify the ertapenem exposure associated with optimal sterilizing effect and then design a once a day dose for clinical use. We utilized the hollow fiber system model of tuberculosis in a 28-day exposure-response study of 8 different ertapenem doses in combination with clavulanate...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683818/longitudinal-profiling-reveals-a-persistent-intestinal-dysbiosis-triggered-by-conventional-anti-tuberculosis-therapy
#8
Sivaranjani Namasivayam, Mamoudou Maiga, Wuxing Yuan, Vishal Thovarai, Diego L Costa, Lara R Mittereder, Matthew F Wipperman, Michael S Glickman, Amiran Dzutsev, Giorgio Trinchieri, Alan Sher
BACKGROUND: Effective treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires at least 6 months of daily therapy with multiple orally administered antibiotics. Although this drug regimen is administered annually to millions worldwide, the impact of such intensive antimicrobial treatment on the host microbiome has never been formally investigated. Here, we characterized the longitudinal outcome of conventional isoniazid-rifampin-pyrazinamide (HRZ) TB drug administration on the diversity and composition of the intestinal microbiota in Mtb-infected mice by means of 16S rRNA sequencing...
July 7, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683309/the-complete-structure-of-the-mycobacterium-smegmatis-70s-ribosome
#9
Jendrik Hentschel, Chloe Burnside, Ingrid Mignot, Marc Leibundgut, Daniel Boehringer, Nenad Ban
The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680970/nbiochip-a-lab-on-a-chip-platform-of-mono-and-polymicrobial-biofilms-for-high-throughput-downstream-applications
#10
Anand Srinivasan, Nelson S Torres, Kai P Leung, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Current in vitro techniques for the culture of microorganisms, and particularly of delicate microbial biofilms, are still mostly limited to low-density plates and manual labor and are not amenable to automation and true high-throughput (HT) applications. We have developed a novel fully automated platform for the formation of mono- and polymicrobial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at the nanoscale level. The nBioChip is robotically printed, robustly handled, and scanned using a standard microarray reader...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677216/hygiene-microbial-strategies-to-reduce-pathogens-and-drug-resistance-in-clinical-settings
#11
Elisabetta Caselli
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a global concern, affecting all western hospitals, and profoundly impairing the clinical outcome of up to 15% of all hospitalized patients. Persistent microbial contamination of hospital surfaces has been suggested to contribute to HAIs onset, representing a reservoir for hospital pathogens. On the other hand, conventional chemicals-based sanitation do not prevent recontamination and can select drug-resistant strains, resulting in over 50% of surfaces persistently contaminated...
July 5, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676270/synthesis-of-novel-2-pyrazoline-analogues-with-potent-anti-inflammatory-effect-mediated-by-inhibition-of-phospholipase-a2-crystallographic-in-silico-docking-and-qsar-analysis
#12
Devirammanahalli Mahadevaswamy Lokeshwari, Dileep Kumar Achutha, Bharath Srinivasan, Naveen Shivalingegowda, Lokanath Neratur Krishnappagowda, Ajay Kumar Kariyappa
Oxidative-stress induces inflammatory diseases. Further, infections caused by drug-resistant microbial strains are on the rise. This necessitates the discovery of novel small-molecules for intervention therapy. A series of 3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-(aryl)prop-2-en-1-ones are synthesized as intermediates via Claisen-Schmidt reaction approach. Subsequently, these intermediates were transformed into 2-pyrazolines by their reaction with phenylhydrazine hydrochlorides in methanol and few drops of acetic acid under reflux conditions...
June 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674047/subinhibitory-concentrations-of-trimethoprim-and-sulfamethoxazole-prevent-biofilm-formation-by-acinetobacter-baumannii-through-inhibition-of-csu-pili-expression
#13
Ki Hwan Moon, Brent S Weber, Mario F Feldman
Acinetobacter baumannii is emerging as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen of increasing threat to human health worldwide. Pili are important bacterial virulence factors, playing a role in attachment to host cells and biofilm formation. The Csu pilus, assembled via the chaperone-usher secretion system, has been studied in A. baumannii ATCC 19606. Here we show that, in opposition to previous reports, the common lab strain ATCC 17978 produces Csu pili. We found that, although ATCC 17978 is resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Smx) and trimethoprim (Tmp), subinhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics abolish the expression of Csu and consequently a dramatic reduction in biofilm formation in ATCC 17978...
July 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672149/enantiomeric-profiling-of-a-chemically-diverse-mixture-of-chiral-pharmaceuticals-in-urban-water
#14
S Evans, J Bagnall, B Kasprzyk-Hordern
Due to concerns regarding the release of pharmaceuticals into the environment and the understudied impact of stereochemistry of pharmaceuticals on their fate and biological potency, we focussed in this paper on stereoselective transformation pathways of selected chiral pharmaceuticals (16 pairs) at both microcosm (receiving waters and activated sludge wastewater treatment simulating microcosms) and macrocosm (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) utilising activated sludge technology and receiving waters) scales in order to test the hypothesis that biodegradation of chiral drugs is stereoselective...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670450/non-prescribed-antimicrobial-use-and-associated-factors-among-customers-in-drug-retail-outlet-in-central-zone-of-tigray-northern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Negash Hadera Gebrekirstos, Birhanu Demeke Workneh, Yosef Sibhatu Gebregiorgis, Kebede Haile Misgina, Negassie Berhe Weldehaweria, Meresa Gebremedhin Weldu, Hailay Siyum Belay
BACKGROUND: Non-prescribed antimicrobial use and their resistance are among the main public health problems, worldwide. In Ethiopia, particularly in the northern part, the magnitude of non-prescribed antimicrobial use and its major determinants is not yet well known. Thus, this study was done to assess the magnitude of non-prescribed anti-microbial use and associated factors among customers in drug retail outlet in Central Zone, Tigray, Ethiopia. METHODS: A drug retail outlet based cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged 18 years and above...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669749/extracellular-vesicles-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-in-conjunction-with-microbiota-on-the-border-of-kingdoms
#16
REVIEW
Natasha S Barteneva, Yeldar Baiken, Elizaveta Fasler-Kan, Kenneth Alibek, Sheng Wang, Natalia Maltsev, Eugeny D Ponomarev, Zarina Sautbayeva, Sholpan Kauanova, Anna Moore, Christoph Beglinger, Ivan A Vorobjev
Extracellular vesicle (EV) production is a universal feature of metazoan cells as well as prokaryotes (bMVs - bacterial microvesicls). They are small vesicles with phospholipid membrane carrying proteins, DNA and different classes of RNAs and are heavily involved in intercellular communication acting as vectors of information to target cells. For the last decade, the interest in EV research has exponentially increased though thorough studies of their roles in various pathologies that was not previously possible due to technical limitations...
June 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668355/cell-biology-of-microbes-and-pharmacology-of-antimicrobial-drugs-explored-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#17
REVIEW
Cécile Formosa-Dague, Raphaël Emmanuel Duval, Etienne Dague
Antimicrobial molecules have been used for more than 50 years now and are the basis of modern medicine. No surgery can nowdays be imagined to be performed without antibiotics; dreadful diseases like tuberculosis, leprosis, siphilys, and more broadly all microbial induced diseases, can be cured only through the use of antimicrobial treatments. However, the situation is becoming more and more complex because of the ability of microbes to adapt, develop, acquire, and share mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial agents...
June 28, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659617/potent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-activity-of-a-small-molecule-host-defense-peptide-mimic-through-a-membrane-active-mechanism
#18
Lorenzo P Menzel, Hossain Mobaswar Chowdhury, Jorge Adrian Masso-Silva, William Ruddick, Klaudia Falkovsky, Rafael Vorona, Andrew Malsbary, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Lisa K Ryan, Kristina M DiFranco, David C Brice, Michael J Costanzo, Damian Weaver, Katie B Freeman, Richard W Scott, Gill Diamond
Lethal systemic fungal infections of Candida species are increasingly common, especially in immune compromised patients. By in vitro screening of small molecule mimics of naturally occurring host defense peptides (HDP), we have identified several active antifungal molecules, which also exhibited potent activity in two mouse models of oral candidiasis. Here we show that one such compound, C4, exhibits a mechanism of action that is similar to the parent HDP upon which it was designed. Specifically, its initial interaction with the anionic microbial membrane is electrostatic, as its fungicidal activity is inhibited by cations...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648923/design-and-environmentally-benign-synthesis-of-novel-thiophene-appended-pyrazole-analogues-as-anti-inflammatory-and-radical-scavenging-agents-crystallographic-in-silico-modeling-docking-and-sar-characterization
#19
Malledevarapura Gurumurthy Prabhudeva, Srinivasan Bharath, Achutha Dileep Kumar, Shivalingegowda Naveen, Neratur Krishnappagowda Lokanath, Bantaganahalli Ningappa Mylarappa, Kariyappa Ajay Kumar
Oxidative-stress induces inflammatory diseases and infections caused by drug-resistant microbial strains are on the rise necessitating the discovery of novel small-molecules for intervention therapy. The current study presents an effective and new green protocol for the synthesis of thiophene-appended pyrazoles through 3+2 annulations method. Chalcones 3(a-g) were prepared from 5-chloro-2-acetylthiophene and aromatic aldehydes by Claisen-Schmidt approach. The reaction of chalcones 3(a-g) with phenylhydrazine hydrochlorides 4(a-b) in acetic acid (30%) medium and also with freshly prepared citrus extract medium under reflux conditions produced the thiophene appended pyrazoles 5(a-l) in moderate yields...
June 16, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643227/preparation-and-characterization-of-alginate-microparticles-containing-a-model-protein-for-oral-administration-in-gnotobiotic-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-larvae
#20
Eamy Nursaliza Yaacob, Jens Goethals, Aline Bajek, Kristof Dierckens, Peter Bossier, Bruno G De Geest, Daisy Vanrompay
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal production sector. However, the production of marine fish is still hampered by the high mortality rate in the first few weeks after hatching. Mortality in larvae is often caused by microbial infections. Today, the incorporation of immunostimulants into microparticles provides us new tools to enhance disease resistance in marine larviculture. In this study, we prepared alginate microparticles loaded with the model antigen fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-bovine serum albumin...
June 22, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
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