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Fabiola Staróbole Juste, Fernanda Chiarion Sassi, Julia Biancalana Costa, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of speech disruptions across different speech tasks, comparing the performance of individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and DS. METHOD: Participants were 20 people with PD, 20 people with DS and 40 fluent individuals. Speech samples were recorded during monologue speech, choral and solo oral reading. Transcriptions of 200 fluent syllables were performed to identify stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs) and other disfluencies (ODs)...
2018: PloS One
Rocío S Norman, Carlos A Jaramillo, Blessen C Eapen, Megan E Amuan, Mary Jo Pugh
Introduction: Determine the association between acquired stuttering (AS), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a cohort of 309,675 U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. The secondary aim was to determine the association between AS and medication patterns for veterans in the sample. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study using data from the Veterans Health Administration National Repository for veterans deployed in support of combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and who received Veterans Health Administration care in 2010 and 2011...
April 18, 2018: Military Medicine
Sahil Munjal, Gary Schultheis, Stephen Ferrando
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
William H James, Victor Grech
Humans infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii display a wide variety of abnormal behaviours, from suicide and depression to stuttering. These behaviours have been seen as so serious as to constitute a public health problem. It is not clear to what extent the parasite is a cause of, or merely a marker for, these behaviours, but there is evidence for both. Some of these behaviours are associated with changes in steroid hormones, that is, estrogen in women and testosterone in men. It is suggested here that these endocrine-related states of infected people may be better understood by studying their offspring sex ratios...
June 7, 2018: Early Human Development
Tobias S Brett, Eamon B O'Dea, Éric Marty, Paige B Miller, Andrew W Park, John M Drake, Pejman Rohani
Epidemic transitions are an important feature of infectious disease systems. As the transmissibility of a pathogen increases, the dynamics of disease spread shifts from limited stuttering chains of transmission to potentially large scale outbreaks. One proposed method to anticipate this transition are early-warning signals (EWS), summary statistics which undergo characteristic changes as the transition is approached. Although theoretically predicted, their mathematical basis does not take into account the nature of epidemiological data, with are typically aggregated into periodic case reports and subject to reporting error...
June 8, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Rahilsadat Hosseini, Bridget Walsh, Fenghua Tian, Shouyi Wang
Stuttering is a communication disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population. Although 5-8% of preschool children begin to stutter, the majority will recover with or without intervention. There is a significant gap, however, in our understanding of why many children recover from stuttering while others persist and stutter throughout their lives. Detecting neurophysiological biomarkers of stuttering persistence is a critical objective of this paper. In this paper, we developed a novel supervised sparse feature learning approach to discover discriminative biomarkers from functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging data recorded during a speech production experiment from 46 children in three groups: children who stutter ( ); children who do not stutter ( ); and children who recovered from stuttering ( )...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Thomas Law, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow, Carol K-S To, Michael C-F Tong, Kathy Y-S Lee
Speaking rhythmically, also known as syllable-timed speech (STS), has been known for centuries to be a fluency-inducing condition for people who stutter. Cantonese is a tonal syllable-timed language and it has been shown that, of all languages, Cantonese is the most rhythmic (Mok, 2009). However, it is not known if STS reduces stuttering in Cantonese as it does in English. This is the first study to investigate the effects of STS on stuttering in a syllable-timed language. Nineteen native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter were engaged in conversational tasks in Cantonese under two conditions: one in their usual speaking style and one using STS...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
David Jenson, Kevin J Reilly, Ashley W Harkrider, David Thornton, Tim Saltuklaroglu
Stuttering is associated with compromised sensorimotor control (i.e., internal modeling) across the dorsal stream and oscillations of EEG mu ( μ ) rhythms have been proposed as reliable indices of anterior dorsal stream processing. The purpose of this study was to compare μ rhythm oscillatory activity between (PWS) and matched typically fluent speakers (TFS) during spontaneously fluent overt and covert speech production tasks. Independent component analysis identified bilateral μ components from 24/27 PWS and matched TFS that localized over premotor cortex...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kim R Bauerly
OBJECTIVE: Changes in second formant frequency fluctuations (FFF2) were examined in adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS) when producing nonwords under varying emotional conditions. METHODS: Ten AWS and 10 ANS viewed images selected from the International Affective Picture System representing dimensions of arousal (e.g., excited versus bored) and hedonic valence (e.g., happy versus sad). Immediately following picture presentation, participants produced a consonant-vowel + final /t/ (CVt) nonword consisting of the initial sounds /p/, /b/, /s/, or /z/, followed by a vowel (/i/, /u/, /ε/) and a final /t/...
June 5, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Adam J Wyness, David M Paterson, Emma C Defew, Marc I Stutter, Lisa M Avery
The extent of pathogen transport to and within aquatic systems depends heavily on whether the bacterial cells are freely suspended or in association with suspended particles. The surface charge of both bacterial cells and suspended particles affects cell-particle adhesion and subsequent transport and exposure pathways through settling and resuspension cycles. This study investigated the adhesion of Faecal Indicator Organisms (FIOs) to natural suspended intertidal sediments over the salinity gradient encountered at the transition zone from freshwater to marine environments...
May 29, 2018: Water Research
Kristiaan J van der Gaag, Rick H de Leeuw, Jeroen F J Laros, Johan T den Dunnen, Peter de Knijff
Since two decades, short tandem repeats (STRs) are the preferred markers for human identification, routinely analysed by fragment length analysis. Here we present a novel set of short hypervariable autosomal microhaplotypes (MH) that have four or more SNPs in a span of less than 70 nucleotides (nt). These MHs display a discriminating power approaching that of STRs and provide a powerful alternative for the analysis;1;is of forensic samples that are problematic when the STR fragment size range exceeds the integrity range of severely degraded DNA or when multiple donors contribute to an evidentiary stain and STR stutter artefacts complicate profile interpretation...
May 22, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Weian Du, Peipei Feng, Hongyan Huang, Weibin Wu, Lei Zhang, Yulin Guo, Changhui Liu, Hong Liu, Chao Liu, Ling Chen
Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) have proven to be very useful in investigating sexual assault cases and in paternity lineage differentiation. However, currently available commercial Y-STR multiplex amplification systems bear the limitations in the identification of related males from the same paternal lineage due to there being an insufficient number of loci in any single amplification kit. The aim of this study was to establish and validate a novel 6-dye, 36-plex Y-STR multiplex amplification system that incorporated all of the loci present in the Yfiler™ Plus kit (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYF387S1, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS449, DYS456, DYS458, DYS460, DYS481, DYS518, DYS533, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627, DYS635, Y_GATA_H4) as well as a further nine highly polymorphic Y-STR loci (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS522, DYS527a/b, DYS549, DYS596, DYS643)...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Michelle Harrel, David Gangitano, Sheree Hughes-Stamm
When samples with low amounts of DNA are amplified using short tandem repeats (STRs), stochastic effects such as allele and locus dropout or drop-in, allele imbalance, and increased stutter often occur making data interpretation more difficult. The most common approach to improving STR results from low template samples is to increase the number of PCR cycles. Although more alleles may be recovered, stochastic effects may be exaggerated resulting in more complicated STR profiles. This work reports the effect of additional PCR cycles (29 vs...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Maryam Eslami Jahromi, Leila Ahmadian
OBJECTIVE: Investigating the required infrastructure for the implementation of telemedicine and the satisfaction of target groups improves the acceptance of this technology and facilitates the delivery of healthcare services. The aim of this study was to assess the satisfaction of patients with stutter concerning the therapeutic method and the infrastructure used to receive tele-speech therapy services. METHODS: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on all patients with stutter aged between 14 and 39 years at Jahrom Social Welfare Bureau (n = 30)...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Jason H Davidow, Heather L Grossman, Robin L Edge
PURPOSE: Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. METHOD: In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated...
May 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Amir H Ghaderi, Masoud N Andevari, Paul F Sowman
Neural network-based investigations of stuttering have begun to provide a possible integrative account for the large number of brain-based anomalies associated with stuttering. Here we used resting-state EEG to investigate functional brain networks in adults who stutter ( AWS ). Participants were 19 AWS and 52 age-, and gender-matched normally fluent speakers. EEGs were recorded and connectivity matrices were generated by LORETA in the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta1 (12-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz) bands...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Daisuke Sudo, Youichi Doutake, Hidenori Yokota, Eiju Watanabe
Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA (Brodmann's area) 9 and 46), frontal eye field (BA 8) and premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (BA 6)...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Oliver Cheadle, Clarissa Sorger, Peter Howell
Feedback delivered over auditory and vibratory afferent pathways has different effects on the fluency of people who stutter (PWS). These features were exploited to investigate the neural structures involved in stuttering. The speech signal vibrated locations on the body (vibrotactile feedback, VTF). Eleven PWS read passages under VTF and control (no-VTF) conditions. All combinations of vibration amplitude, synchronous or delayed VTF and vibrator position (hand, sternum or forehead) were presented. Control conditions were performed at the beginning, middle and end of test sessions...
May 7, 2018: Brain and Language
Nalanda Chakraborty, Kenneth J Logan
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of measurement method and transcript availability on the accuracy, reliability, and efficiency of inexperienced raters' stuttering frequency measurements. METHOD: 44 adults, all inexperienced at evaluating stuttered speech, underwent 20 min of preliminary training in stuttering measurement and then analyzed a series of sentences, with and without access to transcripts of sentence stimuli, using either a syllable-based analysis (SBA) or an utterance-based analysis (UBA)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Linn Stokke Guttormsen, Elaina Kefalianos, Kari-Anne B Naess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
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