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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103132/functional-gains-in-energy-and-cell-metabolism-after-tspo-gene-insertion
#1
Guo-Jun Liu, Ryan J Middleton, Winnie Wai-Ying Kam, David Y Chin, Claire R Hatty, Ronald H Y Chan, Richard B Banati
Recent loss-of-function studies in tissue-specific as well as global Tspo (Translocator Protein 18 kDa) knockout mice have not confirmed its long assumed indispensability for the translocation of cholesterol across the mitochondrial inter-membrane space, a rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis. Instead, recent studies in global Tspo knockout mice indicate that TSPO may play a more fundamental role in cellular bioenergetics, which may include the indirect down-stream regulation of transport or metabolic functions...
January 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096507/de-novo-phosphorylation-and-conformational-opening-of-the-tyrosine-kinase-lck-act-in-concert-to-initiate-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#2
Lars Philipsen, Amarendra V Reddycherla, Roland Hartig, Janine Gumz, Matthias Kästle, Andreas Kritikos, Mateusz P Poltorak, Yury Prokazov, Evgeny Turbin, André Weber, Werner Zuschratter, Burkhart Schraven, Luca Simeoni, Andreas J Müller
The enzymatic activity of the Src family tyrosine kinase p56(Lck) (Lck) is tightly controlled by differential phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues, Tyr(394) and Tyr(505) Phosphorylation of Tyr(394) and the conformational opening of Lck are believed to activate the kinase, whereas Tyr(505) phosphorylation is thought to generate a closed, inactive conformation of Lck. We investigated whether the conformation of Lck and its phosphorylation state act in concert to regulate the initiation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling...
January 17, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096298/mfg-e8-derived-peptide-attenuates-adhesion-and-migration-of-immune-cells-to-endothelial-cells
#3
Yohei Hirano, Weng-Lang Yang, Monowar Aziz, Fangming Zhang, Barbara Sherry, Ping Wang
Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8) plays an immunomodulatory role in inflammatory diseases. MFG-E8-derived short peptide (MSP68) greatly reduces neutrophil infiltration and injury in the lung during sepsis. In this study, we examined the effect of MSP68 on chemotaxis of various immune cells and its regulatory mechanism. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDNs) from C57BL/6 mice, human monocyte THP-1 cell line, and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line were used for adhesion and migration assays using a Transwell method in the presence of MSP68...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091953/fullerene-c60-penetration-into-leukemic-cells-and-its-photoinduced-cytotoxic-effects
#4
D Franskevych, K Palyvoda, D Petukhov, S Prylutska, I Grynyuk, C Schuetze, L Drobot, O Matyshevska, U Ritter
Fullerene C60 as a representative of carbon nanocompounds is suggested to be promising agent for application in photodynamic therapy due to its unique physicochemical properties. The goal of this study was to estimate the accumulation of fullerene C60 in leukemic cells and to investigate its phototoxic effect on parental and resistant to cisplatin leukemic cells. Stable homogeneous water colloid solution of pristine C60 with average 50-nm diameter of nanoparticles was used in experiments. Fluorescent labeled C60 was synthesized by covalent conjugation of C60 with rhodamine B isothiocyanate...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078743/bivalent-14-mer-peptide-ligands-of-cxcr4-with-polyproline-linkers-with-anti-chemotactic-activity-against-jurkat-cells
#5
Tomohiro Tanaka, Toru Aoki, Wataru Nomura, Hirokazu Tamamura
Interaction of CXCR4 with its endogenous ligand, stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12, induces various physiological functions involving chemotaxis. Bivalent ligands with a polyproline helix bearing a cyclic pentapeptide, FC131, were previously shown to have higher binding affinities for CXCR4 than the corresponding monovalent ligands. Bivalent ligands based on a 14-mer peptide T140 derivative with polyproline linkers have been designed and synthesized. The activity of these peptides as well as the effect of bivalency of the ligand on CXCR4 binding has been assessed...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077649/tcr-clonotype-specific-differences-in-inhibitory-activity-of-hiv-1-cytotoxic-t-cell-clones-is-not-mediated-by-tcr-alone
#6
Nina C Flerin, Huabiao Chen, Tynisha D Glover, Pedro A Lamothe, Jian Hua Zheng, Justin W Fang, Zaza M Ndhlovu, Evan W Newell, Mark M Davis, Bruce D Walker, Harris Goldstein
: Functional analysis of T cell responses in HIV-infected individuals has indicated that virus-specific CD8(+) T cells with superior antiviral efficacy are well represented in HIV-1 controllers but are rare or absent in HIV-1 progessors. To define the role of individual TCR clonotypes in differential antiviral CD8(+) T cell function, we performed detailed functional and mass cytometric cluster analysis of multiple CD8(+) T cell clones recognizing the identical HLA-B*2705-restricted HIV-1 epitope KK10 (KRWIILGLNK)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075055/argonaute-2-immunoprecipitation-revealed-lats1-as-a-novel-pro-apoptotic-target-of-mir-21-in-t-cells
#7
Nato Teteloshvili, Katarzyna Smigielska-Czepiel, Ye Yuan, Annika Seitz, Debora de Jong, Bea Rutgers, Pytrick Jellema, Roelof Jan van der Lei, Izabella Slezak-Prochazka, Elisabeth Brouwer, Annemieke M H Boots, Bart-Jan Kroesen, Anke van den Berg, Joost Kluiver
MicroRNA (miR)-21 is an important suppressor of T-cell apoptosis that is also overexpressed in many types of cancers. The exact mechanisms underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of miR-21 are not well understood. In this study, we used the Jurkat T-cell line as a model to identify apoptosis-associated miR-21 target genes. We showed that expression of miR-21 rapidly increases upon αCD3/αCD28 activation of Jurkat cells. Inhibition of miR-21 reduced cell growth which could be explained by an increase in apoptosis...
January 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070874/infection-of-defective-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1
#8
Yuuki Hashikura, Kazumi Umeki, Kunihiko Umekita, Hajime Nomura, Akiteru Yamada, Ikuo Yamamoto, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Akihiko Okayama
In a previous study, we reported that an identical defective provirus had integrated into multiple sites of the genome of a representative human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) cell line, MT-2. A possible explanation for this may be the repeated infection of this defective provirus to a cell. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether a defective provirus could transmit during the co-culture of HTLV-1 uninfected human T-cell line, Jurkat, with MT-2 cells treated with mitomycin C. As a result, we established not only a cell line with the integration of one complete provirus, but also a cell line with the integration of one defective provirus...
January 9, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068479/secretable-small-rnas-via-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-periodontal-pathogens
#9
J-W Choi, S-C Kim, S-H Hong, H-J Lee
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be major regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. However, bacterial RNAs comparable in size to eukaryotic miRNAs (18-22 nucleotides) have received little attention. Recently, a novel class of small RNAs similar in size to miRNAs (miRNA-size, small RNAs or msRNAs) have also been found in several bacteria. Like miRNAs, msRNAs are approximately 15 to 25 nucleotides in length, and their precursors are predicted to form a hairpin loop secondary structure. Here, we identified msRNAs in the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056415/divergent-tropism-of-hhv-6ags-and-hhv-6bpl1-in-t-cells-expressing-different-cd46-isoform-patterns
#10
Aida S Hansen, Bettina B Bundgaard, Mette Biltoft, Litten S Rossen, Per Höllsberg
CD46 is a receptor for HHV-6A, but its role as a receptor for HHV-6B is controversial. The significance of CD46 isoforms for HHV-6A and HHV-6B tropism is unknown. HHV-6AGS was able to initiate transcription of the viral genes U7 and U23 in the CD46(+)CD134(-) T-cell lines Peer, Jurkat, Molt3, and SupT1, whereas HHV-6BPL1 was only able to do so in Molt3 and SupT1, which expressed a CD46 isoform pattern different from Peer and Jurkat. The HHV-6BPL1-susceptible T-cell lines were characterized by low expression of the CD46 isoform BC2 and domination of isoforms containing the cytoplasmic tail, CYT-1...
January 2, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032992/cationic-amphiphilic-tris-cyclometalated-iridium-iii-complexes-induce-cancer-cell-death-via-interaction-with-ca-2-calmodulin-complex
#11
Yosuke Hisamatsu, Nozomi Suzuki, Abdullah-Al Masum, Ai Shibuya, Ryo Abe, Akira Sato, Sei-Ichi Tanuma, Shin Aoki
In our previous paper, we reported on the preparation of some cationic amphiphilic Ir complexes (2c, 2d) containing KKGG peptides that induce and detect cell death of Jurkat cells. Mechanistic studies suggest that 2c interacts with anionic molecules and/or membrane receptors on the cell surface to trigger an intracellular Ca(2+) response, resulting in the induction of cell death, accompanied by membrane disruption. We have continued the studies of cell death of Jurkat cells induced by 2c and found that xestospongin C, a selective inhibitor of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), reduces the cytotoxicity of 2c, suggesting that 2c triggers the release of Ca(2+) from the ER, leading to an increase in the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+), thus inducing cell death...
December 29, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026811/-the-role-of-heat-shock-proteins-27-and-70-in-redox-dependent-regulation-of-apoptosis-in-jurkat-tumor-cells
#12
O L Nosareva, N V Ryazantseva, E A Stepovaya, E V Shakhristova, E A Stepanova, V S Gulaya
Heat shock proteins Hsp) act as molecular chaperones, protecting enzymes and other proteins against reactive oxygen species. The objective of the study was to investigate the role of Hsp27 in maintaining the balance of the glutathione system and Hsp70 concentrations as well as in implementing Jurkat tumor cell apoptosis. Addition of the Hsp27 inhibitor KRIBB3 (5-(5-ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-isoxazol) to Jurkat cells resulted in glutathione redox imbalance (increased GSSG and increased glutathione reductase activity), a decrease in Hsp70 concentrations, and also increased cell apoptosis as compared with to the intact cell culture...
November 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024841/a-novel-ile1455thr-variant-in-the-skeletal-muscle-sodium-channel-alpha-subunit-in-a-patient-with-a-severe-adult-onset-proximal-myopathy-with-electrical-myotonia-and-a-patient-with-mild-paramyotonia-phenotype
#13
Marcin Bednarz, Bas C Stunnenberg, Benno Kusters, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, Christiaan G Saris, James Groome, Vern Winston, Giovanni Meola, Karin Jurkat-Rott, Nicol C Voermans
In sodium channelopathies, a severe fixed myopathy caused by a dominant mutation is rare. We describe two unrelated patients with a novel variant, p.Ile1455Thr, with phenotypes of paramyotonia in one case and fixed proximal myopathy with latent myotonia in another. In-vitro whole cell patch-clamp studies show that the mutation slows inactivation and accelerates recovery, in line with other paramyotonia variants with destabilized fast inactivation as pathomechanism. Additionally, p.IleI1455 causes a loss-of-function by reduced membrane insertion, right-shift of activation, and slowed kinetics...
October 19, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013412/the-inhibition-of-voltage-gated-h-channel-hvcn1-induces-acidification-of-leukemic-jurkat-t-cells-promoting-cell-death-by-apoptosis
#14
Agustín Asuaje, Paola Smaldini, Pedro Martín, Nicolás Enrique, Alejandro Orlowski, Ernesto A Aiello, Carlos Gonzalez León, Guillermo Docena, Verónica Milesi
Cellular energetic deregulation is widely known to produce an overproduction of acidic species in cancer cells. This acid overload must be counterbalanced with a high rate of H(+) extrusion to maintain cell viability. In this sense, many H(+) transporters have been reported to be crucial for cell survival and proposed as antineoplastic target. By the way, voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) mediate highly selective H(+) outward currents, capable to compensate acid burden in brief periods of time. This structure is canonically described acting as NADPH oxidase counterbalance in reactive oxygen species production...
December 24, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011150/piperlongumine-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-through-inhibition-of-nf-kappab-activity
#15
Sun Mi Gu, Jaesuk Yun, Dong Ju Son, Hoi Yeong Kim, Kyung Tak Nam, Hae Deun Kim, Min Gi Choi, Jeong Soon Choi, Young Min Kim, Sang-Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease in which demyelination sporadically and repeatedly occurs in the central nervous system (CNS). The activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a family of transcription factors, was increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or the serum and brain and/or spinal cord of MS patients than in a healthy donors. In our study, we investigated whether piperlongumine (PL), which is known to have inhibitory effect on activity of NF-κB, can alleviate an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
December 21, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009892/cytotoxic-and-antimicrobial-effects-of-indium-iii-complexes-with-2-acetylpyridine-derived-thiosemicarbazones
#16
Alexandre A Oliveira, Gabriele M C Perdigão, Luana E Rodrigues, Jeferson G da Silva, Elaine M Souza-Fagundes, Jacqueline A Takahashi, Willian R Rocha, Heloisa Beraldo
Complexes [In(2Ac4oClPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (1), [In(2Ac4pFPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (2), [In(2Ac4pClPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (3) and [In(2Ac4pIPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (4) were obtained with N(4)-ortho-chlorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4oClPh), N(4)-para-fluorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pFPh), N(4)-para-chlorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pClPh) and N(4)-para-iodophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pIPh). Theoretical studies suggested that the coordinated methanol molecule can be easily replaced by DMSO used in the preparation of stock solutions, with the formation of [In(L)Cl2(DMSO)] (HL = thiosemicarbazonate ligand), and that the replacement of DMSO by water is unfavorable...
December 23, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004979/epigenetic-silencing-of-the-human-18%C3%A2-kda-translocator-protein-in-a-t-cell-leukemia-cell-line
#17
Ryan J Middleton, Winnie Wai-Ying Kam, Guo-Jun Liu, Richard B Banati
The mitochondrial membrane 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is constitutively expressed in most organs, most abundantly in hormonal tissue and cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage, while in the brain, TSPO expression is induced in the wake of injury, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Increased TSPO expression is also prominent in several cancerous tissues where it appears to correlate with the degree of malignancy. Currently, TSPO is thus actively investigated as a generic biomarker for disease activity and a therapeutic target for a wide range of diseases...
December 22, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000390/an-oral-formulation-of-efavirenz-loaded-lactoferrin-nanoparticles-with-improved-biodistribution-and-pharmacokinetic-profile
#18
P Kumar, Y S Lakshmi, A K Kondapi
OBJECTIVES: Efavirenz (EFV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is a drug that is frequently included in highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV infection. Decreased bioavailability and increased toxicity limit its use. We report a formulation of efavirenz-loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles (lacto-EFV-nano) for oral delivery which exhibited significantly improved pharmacological properties coupled with reduced toxicity compared with its free form. METHODS: Lacto-EFV-nano was prepared using the Sol-oil protocol and characterized using various sources of characterization...
December 21, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999443/isomethoxyneihumicin-a-new-cytotoxic-agent-produced-by-marine-nocardiopsis-alba-km6-1
#19
Takashi Fukuda, Misaki Takahashi, Kenichiro Nagai, Enjuro Harunari, Chiaki Imada, Hiroshi Tomoda
A new cytotoxic agent designated isomethoxyneihumicin (1 and 2), a mixture of lactam-lactim tautomers, was isolated along with methoxyneihumicin (3) from the culture broth of the marine Nocardiopsis alba KM6-1. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated in spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR data, and ROESY correlations). Isomethoxyneihumicin (15.0 μM) and 3 (15.0 μM) arrested the cell cycle of Jurkat cells at the G2/M phase (66 and 67%) in 12 h. Isomethoxyneihumicin and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against Jurkat cells with IC50 values of 6...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998807/differential-effects-of-helenalin-an-anti-inflammatory-sesquiterpene-lactone-on-the-proteome-metabolome-and-the-oxidative-stress-response-in-several-immune-cell-types
#20
Paula Zwicker, Nadin Schultze, Sarah Niehs, Dirk Albrecht, Karen Methling, Martina Wurster, Gerhild Wachlin, Michael Lalk, Ulrike Lindequist, Beate Haertel
Extracts of Arnica spp. are traditionally used due to their anti-inflammatory effects for the topical treatment of e.g. haematoma or muscle distortions. One of the main active compounds is Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone that can be found in various Asteraceae. However, immunotoxic effects of the compound are only poorly analysed. In this study, a 2D gel electrophoresis based proteomic approach together with a membrane based proteomic assay, metabolomics and the detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) were used to investigate potential immunotoxic properties of Helenalin on the human immune cell lines Jurkat and THP-1 and on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
December 18, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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