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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668121/lipofection-of-plasmid-dna-into-human-mast-cell-lines-using-lipid-nanoparticles-generated-by-microfluidic-mixing
#1
Brett A Duguay, Kate Wei-Chen Huang, Marianna Kulka
Mast cells are important immune cells that have significant roles in mediating allergy and asthma. Therefore, studying the molecular mechanisms regulating these and other processes in mast cells is important to elucidate. Methods such as lipofection, transduction, and electroporation are often employed to dissect these mechanisms by disrupting gene expression in mast cell lines. However, as with other leukocytes, human mast cells (HMCs) are often refractory to the delivery of plasmids by lipofection. In this study, we investigated the utility of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing the ionizable cationic lipids 1,2-dioleoyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane, 1,2-dioleyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane, or 2,2-dilinoleyl-4-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-[1,3]-dioxolane for the delivery of plasmid DNA into HMC lines...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668076/comparative-analyses-of-the-gut-microbiota-among-three-different-wild-geese-species-in-the-genus-anser
#2
Wen Wang, Yingbao Liu, Yongsheng Yang, Aizhen Wang, Kirill Sharshov, Yao Li, Mengyao Cao, Puzhen Mao, Laixing Li
In this study, we characterized for the first time the gut microbiota of Greylag geese (Anser anser) using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. The results showed that the phyla Firmicutes (78.55%), Fusobacteria (9.38%), Proteobacteria (7.55%), Bacteroidetes (1.82%), Cyanobacteria (1.44%), and Actinobacteria (0.61%) dominated the gut microbial communities in the Greylag geese. Then, the variations of gut microbial community structures and functions among the three geese species, Greylag geese, Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), and Swan geese (Anser cygnoides), were explored...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668071/human-papillomavirus-an-unlikely-etiologic-factor-in-sinonasal-inverted-papilloma
#3
Sepideh Mohajeri, Chi Lai, Bibianna Purgina, Dakheelallah Almutairi, Tabassom Baghai, Jim Dimitroulakos, Shaun Kilty
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Tenuous evidence has supported the hypothesis that sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP) arise from human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To clarify the role of HPV in SNIP, all known HPV sub-types were evaluated by employing a robust polymerase chain reaction-based method in a wide variety of SNIPs from a single institution. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective surgical specimen tumor sample analysis. METHODS: HPV positivity among SNIP samples and those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were compared...
April 18, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668066/mait-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-roles-in-host-defense-and-therapeutic-potentials-in-infectious-diseases-and-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Patrick T Rudak, Joshua Choi, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional, innate-like T lymphocytes that sense the presence of MHC-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted ligands and select inflammatory cues. Consequently, they release potent immunomodulatory mediators, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and/or IL-17. MAIT cells can also be viewed as killer cells. They display several NK cell-associated receptors, carry granules containing cytotoxic effector molecules, and swiftly upregulate perforin and granzymes upon activation. Accordingly, MAIT cells are capable of lysing MR1-expressing cells infected with a variety of pathogenic bacteria in in vitro settings and may also mount cytotoxic responses during microbial infections in vivo...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668065/insight-on-the-regulation-of-chemokine-activities
#5
REVIEW
Valentina Cecchinato, Mariagrazia Uguccioni
The activity of chemokines is regulated by several mechanisms that control the final cellular response. The present review discusses the complexity of the regulation of the chemokine system, and the novel findings describing how in persistent infections, the expression of chemokine receptors on the surface of T cells does not correlate with their homing potential. Thanks to the latest advances in our comprehension of the chemokine system, novel approaches targeting chemokines, chemokine receptors, or protein of their signaling pathway should be considered in order to achieve a personalized therapy...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668063/beyond-migration-chemokines-in-lymphocyte-priming-differentiation-and-modulating-effector-functions
#6
REVIEW
Julia M Laufer, Daniel F Legler
Chemokines and their receptors coordinate the positioning of leukocytes, and lymphocytes in particular, in space and time. Discrete lymphocyte subsets, depending on their activation and differentiation status, express various sets of chemokine receptors to be recruited to distinct tissues. Thus, the network of chemokines and their receptors ensures the correct localization of specialized lymphocyte subsets within the appropriate microenvironment enabling them to search for cognate antigens, to become activated, and to fulfill their effector functions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668051/evidence-for-a-specific-and-critical-role-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-20-in-uni-to-binucleate-transition-of-microgametogenesis-in-tomato
#7
Lifei Chen, Dandan Yang, Youwei Zhang, Limin Wu, Yaoyao Zhang, Lei Ye, Changtian Pan, Yanjun He, Li Huang, Yong-Ling Ruan, Gang Lu
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse aspects of plant growth. However, their potential role in reproductive development remains elusive. Here, we discovered an unique role of SlMPK20, a plant-specific group D MAPK, in pollen development in tomato. RNAi-mediated suppression of SlMPK20 or its knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 significantly reduced or completely abolished pollen viability, respectively, with no effects on maternal fertility. Cell biology and gene expression analyses established that SlMPK20 exerts its role specifically at the uni-to-binucleate transition during microgametogenesis...
April 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668038/photodynamic-therapy-induces-antifibrotic-alterations-in-primary-human-vocal-fold-fibroblasts
#8
Chi Zhang, Jiajia Wang, Adriana Chou, Ting Gong, Erin E Devine, Jack J Jiang
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for laryngeal dysplasia, early-stage carcinoma, and papilloma, and was reported to have the ability to preserve laryngeal function and voice quality without clinical fibrotic response. We aimed to investigate the mechanism behind the antifibrotic effects of PDT on primary human vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro analysis from one human donor. METHODS: Cell viability of VFFs in response to varying doses of PDT was investigated by the Cell Counting Kit-8 method...
April 18, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668032/presence-of-meniscus-tear-alters-gene-expression-profile-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-tears
#9
Robert H Brophy, Marcus A Rothermich, Eric D Tycksen, Lei Cai, Muhammad Farooq Rai
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears occur in isolation or in tandem with other intra-articular injuries such as meniscus tears. The impact of injury pattern on the molecular biology of the injured ACL is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the biological response of the ACL to injury varies based on the presence or absence of concomitant meniscus tear. We performed RNA-seq on 28 ACL tears remnants (12 isolated, 16 combined). In total, 16,654 transcripts were differentially-expressed between isolated and combined injury groups at false-discovery-rate of 0...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668013/drosophila-relics-hobo-and-hobo-mites-transposons-as-raw-material-for-new-regulatory-networks
#10
Elgion L S Loreto, Maríndia Deprá, José F Diesel, Yanina Panzera, Vera Lucia S Valente-Gaiesky
Hypermutable strains of Drosophila simulans have been studied for 20 years. Several mutants were isolated and characterized, some of which had phenotypes associated with alteration in development; for example, showing ectopic legs with eyes being expressed in place of antennae. The causal agent of this hypermutability is a non-autonomous hobo-related sequence (hoboVA). Around 100 mobilizable copies of this element are present in the D. simulans genome, and these are likely mobilized by the autonomous and canonical hobo element...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668002/a-sharp-edge-based-acoustofluidic-chemical-signal-generator
#11
Po-Hsun Huang, Chung Yu Chan, Peng Li, Yuqi Wang, Nitesh Nama, Hunter Bachman, Tony Jun Huang
Resolving the temporal dynamics of cell signaling pathways is essential for regulating numerous downstream functions, from gene expression to cellular responses. Mapping these signaling pathways requires the exposure of cells to time-varying chemical signals; these are difficult to generate and control over a wide temporal range. Herein, we present an acoustofluidic chemical signal generator based on a sharp-edge-based micromixing strategy. The device, simply by modulating the driving signals of an acoustic transducer including the ON/OFF switching frequency, actuation time and duty cycle, is capable of generating both single-pulse and periodic chemical signals that are temporally controllable in terms of stimulation period, stimulation duration and duty cycle...
April 18, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667992/naked-eye-and-electrochemical-detection-of-isothermally-amplified-hotair-long-non-coding-rna
#12
Md Nazmul Islam, Sofia Moriam, Muhammad Umer, Hoang-Phuong Phan, Carlos Salomon, Richard Kline, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Muhammad J A Shiddiky
An inexpensive, simple and rapid sensor platform capable of detecting cancer-related long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) with high accuracy is of great interest in the field of molecular diagnostics. Herein, we report on the development of a new colorimetric and electrochemical assay platform for long non-coding HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) detection. Isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) was performed to amplify HOTAIR sequences from a RNA pool extracted from a designated number of ovarian cancer cells and a small cohort of plasma samples derived from patients with ovarian cancer...
April 18, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667930/kcnq1ot1-promotes-melanoma-growth-and-metastasis
#13
Bingyu Guo, Qian Zhang, Hongyi Wang, Peng Chang, Kai Tao
Melanoma is the deadliest cutaneous neoplasm. To prevent metastasis, early diagnosis and surgical treatment is vital. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in tumors. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 in melanoma. Real time PCR demonstrated that KCNQ1OT1 expression is up-regulated in melanoma tissues and cells. KCNQ1OT1 promoted cell proliferation and metastasis in melanoma. By directly bindin to miR-153, KCNQ1OT1 acted as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to de-repress MET expression...
April 17, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667924/telomerase-may-paradoxically-accelerate-aging-of-the-dna-methylome
#14
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
DNA methylation (DNAm) clocks such as the Horvath DNAm clock provide the most accurate biological determination of biological age relative to chronological age available today. However, there is little correlation between DNAm clocks, telomere-based aging clocks, and transcriptomic-based aging clocks. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified single-nucleotide polymorphism variants of TERT, the gene that encodes telomerase, as accelerating intrinsic aging in the Horvath DNAm clock. These same variants have been previously associated with long telomeres in leukocytes, suggesting that TERT acts paradoxically on telomere-associated aging and DNAm-associated aging...
April 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667915/chronic-lithium-treatment-induces-novel-patterns-of-pendrin-localization-and-expression
#15
Nathaniel J Himmel, Yirong Wang, Daniel A Rodriguez, Michael A Sun, Mitsi A Blount
Prolonged lithium treatment is associated with various renal side effects and is known to induce inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) remodeling. In animals treated with lithium, the fraction of intercalated cells (ICs), which are responsible for acid-base homeostasis, increases as compared to renal principal cells (PCs). In order to investigate the intricacies of lithium-induced IMCD remodeling, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a lithium-enriched diet for 0,1, 2, 3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks. Urine osmolality was decreased at 1 week, and from 2-12 weeks, animals were severely polyuric...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667914/inactivation-of-map3k7-in-foxd1-expressing-cells-results-in-loss-of-mesangial-pdgfr%C3%AE-and-juvenile-kidney-scarring
#16
Michele J Karolak, Justin A Guay, Leif Oxburgh
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) plays a central role in renal scarring, controlling extracellular matrix deposition by interstitial cells and mesangial cells. TGFβ signals through Smad and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. To understand the role of MAPK in interstitial and mesangial cells, we genetically inactivated TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (Map3k7) using Foxd1+/cre. Embryonic kidney development was unperturbed in mutants, but spontaneous scarring of the kidney ensued during the first postnatal week, with retention of embryonic nephrogenic rests and accumulation of collagen IV in the mesangium...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667913/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-deletion-is-associated-with-urinary-%C3%AE-klotho-deficiency-and-perturbed-phosphate-homeostasis
#17
Naomi C Boisvert, Chet E Holterman, Alexey Gutsol, Josee Coulombe, Wanling Pan, R Todd Alexander, Douglas A Gray, Chris R Kennedy
Loss of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinating enzyme required for neuronal function, led to hyperphosphatemia accompanied by phosphaturia in mice, while calcium homeostasis remained intact. We therefore investigated the mechanisms underlying the phosphate imbalance in Uchl1-/- mice. Interestingly, phosphaturia was not a result of lower renal brush border membrane sodium-phosphate cotransporter expression as sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2a and 2c expression levels were similar to wild type levels...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667912/renoprotective-impact-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-and-its-splice-variants-in-female-mice-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Debra L Irsik, Melissa Jill Romero-Aleshire, Erin M Chavez, Rachel W Fallet, Heddwen L Brooks, Pamela K Carmines, Pascale H Lane
Estrogen has been implicated in the regulation of growth and immune function in the kidney, which expresses the full-length estrogen receptor α (ERα66), its ERα splice variants, and estrogen receptor β (ERβ). Thus, we hypothesized that these splice variants may inhibit glomerular enlargement that occurs early in type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection in 8-12 wk-old female mice lacking ERα66 (ERα66KO) or all ERα variants (αERKO), and their wild-type (WT) littermates...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667911/experimental-heat-stress-nephropathy-and-liver-injury-are-improved-by-allopurinol
#19
Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Yuka Sato, Tamara Milagres, Ana Andres-Hernando, Gabriela E Garcia, Petter Bjornstad, Jaime Butler-Dawson, Cecilia Sorensen, Lee Newman, Lyndsay Krisher, Magdalena Madero, Jason Glaser, Ramon Garcia-Trabannino, Emmanuel Jarquin-Romero, Zhilin Song, Thomas Jensen, Masanari Kuwabara, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Laura-Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been observed in Central America among workers in the sugarcane fields. One hypothesis is that the CKD may be caused by recurrent heat stress and dehydration, and potentially by hyperuricemia. Accordingly, we developed a murine model of kidney injury associated with recurrent heat stress. In the current experiment, we tested whether treatment with allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that reduces serum urate) provides renal protection against recurrent heat stress and dehydration...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667908/the-macula-densa-prorenin-receptor-is-essential-in-renin-release-and-blood-pressure-control
#20
Anne D M Riquier-Brison, Arnold Sipos, Ágnes Prókai, Sarah L Vargas, Ildiko Toma, Elliott J Meer, Karie G Villanueva, Jennifer C M Chen, Georgina Gyarmati, Christopher Yih, Elaine Tang, Bahram Nadim, Sujith Pendekanti, Ingrid M Garrelds, Genevieve Nguyen, A H Jan Danser, Janos Peti-Peterdi
The prorenin receptor (PRR) was originally proposed to be a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), however recent work questioned their association. The present paper describes a functional link between the PRR and RAS in the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), a classic anatomical site of the RAS. PRR expression was found in the sensory cells of the JGA, the macula densa (MD), and immunohistochemistry localized PRR to the MD basolateral cell membrane in mouse, rat, and human kidneys. MD cell PRR activation led to MAP kinase ERK1/2 signaling and stimulation of PGE2 release, the classic pathway of MD-mediated renin release...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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