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Julia C Quindlen-Hotek, Victor H Barocas
The Pacinian corpuscle (PC) is the cutaneous mechanoreceptor responsible for sensation of high-frequency (20-1000 Hz) vibrations. PCs lie deep within the skin, often in multicorpuscle clusters with overlapping receptive fields. We developed a finite-element mechanical model of one or two PCs embedded within human skin, coupled to a multiphysics PC model to simulate action potentials elicited by each PC. A vibration was applied to the skin surface, and the resulting mechanical signal was analyzed using two metrics: the deformation amplitude ratio ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and the phase shift of the vibration ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] between the stimulus and the PC...
March 17, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Annette Peart, Virginia Lewis, Ted Brown, Grant Russell
OBJECTIVE: Patient navigators are a promising mechanism to link patients with primary care. While navigators have been used in population health promotion and prevention programmes, their impact on access to primary care is not clear. The aim of this scoping review was to examine the use of patient navigators to facilitate access to primary care and how they were defined and described, their components and the extent to which they were patient centred. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used the Arksey and O'Malley scoping review method...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Penelope Hannant
A number of studies have evidenced marked difficulties in language in autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Studies have also shown that language and word knowledge are associated with the same area of brain that is also responsible for visual perception in typically developing (TD) individuals. However, in ASC, research suggests word meaning is mapped differently, on to situational sensorimotor components within the brain. Furthermore, motor coordination is associated with communication skills. The current study explores whether motor coordination and visual perception are impaired in children with ASC, and whether difficulties in coordination and visual perception correlate with receptive language levels...
March 14, 2018: Human Movement Science
A Campollo-Ovalle, D Sánchez
Lestrimelitta spp. are stingless bees that steal food and nesting materials from other highly social bees to survive. Though most of their victim species respond, either aggressively or submissively, to cephalic components of Lestrimelitta, little is known about if such response changes at some point during extended periods of exposure. Moreover, potential synergistic effects due to a mixture of victim's alarm/defense pheromones and Lestrimelitta mandibular pheromones, like in an actual attack, have not been examined so far...
March 16, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
A M De Nunzio, U S Yavuz, E Martinez-Valdes, D Farina, D Falla
Sensory information conveyed along afferent fibers from muscle and joint proprioceptors play an important role in the control of posture and gait in humans. In particular, proprioceptive information from the neck is fundamental in supplying the central nervous system with information about the orientation and movement of the head relative to the rest of the body. The previous studies have confirmed that proprioceptive afferences originating from the neck region, evoked via muscle vibration, lead to strong body-orienting effects during static conditions (e...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Russell Blackwelder
Aligning patient goals with treatment plans is an ongoing challenge in the current healthcare environment. Particularly in patients with multiple comorbidities and terminal illness, this planning is even more important. This poem, which tells the story of a dying patient, highlights the significance of prioritizing patient values and the teamwork it often takes to achieve patient goals. In this case, the patient's goal was to make it to his granddaughter's wedding and give a special toast at the reception. A team of healthcare professionals assembled and attempted to align our objectives with his, and this poem tells of that journey...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Doaa Abdelmageed El Faham, Mohamed Amr Hussein Elnoury, Mona Ibraheim Morsy, Marwa Abdelmoneim El Shaer, Ghada Mohammed Nour Eldin, Osama Mahmoud Azmy
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in photobiomodulation to promote healing, regenerate, and restore tissue function. Women with persistent thin endometrium were assumed to encounter diminished activity in the regenerative and functional capacity of their endometrium. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of LLLT in 635 nm wavelength to enhance the proliferation and gene expression of in vitro cultured endometrial cells. Single (SE) versus multiple exposures (ME) to LLLT were examined in the study groups and compared to controls...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Harriet C Fitzgerald, Jemma Evans, Nicholas Johnson, Giuseppe Infusini, Andrew Webb, Luk J R Rombauts, Beverley J Vollenhoven, Lois A Salamonsen, Tracey A Edgell
The regenerative, proliferative phase of a woman's menstrual cycle is a critical period which lays the foundation for the subsequent, receptive secretory phase. Although endometrial glands and their secretions are essential for embryo implantation and survival, the proliferative phase, when these glands form, has been rarely examined. We hypothesized that alterations in the secreted proteome of the endometrium of idiopathic infertile women would reflect a disturbance in proliferative phase endometrial regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Evangelos G Papanikolaou, Hakan Yarali, Evi Timotheou, Michael Grynberg, Odysseas Zafeiratis, Herman Tournaye, Robert Najdecki
Introduction: A drawback of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols in in vitro fertilization (IVF) is that they have limited flexibility in cycle programming. This proof of concept study explored the efficacy of a single-dose, long-acting GnRH antagonist IVF protocol. Trial registration number is NCT03240159, retrospectively registered on March 08, 2017. Materials and methods: The efficacy of a single-dose long-acting antagonist, degarelix, was explored initially in healthy donors and subsequently in infertile patients...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Zer Vue, Gabriel Gonzalez, C Allison Stewart, Shyamin Mehra, Richard R Behringer
Endometrial or uterine glands secrete substances essential for uterine receptivity to the embryo, implantation, conceptus survival, and growth. Adenogenesis is the process of gland formation within the stroma of the uterus. In the mouse, uterine gland formation initiates at postnatal day (P) 5. Uterine gland morphology is poorly understood because it is primarily based on two-dimensional (2D) histology. To more fully describe uterine gland morphogenesis, we generated three-dimensional (3D) models of postnatal uterine glands from P0 to P21, based on volumetric imaging using light sheet microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Alon Poleg-Polsky, Huayu Ding, Jeffrey S Diamond
Dendrites in many neurons actively compute information. In retinal starburst amacrine cells, transformations from synaptic input to output occur within individual dendrites and mediate direction selectivity, but directional signal fidelity at individual synaptic outputs and correlated activity among neighboring outputs on starburst dendrites have not been examined systematically. Here, we record visually evoked calcium signals simultaneously at many individual synaptic outputs within single starburst amacrine cells in mouse retina...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Niklas Wilming, Peter König, Seth König, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex allow for the precise decoding of position in space. Along with potentially playing an important role in navigation, grid cells have recently been hypothesized to make a general contribution to mental operations. A prerequisite for this hypothesis is that grid cell activity does not critically depend on physical movement. Here, we show that movement of covert attention, without any physical movement, also elicits spatial receptive fields with a triangular tiling of space...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Jean-Paul Noel, Olaf Blanke, Elisa Magosso, Andrea Serino
Interactions between the body and the environment occur within the Peri-Personal Space (PPS), the space immediately surrounding the body. The PPS is encoded by multisensory (audio-tactile, visual-tactile) neurons that possess receptive fields (RFs) anchored on the body and restricted in depth. The extension in depth of PPS neurons' RFs has been documented to change dynamically as a function of the velocity of incoming stimuli, but the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here, by integrating a psychophysical approach with neural network modeling, we propose a mechanistic explanation behind this inherent dynamic property of PPS...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Christine Lembke, Daniel Stettin, Franziska Speck, Nico Ueberschaar, Sam De Decker, Wim Vyverman, Georg Pohnert
Recently the first pheromone of a marine diatom was identified to be the diketopiperazine (S,S)-diproline. This compound facilitates attraction between mating partners in the benthic diatom Seminavis robusta. Interestingly, sexualized S. robusta cells are attracted to both the natural pheromone (S,S)-diproline as well as to its enantiomer (R,R)-diproline. Usually stereospecificity is a prerequisite for successful substrate-receptor interactions, and especially pheromone perception is often highly enantioselective...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Fan Wang, Xinghua Zhong, Haibin Wang, Aiping Song, Fadi Chen, Weimin Fang, Jiafu Jiang, Nianjun Teng
Most chrysanthemum cultivars are self-incompatible, so it is very difficult to create pure lines that are important in chrysanthemum breeding and theoretical studies. In our previous study, we obtained a self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar and its self-pollinated seed set was 56.50%. It was interesting that the seed set of its ten progenies ranged from 0% to 37.23%. Examination of the factors causing the differences in the seed set will lead to an improved understanding of chrysanthemum self-incompatibility, and provide valuable information for creating pure lines...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Thomas Wesarg, Bettina Voss, Frederike Hassepass, Rainer Beck, Antje Aschendorff, Roland Laszig, Susan Arndt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the wearing position of an off-the-ear-processor (OTE) on speech perception in quiet and noise. PATIENTS: The study group consisted of 16 adult subjects with bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss, 2 of them unilaterally, and 14 bilaterally provided with cochlear implants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Speech perception in quiet and noise was measured for frontal presentation with the recipients behind-the-ear processor CP810 or CP910 and the OTE processor Kanso (Cochlear Limited, Sydney, Australia)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Bárbara Piñeiro, Diana R Díaz, Luis M Monsalve, Úrsula Martínez, Cathy D Meade, Lauren R Meltzer, Karen O Brandon, Marina Unrod, Thomas H Brandon, Vani N Simmons
Smoking-related illnesses are the leading causes of death among Hispanics/Latinos. Yet, there are few smoking cessation interventions targeted for this population. The goal of this study was to "transcreate" an existing, previously validated, English language self-help smoking cessation intervention, titled Forever Free® : Stop Smoking for Good, for Spanish-speaking smokers. Rather than simply translating the materials, our transcreation process involved culturally adapting the intervention to enhance acceptability and receptivity of the information...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Nathan W Burke, Russell Bonduriansky
Facultative reproductive strategies that incorporate both sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction should be optimal, yet are rarely observed in animals. Resolving this paradox requires an understanding of the economics of facultative asexuality. Recent work suggests that switching from parthenogenesis to sex can be costly and that females can resist mating to avoid switching. However, it remains unclear whether these costs and resistance behaviors are dependent on female age. We addressed these questions in the Cyclone Larry stick insect, Sipyloidea larryi , by pairing females with males (or with females as a control) in early life prior to the start of parthenogenetic reproduction, or in mid- or late life after a period of parthenogenetic oviposition...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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