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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100602/find-tuberculosis-strain-bank-a-resource-for-researchers-and-developers-working-on-tests-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-related-drug-resistance
#1
Belay Tessema, Pamela Nabeta, Eloise Valli, Audrey Albertini, Jimena Collantes, Nguyen Huu Lan, Elena Romancenco, Nestani Tukavdze, Claudia M Denkinger, David L Dolinger
BACKGROUND: The spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant TB hampers the global efforts in the fight against tuberculosis. To enhance the development and evaluation of diagnostic tests quickly and efficiently, well characterized strains and samples from drug resistant tuberculosis patients are necessary. In this project, FIND has focused on the collection, characterization and storage of such well-characterized reference materials and to make them available to researchers and developers...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099825/transmission-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#2
N Sarita Shah, Sara C Auld, James C M Brust, Barun Mathema, Nazir Ismail, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Salim Allana, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Natashia Morris, Primrose Mpangase, Hermina van der Meulen, Shaheed V Omar, Tyler S Brown, Apurva Narechania, Elena Shaskina, Thandi Kapwata, Barry Kreiswirth, Neel R Gandhi
Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is needed to guide public health interventions. Methods We conducted a prospective study involving 404 participants in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with a diagnosis of XDR tuberculosis between 2011 and 2014...
19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098814/thioridazine-a-non-antibiotic-drug-highly-effective-in-combination-with-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-against-any-form-of-antibiotic-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-due-to-its-multi-mechanisms-of-action
#3
REVIEW
Leonard Amaral, Miguel Viveiros
This review presents the evidence that supports the use of thioridazine (TZ) for the therapy of a pulmonary tuberculosis infection regardless of its antibiotic resistance status. The evidence consists of in vitro and ex vivo assays that demonstrate the activity of TZ against all encountered Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) regardless of its antibiotic resistance phenotype, as well as in vivo as a therapy for mice infected with multi-drug resistant strains of Mtb, or for human subjects infected with extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mtb...
January 14, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089216/diabetes-is-associated-with-severe-adverse-events-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
Marcela Muñoz-Torrico, José Caminero-Luna, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Lia D'Ambrosio, José Luis Carrillo-Alduenda, Héctor Villareal-Velarde, Alfredo Torres-Cruz, Héctor Flores-Vergara, Dina Martínez-Mendoza, Cecilia García-Sancho, Rosella Centis, Miguel Ángel Salazar-Lezama, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM), a very common disease in Mexico, is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known by which extent DM predisposes to adverse events (AE) to anti-TB drugs and/or to worse outcomes in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). The main objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of TB treatment, the impact of DM and the prevalence of AE in a cohort of patients with MDR-/XDR pulmonary TB treated at the national TB referral centre in Mexico City...
January 11, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069654/reduced-chance-of-hearing-loss-associated-with-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-aminoglycosides-in-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#5
R van Altena, J A Dijkstra, M E van der Meer, J F Borjas Howard, J G W Kosterink, D van Soolingen, T S van der Werf, J W C Alffenaar
Hearing loss and nephrotoxicity are associated with prolonged treatment duration and higher dosage of amikacin and kanamycin. In our Tuberculosis Center, we have employed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) targeting pre-set pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) surrogate endpoints in an attempt to maintain efficacy while preventing (oto-)toxicity. To evaluate this strategy, we retrospectively evaluated medical charts of TB patients treated with amikacin or kanamycin in the period 2000 - 2012.Patients with culture-confirmed multi- or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) receiving amikacin or kanamycin as part of their TB treatment for at least 3 days were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062386/rna-expression-analysis-of-efflux-pump-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-south-korea
#6
Tae Sang Oh, Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Chang-Ki Kim, Sun Young Cho, Hee Joo Lee
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an important communicable disease. Various mechanisms of resistance to antituberculosis drugs have been reported; these are principally mutations in target genes. However, not all M. tuberculosis resistance can be explained by mutations in such genes. Other resistance mechanisms associated with drug transport, such as efflux pumps, have also been reported. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of three putative efflux pumps and mutations in target genes associated with injectable agents and fluoroquinolones with clinical MDR and XDR-TB isolates...
January 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#7
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043788/comparison-of-bacteriological-conversion-and-treatment-outcomes-among-mdr-tb-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-in-mexico-preliminary-data
#8
M Muñoz-Torrico, J Caminero Luna, G B Migliori, L D'Ambrosio, J L Carrillo-Alduenda, H Villareal-Velarde, A Torres-Cruz, H Flores-Ergara, D Martínez-Mendoza, C García-Sancho, R Centis, M Á Salazar-Lezama, R Pérez-Padilla
: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City...
December 30, 2016: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043640/alternate-efflux-pump-mechanism-may-contribute-to-drug-resistance-in-extensively-drug-resistant-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Ambreen Zaver, Asho Ali, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Mussarat Ashraf, Taane G Clark, Ruth McNerney, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the biggest threats to public health and TB control programs worldwide. XDR-TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, as well as to a fluoroquinolone and to at least one injectable aminoglycoside. Drug resistance in MTB has primarily been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, it has also been shown that efflux pumps may play a role in resistance of MTB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043617/bedaquiline-in-the-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-belarus-experience
#10
Alena Skrahina, Hennadz Hurevich, Dennis Falzon, Liudmila Zhilevich, Valiantsin Rusovich, Masoud Dara, Svetlana Setkina
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Outcomes of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain poor worldwide. Among patients with MDR-TB in Belarus who started treatment in 2012, only 54% completed it successfully, with treatment failure reported in 22% of the patients; additionally, 11% died and 13% were lost to follow-up or remained unevaluated. In Belarus, to improve outcomes, bedaquiline was introduced in MDR-TB treatment in June 2015. The national TB program developed measures to monitor safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in line with the World Health Organization recommendations...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043606/ethambutol-resistance-testing-by-mutation-detection-using-mtbdrsl
#11
H Margaryan, S Rüsch-Gerdes, A Hayrapetyan, A Mirzoyan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the successes in managing drug-susceptible TB, drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis is a major challenge to the effectiveness of National Tuberculosis Program in Armenia, placing the country in the list of 18 high-burden countries for MDR-TB in the WHO European Region. Estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases. A total of 92 laboratory confirmed cases had been reported to the WHO (57 new and 35 previously treated) out of 511 cases tested for MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043590/use-of-wgs-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-routine-diagnosis
#12
Daniela M Cirillo, Andrea M Cabibbe, Maria Rosaria De Filippo, Alberto Trovato, Tullia Simonetti, Gian Maria Rossolini, Enrico Tortoli
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is becoming affordable with overall costs comparable to other tests currently in use to perform the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and cluster analysis. The WGS approach allows an "all-in-one" approach providing results on expected sensitivity of the strains, genetic background, epidemiological data, and indication of risk of laboratory cross-contamination. METHODS: Although ideal, WGS from the direct diagnostic specimen is not yet standardized, and to date the two most promising approaches are WGS from early positive liquid culture and targeted sequencing from diagnostic specimens using Next-Generation Technology...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043550/predominance-of-beijing-lineage-among-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-tertiary-care-center-experience
#13
Syed Beenish Rufai, Manimuthu Mani Sankar, Jitendra Singh, Sarman Singh
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Increasing resistance to various first-line and second-line drugs has become a major concern in India. However, it is not known if some genotypes are more associated with second-line drug resistance. Thus, the main aim of this study was to find out the predominant genotype associated with second-line drug resistance. METHODS: During the study, a total of 234 multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, isolated between 2008 and 2015, were randomly selected and screened for pre-extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and XDR patterns using second-drug susceptibility testing with BACTEC MGIT 960...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043527/overview-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-worldwide
#14
Ali A Velayati, Parissa Farnia, Amir M Farahbod
Even in the 21st century, we are losing the battle against eradication of tuberculosis (TB). In 2015, 9.6 million people were estimated to have fallen ill with TB, of which 1.5 million people died. This is the real situation despite the well-structured treatment programs and availability of effective treatment options since the 1950s. The high mortality rate has been associated with other risk factors, such as the HIV epidemic, underlying diseases, and decline of socioeconomic standards. Furthermore, the problem of drug resistance that was recognized in the early days of the chemotherapeutic era raises serious concerns...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043519/increased-expression-of-efflux-pump-genes-in-extensively-drug-resistant-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Ying Zhang, Wanliang Shi, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Kiran Iqbal, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains that are multidrug resistant (MDR) and also resistant to a fluoroquinolone and to one injectable aminoglycoside or capreomycin. Whilst resistance in MTB has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), efflux pumps are thought to play a role in conferring resistance to MTB but little is known about them. METHODS: We studied XDR MTB (n=10) strains characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS; http://www...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043501/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-sequential-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-sensitive-and-resistant-beijing-type-from-a-patient-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#16
Amit Singh, Anil Kumar Gupta, Krishnamoorthy Gopinath, Divakar Sharma, Prashant Sharma, Deepa Bisht, Pawan Sharma, Sarman Singh
AIM & OBJECTIVE: In India, tuberculosis (TB) is a foremost health problem, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) has further complicated the situation. Although various mechanisms have been proposed to elucidate the emergence of resistance, our knowledge remains insufficient. The formation of a very complex network and drugs of proteins are countered by their efflux/modification or target over-expression/modification...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007659/retrospective-study-of-clinical-and-lesion-characteristics-of-patients-undergoing-surgical-treatment-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-georgia
#17
REVIEW
Sergo Vashakidze, Albert Despuig, Shota Gogishvili, Keti Nikolaishvili, Natalia Shubladze, Zaza Avaliani, Nestan Tukvadze, Martí Casals, Joan A Caylà, Pere-Joan Cardona, Cristina Vilaplana
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to retrospectively compare clinical data and characteristics of removed lesions of the cohort of patients undergoing therapeutical surgery for their tuberculosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Demographic and epidemiological details, clinical data, data on the surgery performed, macroscopic characteristics of the TB lesions removed, and outcome were recorded retrospectively from the 137 patients who underwent therapeutical surgery for their TB in Tbilisi, Georgia during 2014 and 2015...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960629/preclinical-study-and-clinical-trial-of-a-novel-therapeutic-vaccine-against-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#18
Masaji Okada, Yoko Kita, Satomi Hashimoto, Hitoshi Nakatani, Shiho Nishimastu, Yumiko Kioka, Yasuko Takami
[Purpose] Multi-drug resistant (MDR), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a big problem in the world. We have developed novel TB therapeutic vaccine (HVJ-E/HSP65 DNA +IL-12 DNA). [Methods and Results] DNA vaccine expressing TB heat shock protein 65 and IL-12 was delivered by the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-envelope. This vaccine provided remarkable protective efficacy and strong therapeutic efficacy against MDR-TB and XDR-TB in murine models. Furthermore, this vaccine provided therapeutic efficacy of prolongation of survival time of TB infected monkeys and augmented the immune responses...
December 14, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956422/role-of-pyrazinamide-in-the-emergence-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-multi-strain-mathematical-model
#19
Mariam O Fofana, Sourya Shrestha, Gwenan M Knight, Ted Cohen, Richard G White, Frank Cobelens, David W Dowdy
Several infectious diseases of global importance - e.g. HIV, tuberculosis (TB) - require prolonged treatment with combination antimicrobial regimens, typically involving high-potency "core" agents coupled with additional "companion" drugs that protect against de novo emergence of mutations conferring resistance to the core agents. Often, the most effective (or least toxic) companion agents are re-used in sequential (first-line, second-line, etc…) regimens. We used a multi-strain model of M. tuberculosis transmission in Southeast Asia to investigate how this practice might facilitate the emergence of extensive drug resistance, i...
December 12, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907875/s-substituted-3-5-dinitrophenyl-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-thiols-and-tetrazole-5-thiols-as-highly-efficient-antitubercular-agents
#20
Galina Karabanovich, Jan Němeček, Lenka Valášková, Alejandro Carazo, Klára Konečná, Jiřina Stolaříková, Alexandr Hrabálek, Oto Pavliš, Petr Pávek, Kateřina Vávrová, Jaroslav Roh, Věra Klimešová
Two new classes of antitubercular agents, namely 5-alkylsulfanyl-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazoles and 2-alkylsulfanyl-5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, and their structure-activity relationships are described. These compounds possessed excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with no cross resistance with first or second-line anti-TB drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most promising compounds reached 0...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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