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Adipocyte dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775644/redox-signal-mediated-trpm2-promotes-ang-ii-induced-adipocyte-insulin-resistance-via-ca-2-dependent-camkii-jnk-cascade
#1
Min Gao, Yu Du, Jing-Wen Xie, Jing Xue, Yi-Ting Wang, Li Qin, Ming-Ming Ma, Yong-Bo Tang, Xiao-Yan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel which plays a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, little is known whether TRPM2 is involved in adipocyte dysfunction during hypertension. In the present study, we determined the role of TRPM2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Ang II-induced adipocyte insulin resistant model was conducted...
May 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772836/soybean-hop-alleviates-estrogen-deficiency-related-bone-loss-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-ovariectomized-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#2
Dasom Noh, Yeni Lim, Hansol Lee, Hyejin Kim, Oran Kwon
Soybeans and hops have been traditionally used as a natural estrogen replacement therapy and their major active ingredients, isoflavones and prenylflavanones, are known to have estrogenic/antiestrogenic effects depending on the target organ. However, their potential benefits are still subject to controversies. The present study investigated the dual effect of soy isoflavones plus hop prenylflavanones (Soy-Hop) on bone loss and metabolic dysfunction under estrogen deficient condition. Rats were sham-operated ( n = 10) or ovariectomized (OVX; n = 40) and then fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to develop hyperlipidemia in OVX rats within the experimental period of 8 weeks...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768198/myocardin-related-transcription-factor-a-promotes-recruitment-of-itga5-profibrotic-progenitors-during-obesity-induced-adipose-tissue-fibrosis
#3
Jean Z Lin, Nabil Rabhi, Stephen R Farmer
Adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance in human obesity. In particular, visceral fat fibrosis is correlated with hyperlipidemia and ectopic fat accumulation. Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTFA) is an important coactivator that mediates the transcription of extracellular matrix and other fibrogenic genes. Here, we examine the role of MRTFA in the development of adipose tissue fibrosis and identify a signaling pathway that regulates the fate of vascular progenitors...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750646/circulating-steroid-levels-as-correlates-of-adipose-tissue-phenotype-in-premenopausal-women
#4
Geneviève B Marchand, Anne-Marie Carreau, Sofia Laforest, Julie-Anne Côté, Marleen Daris, Katherine Cianflone, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, André Tchernof
Background Obesity-related alterations in the circulating steroid hormone profile remain equivocal in women. Our objective was to identify circulating steroid levels that relate to increased adiposity and altered adipose phenotype in premenopausal women. Materials and methods In a sample of 42 premenopausal women [age 46 ± 3 years; body mass index (BMI) 27.1 ± 4.2 kg/m2], 19 plasma steroids were quantified by electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-LC-MS/MS). Body composition and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT), respectively...
May 11, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748154/interleukin-6-and-cardiac-operations
#5
Shi-Min Yuan
Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory capacities, produced by different cells and tissues, such as leukocytes, adipocytes, and endothelium. From the viewpoint of cardiologists, this cytokine is a reliable biomarker of cardiac dysfunction, occurrence of atrial fibrillation, cardiac myxoma with recurrence, remote metastasis or embolization, and atherosclerotic processes. Although IL-6 levels were detected in patients undergoing cardiac operations and reported sporadically, the perioperative kinetics of IL-6 in cardiac surgical patients was insufficiently elaborated...
March 1, 2018: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743341/involvement-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-dysfunction-in-virus-induced-type-1-diabetes
#6
James C Needell, Madalyn Brown, Danny Zipris
The etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains poorly understood. We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham rat virus (KRV)-induced T1D to better understand the role of the innate immune system in the mechanism of virus-induced disease. We observed that infection with KRV results in cell influx into visceral adipose tissue soon following infection prior to insulitis and hyperglycemia. In sharp contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue is free of cellular infiltration, whereas β-cell inflammation and diabetes are observed beginning on day 14 post-infection...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736714/discovery-of-modulators-of-adipocyte-physiology-using-fully-functionalized-fragments
#7
Andrea Galmozzi, Christopher G Parker, Bernard P Kok, Benjamin F Cravatt, Enrique Saez
Defects in adipocyte function associated with obesity drive the development of systemic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Agents that correct obesity-linked adipocyte dysfunction serve as useful insulin sensitizers in humans, as is exemplified by the thiazolidinediones (TZDs). We have developed a new platform that integrates advanced chemoproteomics with phenotypic screening to identify small molecules that promote differentiation and lipid storage in adipocytes, and, in tandem, their molecular target(s)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736674/modulation-of-vascular-reactivity-by-perivascular-adipose-tissue-pvat
#8
REVIEW
Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Anna Paini, Carolina De Ciuceis, Sarah Withers, Adam Greenstein, Anthony M Heagerty, Damiano Rizzoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss the role of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in the modulation of vascular contractility and arterial pressure, focusing on the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative stress/inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: PVAT possesses a relevant endocrine-paracrine activity, which may be altered in several pathophysiological and clinical conditions. During the last two decades, it has been shown that PVAT may modulate vascular reactivity...
May 7, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729371/involvement-of-glucocorticoid-prereceptor-metabolism-and-signaling-in-rat-visceral-adipose-tissue-lipid-metabolism-after-chronic-stress-combined-with-high-fructose-diet
#9
Biljana Bursać, Ana Djordjevic, Nataša Veličković, Danijela Vojnović Milutinović, Snježana Petrović, Ana Teofilović, Ljupka Gligorovska, Frederic Preitner, Luc Tappy, Gordana Matić
Both fructose overconsumption and increased glucocorticoids secondary to chronic stress may contribute to overall dyslipidemia. In this study we specifically assessed the effects and interactions of dietary fructose and chronic stress on lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week 20% high fructose diet and 4-week chronic unpredictable stress, separately and in combination, on VAT histology, glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism, glucocorticoid receptor subcellular redistribution and expression of major metabolic genes...
May 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720945/decrease-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-browning-is-associated-with-vascular-dysfunction-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats-during-aging
#10
Ling-Ran Kong, Yan-Ping Zhou, Dong-Rui Chen, Cheng-Chao Ruan, Ping-Jin Gao
Functional perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is necessary to maintain vascular physiology through both mechanical support and endocrine or paracrine ways. PVAT shows a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like feature and the browning level of PVAT is dependent on the anatomic location and species. However, it is not clear whether PVAT browning is involved in the vascular tone regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In the present study, we aimed to illustrate the effect of aging on PVAT browning and subsequent vasomotor reaction in SHRs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706566/fgf21-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-and-vascular-dysfunction-by-activation-of-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-axis-in-mice
#11
Xuebo Pan, Yihui Shao, Fan Wu, Yuan Wang, Rongrong Xiong, Jujia Zheng, Haishan Tian, Baile Wang, Yanfang Wang, Yi Zhang, Zongsheng Han, Aijuan Qu, Haixia Xu, Aihua Lu, Tianxin Yang, Xiaokun Li, Aimin Xu, Jie Du, Zhuofeng Lin
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, the role of FGF21 in hypertension remains elusive. Here we show that FGF21 deficiency significantly exacerbates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular dysfunction, whereas such negative effects are reversed by replenishment of FGF21. Mechanistically, FGF21 acts on adipocytes and renal cells to promote induction of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which in turn converts angiotensin II to angiotensin-(1-7), then inhibits hypertension and reverses vascular damage...
April 24, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702112/alpha-syntrophin-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-adipocyte-hypertrophy-and-ectopic-triglyceride-deposition-in-obesity
#12
Kristina Eisinger, Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Markus Neumeier, Sandra Schmidhofer, Rebekka Pohl, Elisabeth M Haberl, Gerhard Liebisch, Andrea Kopp, Andreas Schmid, Sabrina Krautbauer, Christa Buechler
Alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is a molecular adapter protein which is expressed in adipocytes. Knock-down of SNTA in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes increases cell proliferation, and differentiated adipocytes display small lipid droplets. These effects are both characteristics of healthy adipose tissue growth which is associated with metabolic improvements in obesity. To evaluate a role of SNTA in adipose tissue morphology and obesity associated metabolic dysfunction, SNTA deficient mice were fed a standard chow or a high fat diet...
April 24, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695308/the-presence-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-of-renal-origin-in-amniotic-fluid-increases-with-gestational-time
#13
Md Shaifur Rahman, Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Wasco Wruck, Carsten Hagenbeck, Percy Balan, Nina Graffmann, Martina Bohndorf, Audrey Ncube, Pascale V Guillot, Tanja Fehm, James Adjaye
BACKGROUND: Established therapies for managing kidney dysfunction such as kidney dialysis and transplantation are limited due to the shortage of compatible donated organs and high costs. Stem cell-based therapies are currently under investigation as an alternative treatment option. As amniotic fluid is composed of fetal urine harboring mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs), we hypothesized that third-trimester amniotic fluid could be a novel source of renal progenitor and differentiated cells...
April 25, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687584/adipose-tissue-oxygenation-is-associated-with-insulin-sensitivity-independent-of-adiposity-in-obese-men-and-women
#14
Gijs H Goossens, Max A A Vogel, Roel G Vink, Edwin C Mariman, Marleen A van Baak, Ellen E Blaak
Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that altered AT oxygenation affects adipocyte functionality, but it remains to be elucidated whether altered AT oxygenation is more strongly related to obesity or insulin sensitivity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AT oxygenation is associated with insulin sensitivity rather than adiposity in humans. Thirty-five lean and obese individuals (21 men and 14 women, aged 40-65 years) with either normal or impaired glucose metabolism participated in a cross-sectional single-centre study...
April 23, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687386/isolation-of-murine-adipose-derived-stromal-stem-cells-for-adipogenic-differentiation-or-flow-cytometry-based-analysis
#15
Gail Kilroy, Marilyn Dietrich, Xiying Wu, Jeffrey M Gimble, Z Elizabeth Floyd
Murine models of obesity or reduced adiposity are a valuable resource for understanding the role of adipocyte dysfunction in metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue stromal vascular cells or primary adipocytes derived from murine adipose tissue and grown in culture are essential tools for studying the mechanisms underlying adipocyte development and function. Herein, we describe methods for the isolation, expansion, and long-term storage of murine adipose-derived stromal/stem cells along with protocols for inducing adipogenesis in this cell population or isolating the adipose stromal vascular fraction cells for flow cytometric analysis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685627/arginine-pretreatment-enhances-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cell-population-and-attenuates-inflammatory-response-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-with-limb-ischemia
#16
Yu-Fan Kuo, Chiu-Li Yeh, Juey-Ming Shih, Yao-Ming Shih, Sung-Ling Yeh
Obesity is a global health problem with an up-regulated inflammatory reaction. Obesity-induced endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) dysfunction is associated with vascular complications that may contribute to critical limb ischemia. Arginine (Arg) is an amino acid with immune-modulatory property and has been found to promote EPCs mobilization in disease conditions. Thus in the present investigation, we hypothesized that arginine given to a murine model of diet-induced obesity would increase circulating EPCs and mitigate the inflammatory reactions in response to limb ischemia...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684027/chronic-calcitriol-supplementation-improves-the-inflammatory-profiles-of-circulating-monocytes-and-the-associated-intestinal-adipose-tissue-alteration-in-a-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#17
Yen-Bo Su, Tzu-Hao Li, Chia-Chang Huang, Hung-Cheng Tsai, Shiang-Fen Huang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Vitamin D deficiency and up-regulated TNFα-related signals are reported to be involved in abnormalities including intestinal hyper-permeability, bacterial translocation, systemic/portal endotoxemia, intestinal/adipose tissue/hepatic inflammation, and hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms and effects of chronic calcitriol [1,25-(OH)2D3, hormonal form of vitamin D] on gut-adipose tissue-liver axis abnormalities using a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat model of NASH...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678877/deferoxamine-ameliorates-adipocyte-dysfunction-by-modulating-iron-metabolism-in-ob-ob-mice
#18
Hong-Fa Yan, Zhao-Yu Liu, Zhi-Ang Guan, Chuang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying obesity and anti-obesity processes have garnered remarkable attention as potential therapeutic targets for obesity-associated metabolic syndromes. Our prior work has shown the healing efficacy of iron reduction therapies for hepatic steatosis in a rodent model of diabetes and obesity. In this study, we investigated how iron depletion by deferoxamine (DFO) affected adipocyte dysfunction in the epididymal adipose tissues of ob/ob mice. METHODS: Male ob/ob mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated or DFO-treated group...
April 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668887/changes-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-plasma-membrane-lipid-composition-in-old-rats-are-associated-with-adipocyte-hypertrophy-with-aging
#19
Elena Bonzón-Kulichenko, Eduardo Moltó, Cristina Pintado, Alejandro Fernández, Carmen Arribas, Dominik Schwudke, Nilda Gallardo, Andrej Shevchenko, Antonio Andrés
Increased adiposity, through adipocyte hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia, characterizes aging and obesity. Both are leptin-resistant states, associated to disturbed lipid metabolism, reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Nevertheless, fat tissue dysfunction appears earlier in obesity than in normal aging. In contrast, lipodystrophy is accompanied by diabetes, and improving the fat cell capacity to expand rescues the diabetic phenotype. Fat tissue dysfunction is extensively studied in the diet-induced obesity, but remains relatively neglected in the aging-associated obesity...
April 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668847/adiponectin-determines-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonism-mediated-cardioprotection-against-post-infarction-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#20
Yunlong Xia, Fuyang Zhang, Shihao Zhao, Yueyang Li, Xiyao Chen, Erhe Gao, Xinyue Xu, Zhenyu Xiong, Xiaomeng Zhang, Jinglong Zhang, Huishou Zhao, Wei Wang, Helin Wang, Yanjie Guo, Yi Liu, Congye Li, Shan Wang, Ling Zhang, Wenjun Yan, Ling Tao
Aims: The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the metabolic nuclear receptor superfamily that plays a critical regulatory role in cardiovascular physiology/pathology. However, the role of systemic FXR activation in the chronic phase in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of long-term FXR activation on post-MI cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Methods and Results: Mice underwent either MI surgery or sham operation...
April 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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