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Adipocyte dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#1
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811294/dihydrocapsiate-improved-age-associated-impairments-in-mice-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#2
Kana Ohyama, Katsuya Suzuki
Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805979/effects-of-mtor-inhibition-on-cardiac-and-adipose-tissue-pathology-and-glucose-metabolism-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Ayako Uchinaka, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulator of metabolism and is implicated in pathological conditions such as obesity and diabetes. We aimed to investigate the role of mTOR in obesity. A new animal model of metabolic syndrome (MetS), named DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa) /Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats was established previously in our laboratory. In this study, we used this model to evaluate the effects of mTOR inhibition on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology and glucose metabolism. DS/obese rats were treated with the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, (0...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792785/puberty-is-an-important-developmental-period-for-the-establishment-of-adipose-tissue-mass-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#4
Brandon Holtrup, Christopher D Church, Ryan Berry, Laura Colman, Elise Jeffery, Jeremy Bober, Matthew S Rodeheffer
Over the past 2 decades, the incidence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically. This recent rise in childhood obesity is particularly concerning as adults who were obese during childhood develop type II diabetes that is intractable to current forms of treatment compared with individuals who develop obesity in adulthood. While the mechanisms responsible for the exacerbated diabetic phenotype associated with childhood obesity is not clear, it is well known that childhood is an important time period for the establishment of normal white adipose tissue in humans...
August 8, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790184/adiponectin-protects-against-development-of-metabolic-disturbances-in-a-pcos-mouse-model
#5
Anna Benrick, Belén Chanclón, Peter Micallef, Yanling Wu, Laila Hadi, John M Shelton, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm
Adiponectin, together with adipocyte size, is the strongest factor associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the causal relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic and reproductive functions in PCOS. Prepubertal mice overexpressing adiponectin from adipose tissue (APNtg), adiponectin knockouts (APNko), and their wild-type (WT) littermate mice were continuously exposed to placebo or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to induce PCOS-like traits...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763300/ablation-of-adipose-ho-1-expression-increases-white-fat-over-beige-fat-through-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-fusion-and-of-pgc1%C3%AE-in-female-mice
#6
Shailendra P Singh, Ilana Grant, Aliza Meissner, Attallah Kappas, Nader G Abraham
Background Hmox1 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and function by regulating cellular heme-derived CO and bilirubin. Previous studies have demonstrated that global disruption of HO-1 in humans and mice resulted in severe organ dysfunction. Methods We investigated the potential role of adipose-specific-HO-1 genetic ablation on adipose tissue function, mitochondrial quality control and energy expenditure by generating an adipo-HO-1 knockout mouse model (Adipo-HO-1-/-) and, in vitro, adipocyte cells in which HO activity was inhibited...
August 1, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754587/8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-adipocyte-dysfunction-in-mice
#7
Joo Young Huh, Inji Jung, Lingjuan Piao, Hunjoo Ha, Myung-Hee Chung
8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, has been recently shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of Rac1. Inflammation in adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the therapeutic potential of 8-OHdG in treatment of metabolic diseases has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenously administered 8-OHdG on adipose tissue and whole body metabolism. In cultured adipocytes, 8-OHdG inhibited adipogenesis and reversed TNFα-induced insulin resistance...
July 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752072/early-endocrine-disruptors-exposure-acts-on-3t3-l1-differentiation-and-endocrine-activity
#8
Sofiane Boudalia, Christine Belloir, Marie-Louise Miller, Marie-Chantal Canivenc-Lavier
Introduction: Data from last years suggested that early exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) can predispose newborns to endocrine dysfunction of adipocytes, obesity, and associated disorders. The implication of EDs at low doses on adipocyte development has been poorly investigated. For instance, vinclozolin (V) is a dicarboximide fungicide widely used in agriculture since the 90's, alone or in mixture with genistein (G), an isoflavonoid from Leguminosae. This study aims to identify the effect of vinclozolin alone or with genistein, on adipose tissue properties using cell culture...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751679/conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-improves-maternal-high-fat-diet-induced-programming-of-metabolic-dysfunction-in-adult-male-rat-offspring
#9
Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers, Clint Gray, Xiaoyuan D Zhang, Clare M Reynolds
The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that an adverse early life environment, including in utero exposure to a maternal obesogenic environment, can lead to an increased long-term risk of obesity and related metabolic complications in offspring. We assessed whether maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could prevent some of these adverse effects in offspring exposed to a maternal high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley dams consumed either a: control (CD), control with CLA (CLA), high fat (HF) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA) diet 10 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy/lactation...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742638/extraocular-muscle-findings-in-myasthenia-gravis-associated-treatment-resistant-ophthalmoplegia-a-case-report
#10
Robyn M Rautenbach, Komala Pillay, Anthony D N Murray, Jeannine M Heckmann
We report the histopathological and ultrastructural tissue analysis of extraocular muscle (EOM) obtained from a patient with seronegative myasthenia gravis (MG) with treatment-resistant ophthalmoplegia for 3.5 years. The EOM demonstrated predominantly myopathic features and ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, but the most striking features were increased endomysial collagen and adipocyte replacement of muscle fibers. By contrast, control EOM from a patient undergoing strabismus surgery for a sensory exotropia in a nonseeing eye and a similar duration of deviation, showed normal muscle histology...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739528/chronic-hyper-leptinemia-induces-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-adipocytes-implications-of-nos2
#11
Abhishek Gupta, Muheeb Beg, Durgesh Kumar, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Kalpana Singh, Satyendra Sonkar, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
Leptin, following its discovery, has developed a formidable interest in the scientific community to delineate its contribution towards overall metabolic homeostasis. Contradictory reports have been published on leptin administration effects on whole body insulin sensitivity. Following late reports, we surveyed human serum leptin levels along with other metabolic parameters including BMI and HOMA-IR. We found a positive correlation between leptin levels and insulin resistance parameters. Considering the presence of the long form of leptin receptor on adipocytes, we explored the effects of chronic physiological hyper-leptinemic exposure on adipocyte insulin sensitivity...
July 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733145/adipocytes-promote-nicotine-induced-injury-of-endothelial-cells-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#12
Xiu Liu, Chao-Nan Wang, Chen-Yang Qiu, Wei Song, Lin-Fang Wang, Bao Liu
Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors of atherosclerosis, which can induce endothelial injury. Meanwhile, adipocytes are the main cell type of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), the largest endocrine and paracrine organ and direct anatomical connection to adventitia, which may play a key role in the injury of endothelial cells. We used nicotine to induce dysfunctional HUVECs and adipocytes. In addition, we used a novel model to co-culture HUVECs and adipocytes in vitro by the transwell co-culture system to determine the effect of adipocytes on endothelial injury...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732567/curcumin-3-4-dichloro-phenyl-pyrazole-cdpp-overcomes-curcumin-s-low-bioavailability-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-ameliorates-dyslipidemia-by-activating-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#13
Abhishek Gupta, Vinay Kumar Singh, Durgesh Kumar, Pragya Yadav, Santosh Kumar, Muheeb Beg, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Rakhi Choudhary, Vishal M Balaramnavar, Rabi Bhatta, Narender Tadigoppula, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte dysfunction, obesity and associated metabolic disorders are of prime healthcare concern worldwide. Among available medications, natural products and inspired molecules hold 40% space in clinically prescribed medicines. In queue, this study overcomes the drawback of curcumin's low bioavailability with potent anti-adipogenic and anti-dyslipidemic activity. METHODS: To evaluate the role of CDPP on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used as an in-vitro model...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726396/potent-anti-inflammatory-and-antiadipogenic-properties-of-bamboo-sasa-coreana-nakai-leaves-extract-and-its-major-constituent-flavonoids
#14
Ji Hye Yang, Moon-Hee Choi, Seung Hwa Yang, Sam Seok Cho, Su Jung Park, Hyun-Jae Shin, Sung Hwan Ki
The pro-inflammatory response and recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we reported the anti-inflammatory and antiadipogenic effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of bamboo leaf and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Functional macrophage migration assays also were performed. Surprisingly, the EtOAc fraction of MeOH extracts from native Korean plant species Sasa coreana Nakai (SCN) has shown potent anti-inflammatory properties; SCN pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production (p < 0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712868/salicylates-promote-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-regulating-the-expression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-murine-3t3-l1-pre-adipocytes
#15
Yimin Yan, Xiaohong Yang, Tao Zhao, Yi Zou, Rui Li, Yancheng Xu
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Decreased mitochondrial density and mitochondrial copy numbers have been found in insulin-resistant individuals. Restoration of the number of mitochondria and normal mitochondrial function has become an important therapeutic target of diabetes. Salicylate, the main active ingredient in aspirin, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. Little information regarding the effects of salicylate on mitochondrial function has been reported...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#16
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705812/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-metabolic-syndrome-the-expanding-role-of-the-adipocyte
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Armani, Alessandra Berry, Francesca Cirulli, Massimiliano Caprio
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a cluster of 3 or more metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and represents a serious problem for public health. Altered function of adipose tissue has a significant impact on whole-body metabolism and represents a key driver for the development of these metabolic derangements, collectively referred as to MetS. In particular, increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition play a major role in the development of insulin resistance and MetS. A large body of evidence demonstrates that aging and MetS share several metabolic alterations...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702328/ask1-map3k5-is-transcriptionally-upregulated-by-e2f1-in-adipose-tissue-in-obesity-molecularly-defining-a-human-dys-metabolic-obese-phenotype
#18
Yulia Haim, Matthias Blüher, Daniel Konrad, Nir Goldstein, Nora Klöting, Ilana Harman-Boehm, Boris Kirshtein, Doron Ginsberg, Tanya Tarnovscki, Yftach Gepner, Iris Shai, Assaf Rudich
OBJECTIVE: Obesity variably disrupts human health, but molecular-based patients' health-risk stratification is limited. Adipose tissue (AT) stresses may link obesity with metabolic dysfunction, but how they signal in humans remains poorly-characterized. We hypothesized that a transcriptional AT stress-signaling cascade involving E2F1 and ASK1 (MAP3K5) molecularly defines high-risk obese subtype. METHODS: ASK1 expression in human AT biopsies was determined by real-time PCR analysis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) adopted to AT explants was used to evaluate the binding of E2F1 to the ASK1 promoter...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680196/roles-of-cells-from-the-arterial-vessel-wall-in-atherosclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Di Wang, Zhiyan Wang, Lili Zhang, Yi Wang
Atherosclerosis has been identified as a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel wall. Accumulating evidence indicates that different cells from the tunica intima, media, adventitia, and perivascular adipose tissue not only comprise the intact and normal arterial vessel wall but also participate all in the inflammatory response of atherosclerosis via multiple intricate pathways. For instance, endothelial dysfunction has historically been considered to be the initiator of the development of atherosclerosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679528/moderate-alcohol-intake-induces-thermogenic-brown-beige-adipocyte-formation-via-elevating-retinoic-acid-signaling
#20
Bo Wang, Zhixiu Wang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Faya Zhang, Noe Alberto Gomez, Liang Zhao, Qiyu Tian, Junxing Zhao, Joseph Maricelli, Hui Zhang, Buel D Rodgers, Min Du
Clinically, low and moderate alcohol intake improves human health with protection against metabolic syndromes, including type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms that are associated with these effects remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake on thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the entire process. C57BL6 male mice were supplemented with 8% (w/v) alcohol in water for 1 or 4 mo...
July 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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