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Drug resistance microbial

Troy A Skwor, Stephanie Klemm, Hanyu Zhang, Brianna Schardt, Stephanie Blaszczyk, Matthew A Bork
Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics threatens proper clinical treatment and jeopardizes their use in prevention. A photodynamic approach appears to be an innovative treatment option, even for multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Three components are utilized in photodynamic inactivation: a photosensitizer, light source, and oxygen. Variations in photosensitizers strongly influence microbial binding and bactericidal activity. In this study, four different cationic metalloporphyrins (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Pd(2+), Zn(2+)) were compared to the free-base ligand 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin regarding their electronic properties and generation of reactive oxygen species upon subsequent 405nm violet-blue irradiation...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Athanasios Tselebonis, Evangelia Nena, Christos Nikolaidis, Theocharis Konstantinidis, Christos Kontogiorgis, Maria Panopoulou, Theodore C Constantinidis
OBJECTIVE: To monitor microbes, focusing on drug resistance, on the hands of the personnel of four departments of a tertiary hospital (ICU, neonatal unit, internal medicine ward and surgical ward) and explore differences between departments, professions and genders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hand sampling from 125 healthcare employees was conducted followed by isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of different microbial species. RESULTS: Staphylococcus spp was the most prevalent microbe (76/125, 60...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Sanmuga Priya Ekambaram, Senthamil Selvan Perumal, Ajay Balakrishnan, Nathiya Marappan, Sabari Srinivasan Gajendran, Vinodhini Viswanathan
AIM/BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants have ability to resist microorganisms by synthesizing secondary metabolites such as phenols. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenylpropanoid widely distributed in plants and well known as therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is resistant to all kinds of β-lactams, threatens even most potent antibiotics. To improve the efficiency of antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria and to reduce the antibiotic dose, the antibacterial activity and the synergistic effect of RA with standard antibiotics against S...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Eric Nuermberger, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  The regimen of linezolid and moxifloxacin was found to be efficacious in the hollow fiber system model of pediatric intracellular tuberculosis. However, its kill rate was slower than the standard 3-drug regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. We wanted to examine the effect of adding a third oral agent, faropenem, to this dual combination. METHODS:  We performed a series of studies in the hollow fiber system model of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by mimicking pediatric pharmacokinetics of each antibiotic...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Pauline D Scanlan, Anna M Bischofberger, Alex R Hall
Although experiments indicate that the abiotic environment plays an important role in bacterial interactions with their parasitic viruses (bacteriophages or phages), it is not yet clear how exposure to compounds present in nature alters the impact of phages on bacterial growth and evolution. To address this question we exposed Escherichia coli K12 MG1655, in combination with three lytic phages, to various substances that natural and clinical microbial populations are likely to encounter: bile salts (present in mammalian gastrointestinal tracts), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a common surfactant in cleaning and hygiene products), and four antibiotics (present at variable concentrations in natural and clinical environments)...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Barbara Biondi, Bruno Casciaro, Antonio Di Grazia, Floriana Cappiello, Vincenzo Luca, Marco Crisma, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a key role in the defence mechanism of living organisms against microbial pathogens, displaying both bactericidal and immunomodulatory properties. They are considered as a promising alternative to the conventional antibiotics towards which bacteria are becoming highly resistant. Recently, a derivative of the frog skin AMP esculentin-1a, esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 [Esc(1-21)], showed a strong and fast membranolytic activity against Gram-negative bacteria but with a lower efficacy against Gram-positive ones...
October 11, 2016: Amino Acids
Maria Clara Padovani de Souza, Andrezza Gouvêa Dos Santos, Adriano Max Moreira Reis
Background The inappropriate use of systemic antifungal agents can result in unnecessary exposure, adverse events, increased microbial resistance and increased costs. Aim This study analysed the use of systemic antifungal agents and adherence to treatment guidelines for fungal infections. Setting A Brazilian tertiary hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated 183 patients who were treated with systemic antifungals. Antifungal drugs were classified according to the fourth level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Jiachun Liu, Yan-Ling Wu, Huri Piao, Xiaoyin Zhao, Wen Zhang, Yanli Wang, Minrui Liu
At present, diseases resulting from various reasons have been causing deadly fears to humans and previously incogitable losses to health. Meanwhile, the patient compliance has been weakening because of drug resistance and serious drug adverse effects. There is therefore an urgent need for the development of novel structural agents. Rhodanine derivatives have represented wide biological activities, as well as significant industrial applications, which suggests that rhodanine heterocycle represents a key structural motif in heterocyclic chemistry and occupies a prominent position in drug discovery...
September 28, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Diana Fusco, Matti Gralka, Jona Kayser, Alex Anderson, Oskar Hallatschek
The genetic diversity of growing cellular populations, such as biofilms, solid tumours or developing embryos, is thought to be dominated by rare, exceptionally large mutant clones. Yet, the emergence of these mutational jackpot events is only understood in well-mixed populations, where they stem from mutations that arise during the first few cell divisions. To study jackpot events in spatially structured populations, we track mutant clones in microbial populations using fluorescence microscopy and population sequencing...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Ozgun Cuvas Apan, Teoman Zafer Apan, Alparslan Apan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Microbial contamination during preparation of the infusion drugs is an important issue in intensive care units. Objective of this study was to investigate in vitro antimicrobial properties of commonly used vasoactive drugs. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Clinical microbiology laboratory of a university hospital. MEASUREMENTS: Growth of the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in saline dilutions of adrenaline at 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL; noradrenaline at 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL; and dopamine at 0...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Rebecca S Thombre, Vinaya Shinde, Elvina Thaiparambil, Samruddhi Zende, Sourabh Mehta
Haloarchaea are salt-loving halophilic microorganisms that inhabit marine environments, sea water, salterns, and lakes. The resistance of haloarchaea to physical extremities that challenge organismic survival is ubiquitous. Metal and antibiotic resistance of haloarchaea has been on an upsurge due to the exposure of these organisms to metal sinks and drug resistance genes augmented in their natural habitats due to anthropogenic activities and environmental pollution. The efficacy of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) as a potent and broad spectrum inhibitory agent is known, however, there are no reports on the inhibitory activity of SNPs against haloarchaea...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mai Yamamoto, Ritchie Ly, Biban Gill, Yujie Zhu, Jose Moran-Mirabal, Philip Britz-McKibbin
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) represents a high efficiency microscale separation platform for untargeted profiling of polar/ionic metabolites that is ideal for volume-restricted biological specimens with minimal sample workup. Despite these advantages, the long-term stability of CE-MS remains a major obstacle hampering its widespread application in metabolomics notably for routine analysis of anionic metabolites under negative ion mode conditions. Herein, we report for the first time that commonly used ammonia containing buffers compatible with electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS can compromise the integrity of fused-silica capillaries via aminolysis of their outer polyimide coating...
October 10, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Shariq Qayyum, Asad Ullah Khan
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized via a green route using ten different plants extracts (GNP1- Caryota urens, GNP2-Pongamia glabra, GNP3- Hamelia patens, GNP4-Thevetia peruviana, GNP5-Calendula officinalis, GNP6-Tectona grandis, GNP7-Ficus petiolaris, GNP8- Ficus busking, GNP9- Juniper communis, GNP10-Bauhinia purpurea). AgNPs were tested against drug resistant microbes and their biofilms. These nanoparticles (NPs) were characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Image J software...
October 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Kathryn Milligan-Myhre, Sarah K Wilson, Laura J Knoll
The Toxoplasma gondii cyst stage is resistant to drug therapy. To identify potential targets for new therapeutics, we screened insertional mutants of T. gondii for a reduced ability to form cysts in the brains of mice. In one of these mutants, named 38C3, the mutagenesis plasmid inserted into the mRNA of a protein that is highly conserved in microbes but is not present in humans. The mutation in 38C3 causes reduced brain cyst production during chronic infection, but does not affect acute virulence, so the disrupted gene and protein are called T...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Costanza Furlanetto, Sonia Merluzzi, Stefano Palcic
Biofilms pose a serious problem for public health. Penetration of pharmacological agents within a biofilm is hampered by the morphological structure of such microbial communities. A biofilm infection therefore entails adverse outcomes both in the field of cost management and patient prognosis. The problem is further complicated if the drugs available to combat a biofilm-related fungal infection versus a bacterial one are compared: in the case of a fungal infection, the drugs available are less efficacious than antibiotics used to counteract a bacterial infection...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Timothy A Wencewicz
The doom and gloom of antibiotic resistance dominates public perception of this drug class. Many believe the world has entered the post-antibiotic era. Classic and modern approaches to antibacterial drug discovery have delivered a plethora of lead molecules with a great majority being natural products of ancient microbial origin. The failure of antibiotics in the resistance era comes from an inability to develop new leads into clinical candidates, which is a costly and risky endeavor for any therapeutic area, especially when resistance is at play...
September 13, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Feifei Yin, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Qixuan Zhu, Ruijia Fu, Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen, Garnet Kwan-Yue Choi, Kah-Meng Tee, Lihua Li, Shiuyun Qian, Wing-Cheong Yam, Gang Lu, Kwok-Yung Yuen
AIMS: Rapid and accurate diagnostic assays with simultaneous microbial identification and drug resistance detection are essential for optimising treatment and control of tuberculosis. METHODS: We developed a novel multiplex (TRIOL, Tuberculosis-Rifampicin-Isoniazid-Ofloxacin-Luminex) assay using the Luminex xMAP system that simultaneously identifies Mycobacterium tuberculosis and detects resistance to first-line and second-line anti-tuberculous drugs, and compared its performance with that by PCR sequencing, using phenotypic drug susceptibility testing as the gold standard...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
S Mashjoor, M Yousefzadi
Pharmaceutical industries now accept that oceans contain a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties. As investigation of antimicrobial activity, three species of Holothuria sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra, Holothuria parva and Holothuria leucospilota) from the Persian Gulf, Iran, were obtained, their different organs: gonads (G), body wall (BW), intestine tract (IT), respiratory tree (RT) were isolated and extracted with organic solvents: ethyl acetate and methanol. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of each fraction was estimated with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk-diffusion method against the number (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
A U Wijenayake, C L Abayasekara, H M T G A Pitawala, B M R Bandara
BACKGROUND: Mineral based preparations are widely used for centuries as antimicrobial agents. However, the efficacy and the mode of action of mineral based preparations are uncertain due to the insufficient antimicrobial studies. Arogyawardhana Vati (AV) and Manikya Rasa (MR) are such two Rasashastra herbo-minerallic drugs commonly in India and other countries in South Asia. Despite of their well known traditional use of skin diseases, reported antimicrobial and mineralogical studies are limited...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mohini M Konai, Jayanta Haldar
The emergence of bacterial resistance is a major threat to global health. Alongside this issue, formation of bacterial biofilms is another cause of concern because most antibiotics are ineffective against these recalcitrant microbial communities. Ideal future antibacterial therapeutics should possess both antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In this study we engineered lysine-based small molecules, which showed not only commendable broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but also potent biofilm-disrupting properties...
October 9, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
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