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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922816/-people-love-player-s-cigarette-advertising-and-the-teenage-consumer-in-post-war-britain
#1
Daniel O'Neill
This article explores the background, creation and reception of a prominent cigarette advertising campaign from the early 1960s. The advertisements featured young couples falling in love as they shared Player's Medium cigarettes together. As such, the advertisements reflected the central place of the teenager within post-war British consumer culture. The campaign was built upon the insights of market research, particularly that carried out by Mark Abrams and his research organization Research Services Limited...
September 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922355/image-identification-from-brain-activity-using-the-population-receptive-field-model
#2
Wietske Zuiderbaan, Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin
A goal of computational models is not only to explain experimental data but also to make new predictions. A current focus of computational neuroimaging is to predict features of the presented stimulus from measured brain signals. These computational neuroimaging approaches may be agnostic about the underlying neural processes or may be biologically inspired. Here, we use the biologically inspired population receptive field (pRF) approach to identify presented images from fMRI recordings of the visual cortex, using an explicit model of the underlying neural response selectivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922115/colour-constancy-beyond-the-classical-receptive-field
#3
Arash Akbarinia, C Alejandro Parraga
The problem of removing illuminant variations to preserve the colours of objects (colour constancy) has already been solved by the human brain using mechanisms that rely largely on centre-surround computations of local contrast. In this paper we adopt some of these biological solutions described by long known physiological findings into a simple, fully automatic, functional model (termed Adaptive Surround Modulation or ASM). In ASM, the size of a visual neuron's receptive field (RF) as well as the relationship with its surround varies according to the local contrast within the stimulus, which in turn determines the nature of the centre-surround normalisation of cortical neurons higher up in the processing chain...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921762/inhibition-shapes-the-organization-of-hippocampal-representations
#4
Sam McKenzie
Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921750/successful-treatment-with-intrauterine-delivery-of-dexamethasone-for-repeated-implantation-failure
#5
Tao Zhang, Chunyu Huang, Yan Du, Ruochun Lian, Meilan Mo, Yong Zeng, Gil Mor
PROBLEM: Effective therapy for endometrial receptivity of patients with repeated embryo implantation failure (RIF) is far undeveloped. Whether intrauterine perfusion of dexamethasone (DXM), local administration of drugs with less systematic side-effects, benefit for embryo implantation by suppressing uterine NK (uNK) cells to improve endometrial receptivity remains unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: Women with RIF were analyzed for the correlation between the percentage of uNK cells during implantation window and following clinical pregnancy rate to determine the appropriate range of uNK for embryo implantation...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919924/comparison-of-parent-report-and-direct-assessment-of-child-skills-in-toddlers
#6
Lauren E Miller, Kayla A Perkins, Yael G Dai, Deborah A Fein
BACKGROUND: There are unique challenges associated with measuring development in early childhood. Two primary sources of information are used: parent report and direct assessment. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses, particularly when used to identify and diagnose developmental delays. The present study aimed to evaluate consistency between parent report and direct assessment of child skills in toddlers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) across receptive language, expressive language, and fine motor domains...
September 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919854/pranas-a-new-platform-for-retinal-analysis-and-simulation
#7
Bruno Cessac, Pierre Kornprobst, Selim Kraria, Hassan Nasser, Daniela Pamplona, Geoffrey Portelli, Thierry Viéville
The retina encodes visual scenes by trains of action potentials that are sent to the brain via the optic nerve. In this paper, we describe a new free access user-end software allowing to better understand this coding. It is called PRANAS (https://pranas.inria.fr), standing for Platform for Retinal ANalysis And Simulation. PRANAS targets neuroscientists and modelers by providing a unique set of retina-related tools. PRANAS integrates a retina simulator allowing large scale simulations while keeping a strong biological plausibility and a toolbox for the analysis of spike train population statistics...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916507/cardiac-patients-experiences-and-perceptions-of-social-media-mixed-methods-study
#8
Stephanie R Partridge, Anne C Grunseit, Patrick Gallagher, Becky Freeman, Blythe J O'Hara, Lis Neubeck, Sarah Due, Glenn Paull, Ding Ding, Adrian Bauman, Philayrath Phongsavan, Kellie Roach, Leonie Sadler, Helen Glinatsis, Robyn Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Traditional in-person cardiac rehabilitation has substantial benefits for cardiac patients, which are offset by poor attendance. The rapid increase in social media use in older adults provides an opportunity to reach patients who are eligible for cardiac rehabilitation but unable to attend traditional face-to-face groups. However, there is a paucity of research on cardiac patients' experiences and perspectives on using social media to support their health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe cardiac rehabilitation patients' experiences in using social media in general and their perspective on using social media, particularly Facebook, to support their cardiac health and secondary prevention efforts...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916470/receptive-field-properties-of-cat-perigeniculate-neurons-correlate-with-excitatory-and-inhibitory-connectivity-to-lgn-relay-neurons
#9
Hironobu Osaki, Tomoyuki Naito, Shogo Soma, Hiromichi Sato
The cat perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) is a visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus that consists of GABAergic neurons. It receives excitatory axon-collateral input from relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to which it provides inhibitory input. Thus, it is usually argued that the PGN works as feedback inhibition to the LGN. At the single neuron level, however, this circuit can also provide lateral inhibition. Which inhibition dominates in the visual circuit of the thalamus has yet to be well characterized...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915512/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-predictors-of-expressive-language-outcomes-among-late-talkers
#10
Evelyn L Fisher
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on predictors of outcomes among late talkers using systematic review and meta-analysis methods. We sought to answer the question: What factors predict preschool-age expressive-language outcomes among late-talking toddlers? Method: We entered carefully selected search terms into the following electronic databases: Communication & Mass Media Complete, ERIC, Medline, PsycEXTRA, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences, and PsycINFO...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914881/microrna-200c-impairs-uterine-receptivity-formation-by-targeting-fut4-and-%C3%AE-1-3-fucosylation
#11
Qin Zheng, Dandan Zhang, Y U Yang, Xinyuan Cui, Jiaqi Sun, Caixia Liang, Huamin Qin, Xuesong Yang, Shuai Liu, Qiu Yan
Successful embryo implantation requires the establishment of a receptive endometrium. Poor endometrial receptivity has generally been considered as a major cause of infertility. Protein glycosylation is associated with many physiological and pathological processes. The fucosylation is catalyzed by the specific fucosyltransferases. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of α1,3-fucosylated glycans carried by glycoproteins, and the previous studies showed FUT4 expression changed dynamically during perimplantation...
September 15, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914311/comparing-caenorhabditis-elegans-gentle-and-harsh-touch-response-behavior-using-a-multiplexed-hydraulic-microfluidic-device
#12
Patrick D McClanahan, Joyce H Xu, Christopher Fang-Yen
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the genetics and physiology of touch. Classical assays for C. elegans touch, which involve manually touching the animal with a probe and observing its response, are limited by their low throughput and qualitative nature. We developed a microfluidic device in which several dozen animals are subject to spatially localized mechanical stimuli with variable amplitude. The device contains 64 sinusoidal channels through which worms crawl, and hydraulic valves that deliver touch stimuli to the worms...
September 15, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913831/asymmetry-between-on-and-off-alpha-ganglion-cells-of-mouse-retina-integration-of-signal-and-noise-from-synaptic-inputs
#13
Michael A Freed
ON and OFF pathways in the retina include functional pairs of neurons that, at first glance, appear to have symmetrically similar responses to brightening and darkening, respectively. Upon careful examination, however, functional pairs exhibit asymmetries in receptive field size and response kinetics. Until now, descriptions of how light-adapted retinal circuitry maintains a preponderance of signal over the noise have not distinguished between ON and OFF pathways. Here I present evidence of marked asymmetries between members of a functional pair of sustained alpha ganglion cells in the mouse retina...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913635/skin-lipids-of-the-striped-plateau-lizard-sceloporus-virgatus-correlate-with-female-receptivity-and-reproductive-quality-alongside-visual-ornaments
#14
Jay K Goldberg, Alisa K Wallace, Stacey L Weiss
Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards...
September 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912736/understanding-the-uncanny-both-atypical-features-and-category-ambiguity-provoke-aversion-toward-humanlike-robots
#15
Megan K Strait, Victoria A Floerke, Wendy Ju, Keith Maddox, Jessica D Remedios, Malte F Jung, Heather L Urry
Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912604/oral-health-promotion-in-the-community-pharmacy-an-evaluation-of-a-pilot-oral-health-promotion-intervention
#16
A Sturrock, H Cussons, C Jones, C Woodcock, L Bird
Introduction Poor oral health is a significant public health concern, costing the NHS in England £3.4 billion annually. Community pharmacies are easily accessible, frequently visited by patients and the community pharmacy contractual framework requires pharmacies to provide healthy living advice to patients - therefore offering a little explored avenue for the delivery of oral health interventions.Methodology A pilot oral health promotion intervention was introduced in five pharmacies in deprived areas of County Durham between September and December 2016...
September 15, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912368/neurodevelopment-of-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-unexposed-uninfected-children-at-24-months
#17
Sumona Chaudhury, Paige L Williams, Gloria K Mayondi, Jean Leidner, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Sharon Nichols, Jane Magetse, Maureen Sakoi, Kebaiphe Moabi, Joseph Makhema, Charlotte Mdluli, Haruna Jibril, George R Seage, Betsy Kammerer, Shahin Lockman
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine if HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children had worse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months compared with HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children in Botswana. METHODS: HIV-infected and uninfected mothers enrolled in a prospective observational study ("Tshipidi") in Botswana from May 2010 to July 2012. Child neurodevelopment was assessed at 24 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III: cognitive, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, and receptive language domains) and the Development Milestones Checklist (DMC), a caregiver-completed questionnaire (locomotor, fine motor, language and personal-social domains)...
September 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912158/visual-responses-in-fef-unlike-v1-primarily-reflect-when-the-visual-context-renders-a-receptive-field-salient
#18
Wilsaan M Joiner, James Cavanaugh, Robert H Wurtz, Bruce G Cumming
When light falls within a neuronal visual receptive field (RF) the resulting activity is referred to as the visual response. Recent work suggests this activity is in response to both the visual stimulation and the abrupt appearance, or salience, of the presentation. Here we present a novel method for distinguishing the two, based on the timing of random and non-random presentations. We examined these contributions in frontal eye field (FEF, N = 51) and as a comparison, an early stage in the primary visual cortex (V1, N = 15) of male monkeys (Macaca mulatta)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910359/prevalence-and-determinants-of-oral-infection-by-human-papillomavirus-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#19
Francesca Rollo, Alessandra Latini, Barbara Pichi, Manuela Colafigli, Maria Benevolo, Ilenia Sinopoli, Isabella Sperduti, Valentina Laquintana, Giulia Fabbri, Mirko Frasca, Antonio Cristaudo, Massimo Giuliani, Maria Gabriella Donà
BACKGROUND: Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is rare in the general population but common in high-risk individuals. Recent data indicate that oral HPV is associated with the development of head and neck carcinomas. HPV16 infection, in particular, increases the risk of oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: We evaluated oral HPV prevalence and determinants of infection in cancer-free HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited among attendees of an STI/HIV centre...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905516/simple-method-for-rf-pulse-measurement-using-gradient-reversal
#20
Vanessa L Landes, Krishna S Nayak
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a simple method for measuring the envelope of small-tip radiofrequency (RF) excitation waveforms in MRI, without extra hardware or synchronization. THEORY AND METHODS: Gradient reversal approach to evaluate RF (GRATER) involves RF excitation with a constant gradient and reversal of that gradient during signal reception to acquire the time-reversed version of an RF envelope. An outer-volume suppression prepulse is used optionally to preselect a uniform volume...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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