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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670516/the-effects-of-fluency-enhancing-conditions-on-sensorimotor-control-of-speech-in-typically-fluent-speakers-an-eeg-mu-rhythm-study
#1
Tiffani Kittilstved, Kevin J Reilly, Ashley W Harkrider, Devin Casenhiser, David Thornton, David E Jenson, Tricia Hedinger, Andrew L Bowers, Tim Saltuklaroglu
Objective : To determine whether changes in sensorimotor control resulting from speaking conditions that induce fluency in people who stutter (PWS) can be measured using electroencephalographic (EEG) mu rhythms in neurotypical speakers. Methods : Non-stuttering (NS) adults spoke in one control condition (solo speaking) and four experimental conditions (choral speech, delayed auditory feedback (DAF), prolonged speech and pseudostuttering). Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify sensorimotor μ components from EEG recordings...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660688/implementation-and-validation-of-an-improved-allele-specific-stutter-filtering-method-for-electropherogram-interpretation
#2
Tim Kalafut, Curt Schuerman, Joel Sutton, Tom Faris, Luigi Armogida, Jo-Anne Bright, John Buckleton, Duncan Taylor
Modern probabilistic genotyping (PG) software is capable of modeling stutter as part of the profile weighting statistic. This allows for peaks in stutter positions to be considered as allelic or stutter or both. However, prior to running any sample through a PG calculator, the examiner must first interpret the sample, considering such things as artifacts and number of contributors (NOC or N). Stutter can play a major role both during the assignment of the number of contributors, and the assessment of inclusion and exclusion...
March 31, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648952/reliability-and-validity-evidence-of-the-assessment-of-language-use-in-social-contexts-for-adults-alusca
#3
Ana Rita S Valente, Andreia Hall, Helena Alvelos, Margaret Leahy, Luis M T Jesus
BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of language in context depends on the speaker's pragmatic language competencies. A coding system was used to develop a specific and adult-focused self-administered questionnaire to adults who stutter and adults who do not stutter, The Assessment of Language Use in Social Contexts for Adults, with three categories: precursors, basic exchanges, and extended literal/non-literal discourse. This paper presents the content validity, item analysis, reliability coefficients and evidences of construct validity of the instrument...
April 12, 2018: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642734/language-development-in-children-who-stutter-a-review-of-recent-research
#4
Marilyn A Nippold
PURPOSE: This article reviews recent studies that examined the controversial claim that children who stutter (CWS), as a group, have weaker language skills than children who do not stutter (CWNS). The article was an effort to address the conflicting conclusions of two previous reviews of the research in this area. METHOD: Studies published in research journals during the past 7 years (2011-2018) were located through a systematic review of the literature. Each study was analysed to determine how well it supported the claim that CWS, as a group, have weaker language skills than CWNS...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624772/separation-of-trait-and-state-in-stuttering
#5
Emily L Connally, David Ward, Christos Pliatsikas, Sarah Finnegan, Mark Jenkinson, Rowan Boyles, Kate E Watkins
Stuttering is a disorder in which the smooth flow of speech is interrupted. People who stutter show structural and functional abnormalities in the speech and motor system. It is unclear whether functional differences reflect general traits of the disorder or are specifically related to the dysfluent speech state. We used a hierarchical approach to separate state and trait effects within stuttering. We collected sparse-sampled functional MRI during two overt speech tasks (sentence reading and picture description) in 17 people who stutter and 16 fluent controls...
April 6, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623339/maintenance-of-improved-attitudes-toward-stuttering
#6
Kenneth O St Louis, Timothy W Flynn
Purpose: This study sought to determine the extent to which experimentally induced positive attitudes in high school students in a previous investigation were maintained 7 years later. Method: Authors and assistants recruited 36 adults in their early 20s (Follow-up group) who, in high school, had witnessed either a live oral talk by a person who stutters or a professionally made video on stuttering designed for teens followed by a short talk by the same speaker...
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621894/an-investigation-into-the-relationship-between-parent-satisfaction-and-child-fluency-in-the-lidcombe-program-clinic-versus-telehealth-delivery
#7
Birgitta Ferdinands, Kate Bridgman
PURPOSE: Parents have a vital role in the delivery of the Lidcombe Program when treating stuttering in young children. Research into parent experiences and perceptions throughout the Lidcombe Program is currently limited. Qualitative literature indicates that parent experiences and child progress are closely linked with program duration. This preliminary quantitative study examined parent satisfaction with child fluency at three time points. Data from clinic and telehealth delivery of the Lidcombe Program were used to further explore between-group non-inferiority...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618820/characterization-of-the-1s-2s-transition-in-antihydrogen
#8
M Ahmadi, B X R Alves, C J Baker, W Bertsche, A Capra, C Carruth, C L Cesar, M Charlton, S Cohen, R Collister, S Eriksson, A Evans, N Evetts, J Fajans, T Friesen, M C Fujiwara, D R Gill, J S Hangst, W N Hardy, M E Hayden, C A Isaac, M A Johnson, J M Jones, S A Jones, S Jonsell, A Khramov, P Knapp, L Kurchaninov, N Madsen, D Maxwell, J T K McKenna, S Menary, T Momose, J J Munich, K Olchanski, A Olin, P Pusa, C Ø Rasmussen, F Robicheaux, R L Sacramento, M Sameed, E Sarid, D M Silveira, G Stutter, C So, T D Tharp, R I Thompson, D P van der Werf, J S Wurtele
In 1928, Dirac published an equation1 that combined quantum mechanics and special relativity. Negative-energy solutions to this equation, rather than being unphysical as initially thought, represented a class of hitherto unobserved and unimagined particles-antimatter. The existence of particles of antimatter was confirmed with the discovery of the positron2 (or anti-electron) by Anderson in 1932, but it is still unknown why matter, rather than antimatter, survived after the Big Bang. As a result, experimental studies of antimatter3-7 , including tests of fundamental symmetries such as charge-parity and charge-parity-time, and searches for evidence of primordial antimatter, such as antihelium nuclei, have high priority in contemporary physics research...
April 4, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602052/comparison-of-adults-who-stutter-with-and-without-social-anxiety-disorder
#9
Lisa Iverach, Mark Jones, Robyn Lowe, Susan O'Brian, Ross G Menzies, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
PURPOSE: Social anxiety disorder is a debilitating anxiety disorder associated with significant life impairment. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate overall functioning for adults who stutter with and without a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. METHOD: Participants were 275 adults who stuttered (18-80 years), including 219 males (79.6%) and 56 females (20.4%), who were enrolled to commence speech treatment for stuttering. Comparisons were made between participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (n = 82, 29...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602051/children-who-stutter-at-3-years-of-age-a-community-based-study
#10
Michiko Shimada, Akira Toyomura, Tetsunoshin Fujii, Takayuki Minami
PURPOSE: Lack of social resources to support children who stutter may be due, in part, to the absence of epidemiological data regarding stuttering. This study investigated the proportion of three-year-old children who stutter in a city located in Hokkaido, a northern island of Japan. METHODS: The speech of individual children was assessed as part of a routine, government-conducted health care examination for 3-year-old children. The number of children screened was 2274, or 94...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596670/facilitating-fluency-in-adults-who-stutter
#11
Jennifer T Crinion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593519/evolving-simple-models-of-diverse-intrinsic-dynamics-in-hippocampal-neuron-types
#12
Siva Venkadesh, Alexander O Komendantov, Stanislav Listopad, Eric O Scott, Kenneth De Jong, Jeffrey L Krichmar, Giorgio A Ascoli
The diversity of intrinsic dynamics observed in neurons may enhance the computations implemented in the circuit by enriching network-level emergent properties such as synchronization and phase locking. Large-scale spiking network models of entire brain regions offer a platform to test theories of neural computation and cognitive function, providing useful insights on information processing in the nervous system. However, a systematic in-depth investigation requires network simulations to capture the biological intrinsic diversity of individual neurons at a sufficient level of accuracy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576500/dualistic-effect-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-on-motor-speech-disorders-in-dystonia
#13
Jan Rusz, Tereza Tykalová, Anna Fečíková, Daniela Šťastná, Dušan Urgošík, Robert Jech
BACKGROUND: Although pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an effective treatment for dystonia, it may cause important stimulation-induced side-effects such as hypokinetic dysarthria or stuttering. However, the reasons behind the occurrence of these side-effects remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To objectively investigate the impact of GPi-DBS on patients with dystonia on speech fluency, intelligibility, and key aspects of hyperkinetic and hypokinetic dysarthria...
March 15, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574262/enacted-stigma-and-felt-stigma-experienced-by-adults-who-stutter
#14
Michael P Boyle
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to (1) document the experiences of enacted stigma (external stigma, experienced discrimination) and felt stigma (anticipation and expectation of discrimination or negative treatment by others) in adults who stutter, (2) investigate their relationships to each other, and (3) investigate their relationships to global mental health. METHOD: Participants were 324 adults who stutter recruited from clinicians and self-help group leaders in the United States...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569967/characteristics-of-adults-who-stutter-by-treatments-sought
#15
Lisa Iverach, Mark Jones, Robyn Lowe, Susan O'Brian, Ross G Menzies, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow
Several treatment approaches are available for adults who stutter, including speech treatment, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) treatment for anxiety, and a combination of both. It is useful to determine whether any differences exist between adults who stutter enrolled in different types of treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare demographic, speech, and psychological characteristics of adults who stutter enrolled in speech, psychological, and combined treatment programs. Participants were 288 adults who stuttered (18-80 years) enrolled in one of three different treatment programs: Speech Treatment for stuttering (n = 134), Anxiety Treatment for anxiety about stuttering (n = 70), or Speech Treatment for Stuttering With or Without Anxiety Treatment (n = 84)...
March 23, 2018: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558672/beliefs-and-behavioural-intentions-towards-pharmacotherapy-for-stuttering-a-survey-of-adults-who-stutter
#16
Allan McGroarty, Rebecca McCartan
PURPOSE: Although considerable efforts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for stuttering, little is known about how the stuttering community perceives these treatments. This study aimed to assess and quantify beliefs regarding pharmacotherapy for adults who stutter and to establish whether behavioural intentions to undertake treatment were related to these beliefs. METHOD: An adapted version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire was completed by adults who stutter...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557312/-a-multi-arm-placebo-controlled-study-with-glutamic-acid-conducted-in-rostock-in-1953-1954
#17
Frank Häßler, Steffen Weirich
A Multi-arm Placebo-controlled Study with Glutamic Acid Conducted in Rostock in 1953/1954 Glutamic acid was commonly used in the treatment of intellectually disabled children in the 50s. Koch reported first results of an observation of 140 children treated with glutamic acid in 1952. In this line is the multi-arm placebo-controlled study reported here. The original study protocols were available. 58 children with speech problems who attending a school of special needs received glutamic acid, or vitamin B, or St...
September 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554191/comparison-of-percentage-of-syllables-stuttered-with-parent-reported-severity-ratings-as-a-primary-outcome-measure-in-clinical-trials-of-early-stuttering-treatment
#18
Mark Onslow, Mark Jones, Sue O'Brian, Ann Packman, Ross Menzies, Robyn Lowe, Simone Arnott, Kate Bridgman, Caroline de Sonneville, Marie-Christine Franken
Purpose: This report investigates whether parent-reported stuttering severity ratings (SRs) provide similar estimates of effect size as percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for randomized trials of early stuttering treatment with preschool children. Method: Data sets from 3 randomized controlled trials of an early stuttering intervention were selected for analyses. Analyses included median changes and 95% confidence intervals per treatment group, Bland-Altman plots, analysis of covariance, and Spearman rho correlations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543506/the-lidcombe-program-and-child-language-development-long-term-assessment
#19
Juliet Imeson, Robyn Lowe, Mark Onslow, Natalie Munro, Rob Heard, Sue O'Brian, Simone Arnott
This study was driven by the need to understand the mechanisms underlying Lidcombe Program treatment efficacy. The aim of the present study was to extend existing data exploring whether stuttering reductions observed when children successfully treated with the Lidcombe Program are associated with restricted language development. Audio recordings of 10-min parent-child conversations at home were transcribed verbatim for 11 pre-school-age children with various stuttering severities. Language samples from three assessments-pre-treatment, 9 and 18 months after beginning treatment-were analysed using SALT software for lexical diversity, utterance length and sentence complexity...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533938/uniqueness-point-effects-during-speech-planning-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#20
Geoffrey A Coalson, Courtney T Byrd, Amanda Kuylen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies employing a variety of tasks have demonstrated that adults who stutter (AWS) pre-sent with phonological encoding differences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether atypical preverbal monitoring also influenced AWS performance during one such paradigm - the silent phoneme monitoring task. Specifically, we investigated whether monitoring latencies for AWS were accelerated after the word's uniqueness point - the phoneme that isolates the word from all lexical competitors - as observed for AWNS when monitoring internal and external speech...
March 13, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
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