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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432288/overexpression-of-human-nr2b-receptor-subunit-in-lman-causes-stuttering-and-song-sequence-changes-in-adult-zebra-finches
#1
Mukta Chakraborty, Liang-Fu Chen, Emma E Fridel, Marguerita E Klein, Rebecca A Senft, Abhra Sarkar, Erich D Jarvis
Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn to produce songs in a manner reminiscent of spoken language development in humans. One candidate gene implicated in influencing learning is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype 2B glutamate receptor (NR2B). Consistent with this idea, NR2B levels are high in the song learning nucleus LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium) during juvenile vocal learning, and decreases to low levels in adults after learning is complete and the song becomes more stereotyped...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431323/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-developmental-stuttering-relations-with-previous-neurophysiological-research-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
P Busan, P P Battaglini, M Sommer
Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography...
April 3, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418529/anxiety-in-11-year-old-children-who-stutter-findings-from-a-prospective-longitudinal-community-sample
#3
Kylie A Smith, Lisa Iverach, Susan O'Brian, Fiona Mensah, Elaina Kefalianos, Anna Hearne, Sheena Reilly
Purpose: To examine if a community sample of 11-year-old children with persistent stuttering have higher anxiety than children who have recovered from stuttering and nonstuttering controls. Method: Participants in a community cohort study were categorized into 3 groups: (a) those with persistent stuttering, (b) those with recovered stuttering, and (c) nonstuttering controls. Linear regression modeling compared outcomes on measures of child anxiety and emotional and behavioral functioning for the 3 groups...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413060/stuttering-treatment-and-brain-research-in-adults-a-still-unfolding-relationship
#4
REVIEW
Roger J Ingham, Janis C Ingham, Harald A Euler, Katrin Neumann
PURPOSE: Brain imaging and brain stimulation procedures have now been used for more than two decades to investigate the neural systems that contribute to the occurrence of stuttering in adults, and to identify processes that might enhance recovery from stuttering. The purpose of this paper is to review the extent to which these dual lines of research with adults who stutter have intersected and whether they are contributing towards the alleviation of this impairment. METHOD: Several areas of research are reviewed in order to determine whether research on the neurology of stuttering is showing any potential for advancing the treatment of this communication disorder: (a) attempts to discover the neurology of stuttering, (b) neural changes associated with treated recovery, and (c) direct neural intervention...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409657/estimates-of-functional-cerebral-hemispheric-differences-in-monolingual-and-bilingual-people-who-stutter-dual-task-paradigm
#5
Myriam Kornisch, Michael P Robb, Richard D Jones
The inter-relationship of stuttering and bilingualism to functional cerebral hemispheric processing was examined on a dual-task paradigm. Eighty native German (L1) speakers, half of whom were sequential bilinguals (L2 = English), were recruited. The participants (mean age = 38.9 years) were organised into four different groups according to speech status and language ability: 20 bilinguals who stutter (BWS), 20 monolinguals who stutter (MWS), 20 bilinguals who do not stutter (BWNS), and 20 monolinguals who do not stutter (MWNS)...
April 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400266/eeg-mu-%C3%A2%C2%B5-rhythm-spectra-and-oscillatory-activity-differentiate-stuttering-from-non-stuttering-adults
#6
Tim Saltuklaroglu, Ashley W Harkrider, David Thornton, David Jenson, Tiffani Kittilstved
Stuttering is linked to sensorimotor deficits related to internal modeling mechanisms. This study compared spectral power and oscillatory activity of EEG mu (μ) rhythms between persons who stutter (PWS) and controls in listening and auditory discrimination tasks. EEG data were analyzed from passive listening in noise and accurate (same/different) discrimination of tones or syllables in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Independent component analysis identified left and/or right μ rhythms with characteristic alpha (α) and beta (β) peaks localized to premotor/motor regions in 23 of 27 people who stutter (PWS) and 24 of 27 controls...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399438/internal-validation-of-the-dnascan-ande%C3%A2-rapid-dna-analysis%C3%A2-platform-and-its-associated-powerplex-%C3%A2-16-high-content-dna-biochip-cassette-for-use-as-an-expert-system-with-reference-buccal-swabs
#7
Lilliana I Moreno, Alice L Brown, Thomas F Callaghan
Rapid DNA platforms are fully integrated systems capable of producing and analyzing short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from reference sample buccal swabs in less than two hours. The technology requires minimal user interaction and experience making it possible for high quality profiles to be generated outside an accredited laboratory. The automated production of point of collection reference STR profiles could eliminate the time delay for shipment and analysis of arrestee samples at centralized laboratories...
March 31, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390149/white-matter-developmental-trajectories-associated-with-persistence-and-recovery-of-childhood-stuttering
#8
Ho Ming Chow, Soo-Eun Chang
Stuttering affects the fundamental human ability of fluent speech production, and can have a significant negative impact on an individual's psychosocial development. While the disorder affects about 5% of all preschool children, approximately 80% of them recover naturally within a few years of stuttering onset. The pathophysiology and neuroanatomical development trajectories associated with persistence and recovery of stuttering are still largely unknown. Here, the first mixed longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of childhood stuttering has been reported...
April 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384673/explicit-and-implicit-verbal-response-inhibition-in-preschool-age-children-who-stutter
#9
Julie D Anderson, Stacy A Wagovich
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) explicit and implicit verbal response inhibition in preschool children who do stutter (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) and (b) the relationship between response inhibition and language skills. Method: Participants were 41 CWS and 41 CWNS between the ages of 3;1 and 6;1 (years;months). Explicit verbal response inhibition was measured using a computerized version of the grass-snow task (Carlson & Moses, 2001), and implicit verbal response inhibition was measured using the baa-meow task...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361094/genetic-contributions-to-stuttering-the-current-evidence
#10
Carlos Frigerio-Domingues, Dennis Drayna
Evidence for genetic factors in persistent developmental stuttering has accumulated over the past four decades, and the genes that underlie this disorder are starting to be identified. The genes identified to date, all point to deficits in intracellular trafficking in this disorder.
March 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359081/temperament-and-early-stuttering-development-cross-sectional-findings-from-a-community-cohort
#11
Elaina Kefalianos, Mark Onslow, Obioha C Ukoumunne, Susan Block, Sheena Reilly
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and 6 years using the Short Temperament Scale STS (Prior, Sanson, Smart & Oberklaid, 2000). Results: Six of 131 statistical tests of association between stuttering severity and behaviors and temperament traits were statistically significant at the 5% level, which was no more than expected by chance alone...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359046/evaluating-130-microhaplotypes-across-a-global-set-of-83-populations
#12
Kenneth K Kidd, William C Speed, Andrew J Pakstis, Daniele S Podini, Robert Lagacé, Joseph Chang, Sharon Wootton, Eva Haigh, Usha Soundararajan
Today the primary DNA markers used in forensics are short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms (STRPs), initially selected because they are highly polymorphic. However, the increasingly common need to deal with samples with a mixture of DNA from two or more individuals sometimes is complicated by the inherent stutter involved with PCR amplification, especially in strongly unbalanced mixtures when the minor component coincides with the stutter range of the major component. Also, the STRPs in use provide little evidence of ancestry of a single source sample beyond broad "continental" resolution...
March 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343098/developmental-validation-of-qiagen-investigator-%C3%A2-24plex-qs-kit-and-investigator-%C3%A2-24plex-go-kit-two-6-dye-multiplex-assays-for-the-extended-codis-core-loci
#13
Melanie Kraemer, Anke Prochnow, Michael Bussmann, Mario Scherer, Ralf Peist, Carolyn Steffen
The original CODIS database based on 13 core STR loci has been overwhelmingly successful for matching suspects with evidence. In order to increase the power of discrimination, reduce the possibility of adventitious matches, and expand global data sharing, the CODIS Core Loci Working Group determined the expansion of the CODIS core loci to 20 STR plus three additional "highly recommended" loci (SE33, DY391, Amelogenin) Hares, 2015, 2012 [1,2]. The QIAGEN Investigator 24plex QS and Investigator 24plex GO! Kits are 6-dye multiplex assays that contain all markers of the expanded 23 CODIS core loci along with a unique internal performance control that is co-amplified with the STR markers...
March 12, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334398/maintenance-of-social-anxiety-in-stuttering-a-cognitive-behavioral-model
#14
Lisa Iverach, Ronald M Rapee, Quincy J J Wong, Robyn Lowe
Purpose: Stuttering is a speech disorder frequently accompanied by anxiety in social-evaluative situations. A growing body of research has confirmed a significant rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a chronic and disabling anxiety disorder associated with substantial life impairment. Several influential models have described cognitive-behavioral factors that contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety in nonstuttering populations. The purpose of the present article is to apply these leading models to the experience of social anxiety for people who stutter...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331646/conversion-of-low-flow-priapism-to-high-flow-state-using-t-shunt-with-tunneling
#15
Neil A Mistry, Nicholas N Tadros, Jason C Hedges
Introduction. The three types of priapism are stuttering, arterial (high-flow, nonischemic), and venoocclusive (low-flow, ischemic). These are usually distinct entities and rarely occur in the same patient. T-shunts and other distal shunts are frequently combined with tunneling, but a seldom recognized potential complication is conversion to a high-flow state. Case Presentation. We describe 2 cases of men who presented with low-flow priapism episodes that were treated using T-shunts with tunneling that resulted with both men having recurrent erections shortly after surgery that were found to be consistent with high-flow states...
2017: Case Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330918/metabolic-rate-associates-with-but-does-not-generate-covariation-between-behaviours-in-western-stutter-trilling-crickets-gryllus-integer
#16
Indrikis A Krams, Petri T Niemelä, Giedrius Trakimas, Ronalds Krams, Gordon M Burghardt, Tatjana Krama, Aare Kuusik, Marika Mänd, Markus J Rantala, Raivo Mänd, Jukka Kekäläinen, Ilkka Sirkka, Severi Luoto, Raine Kortet
The causes and consequences of among-individual variation and covariation in behaviours are of substantial interest to behavioural ecology, but the proximate mechanisms underpinning this (co)variation are still unclear. Previous research suggests metabolic rate as a potential proximate mechanism to explain behavioural covariation. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR), boldness and exploration in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer, selected differentially for short and fast development over two generations...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327784/comparison-between-the-speech-performance-of-fluent-speakers-and-individuals-who-stutter
#17
Julia Biancalana Costa, Ana Paula Ritto, Fabiola Staróbole Juste, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the speech performance of fluent speakers and individuals who stutter during spontaneous speech, automatic speech, and singing. Methods: The study sample was composed of 34 adults, 17 individuals who stutter and 17 fluent controls, matched for gender and age. The speech performance of participants was compared by means of three tasks: monologue, automatic speech, and singing. The following aspects were assessed: total number of common disruptions and total number of stuttering-like disruptions...
March 16, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325499/the-dorsal-language-pathways-in-stuttering-response-to-commentary
#18
Vered Kronfeld-Duenias, Ofer Amir, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Oren Civier, Michal Ben-Shachar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290729/evidence-for-the-treatment-of-co-occurring-stuttering-and-speech-sound-disorder-a-clinical-case-series
#19
Rachael Unicomb, Sally Hewat, Elizabeth Spencer, Elisabeth Harrison
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of evidence to guide treatment for children with co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder. Some guidelines suggest treating the two disorders simultaneously using indirect treatment approaches; however, the research supporting these recommendations is over 20 years old. In this clinical case series, we investigate whether these co-occurring disorders could be treated concurrently using direct treatment approaches supported by up-to-date, high-level evidence, and whether this could be done in an efficacious, safe and efficient manner...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289751/the-effects-of-parent-focused-slow-relaxed-speech-intervention-on-articulation-rate-response-time-latency-and-fluency-in-preschool-children-who-stutter
#20
Jean Sawyer, Colleen Matteson, Hua Ou, Takahisa Nagase
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of an intervention to reduce caregivers' articulation rates with children who stutter on (a) disfluency, (b) caregiver and child's articulation rates, and (c) caregiver and child's response time latency (RTL). Method: Seventeen caregivers and their preschool children who stuttered participated in a group study of treatment outcomes. One speech sample was collected as a baseline, and 2 samples were collected after treatment...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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