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Adipocyte dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909015/diabetic-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fail-to-differentiate-in-functional-adipocytes
#1
Ignazio Barbagallo, Giovanni Li Volti, Fabio Galvano, Guido Tettamanti, Francesca R Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Luca Vanella
Adipose tissue dysfunction represents a hallmark of diabetic patients and is a consequence of the altered homeostasis of this tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their differentiation into adipocytes contribute significantly in maintaining the mass and function of adult adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differentiation of MSCs from patients suffering type 2 diabetes (dASC) and how such process results in hyperplasia or rather a stop of adipocyte turnover resulting in hypertrophy of mature adipocytes...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899023/ghrelin-function-in-human-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-concise-review
#2
REVIEW
R Churm, J S Davies, J W Stephens, S L Prior
The 28 amino acid hormone, ghrelin, has been found to have various effects on metabolism. This review will focus on the pathways integrated into ghrelin's effect within the hypothalamus, pancreas and adipocytes. The identification of molecules and pathways that regulate ghrelin-mediated lipid retention could establish new mechanisms underlying cellular energy homeostasis. The impact of acyl-ghrelin on glucose metabolism and lipid homeostasis may allow for novel preventative or early intervention therapeutic strategies to treat obesity related type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic dysfunction...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#3
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876260/editorial-overview-endocrine-and-metabolic-diseases-adipocyte-dysfunction-fuels-signalings-for-breast-cancer-progression
#4
EDITORIAL
Sebastiano Andò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872172/urea-a-true-uremic-toxin-the-empire-strikes-back
#5
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864366/siah2-mediates-early-events-in-commitment-to-an-adipogenic-pathway
#6
Gail Kilroy, David H Burk, Z Elizabeth Floyd
Adipose tissue expansion occurs by increasing the size of existing adipocytes or by increasing the number of adipocytes via adipogenesis. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired adipogenesis. We recently demonstrated that deletion of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is associated with enlarged adipocytes in lean or obese mice. In this study, we find that adipogenesis is impaired in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stably transfected with Siah2 shRNA and that overexpression of Siah2 in non-precursor fibroblasts promotes adipogenesis...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860374/chemoprevention-of-obesity-by-dietary-natural-compounds-targeting-mitochondrial-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Ching-Shu Lai, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
Mitochondria are center stage in the control of energy homeostasis in many organs and tissue including adipose tissue. Recently, abundant evidences from experimental studies have clearly supported the strong correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes and obesity. Various physiological conditions, such as excessive nutrition, genetic factors, hypoxia and toxins disrupt mitochondrial function by impairing mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and oxidative capacity. Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes could have impact on differentiation, adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity and with the significant alteration in their metabolic function, which ultimately results in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858140/adipocyte-stat5-deficiency-promotes-adiposity-and-impairs-lipid-mobilisation-in-mice
#8
Doris Kaltenecker, Kristina M Mueller, Pia Benedikt, Ursula Feiler, Madeleine Themanns, Michaela Schlederer, Lukas Kenner, Martina Schweiger, Guenter Haemmerle, Richard Moriggl
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dysfunction of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue can substantially interfere with health and quality of life, for example in obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is important to characterise pathways that regulate lipid handling in adipocytes and determine how they affect metabolic homeostasis. Components of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway are involved in adipocyte physiology and pathophysiology...
November 17, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856429/knock-down-of-ptrf-ameliorates-adipocyte-differentiation-and-functionality-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Sergio Perez-Diaz, Beatriz Garcia-Rodriguez, Yolanda Gonzalez-Irazabal, Monica Valero, Javier Lagos, J M Arbones-Mainar
Healthy expansion of human adipose tissue requires mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) able to proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes. Characterization of those factors that coordinate hMSC-to-adipocyte transition is hence of paramount importance to modulate the adipose tissue expansion. It has been previously reported that the adipogenic program of hMSC can be disrupted by up-regulating caveolar proteins and Polymerase I and Transcript Release Factor (PTRF) is an integral component of caveolae highly expressed in adipose tissue...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837431/obesity-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-suppresses-nuclear-factor-y-expression
#10
Yulan Liu, Yuwei Zhang, Yanjie Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Yin Liu, Peiqun Feng, Zhiguang Su
Nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. NF-Y plays crucial roles in pre-adipocyte maintenance and/or commitment to adipogenesis. NF-YA dysfunction in adipocyte resulted in an age-dependent progressive loss of adipose tissue associated with metabolic complications. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not known if NF-YA is involved in the ER stress-mediated pathogenesis of obesity...
November 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833052/dietary-calcium-supplementation-in-adult-rats-reverts-brown-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-programmed-by-postnatal-early-overfeeding
#11
Ellen Paula Santos Conceição, Egberto Gaspar Moura, Elaine Oliveira, Deysla Sabino Guarda, Mariana Sarto Figueiredo, Fernanda Torres Quitete, Camila Calvino, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Paulo Cezar Freitas Mathias, Alex Christian Manhães, Patricia Cristina Lisboa
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction is associated with obesity and its comorbidities, such as hypertension, and the improvement of BAT function seems important for obesity management. Here we investigated the effects of dietary calcium supplementation on BAT autonomic nerve activity, sympathoadrenal function and cardiovascular parameters in adult obese rats that were raised in small litters (SL group). Three days after birth, SL litters were adjusted to three pups to induce early overfeeding. The control group remained with 10 pups/litter until weaning (NL group)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829173/multiple-pathways-of-sirt6-at-the-crossroads-in-the-control-of-longevity-cancer-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Milena Vitiello, Alberto Zullo, Luigi Servillo, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Adriana Borriello, Alfonso Giovane, Fulvio Della Ragione, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a member of the sirtuin family NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases with multiple roles in controlling organism homeostasis, lifespan, and diseases. Due to its complex and opposite functional roles, this sirtuin is considered a two-edged sword in health and disease. Indeed, SIRT6 improves longevity, similarly to the founding yeast member, silent information regulator-2 (Sir2), and modulates genome stability, telomere integrity, transcription, and DNA repair. Its deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, obesity, liver dysfunction, muscle/adipocyte disorders, and cancer...
November 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825800/dhl-hiszn-a-novel-antioxidant-enhances-adipogenic-differentiation-and-antioxidative-response-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#13
Chien-Chih Chen, Li-Wen Hsu, Toshiaki Nakano, Kuang-Tzu Huang, Kuang-Den Chen, Chia-Yun Lai, Shigeru Goto, Chao-Long Chen
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that have the capacity to differentiate into specific mesenchymal cell lineages including adipocytes in response to environmental cues. Dysfunctional adipose tissue, rather than an excess of adipose tissue, has been proposed as a key factor in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. The insulin-sensitizing effects of antidiabetic drugs are mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Here, we investigated the effects of sodium zinc histidine dithiooctanamide (DHL-HisZn), a strong antioxidant, on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity...
November 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813085/new-actions-of-an-old-friend-perivascular-adipose-tissue-s-adrenergic-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts
The revolutionary discovery in 1991 by Soltis and Cassis that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has an anti-contractile effect changed how we think about the vasculature. Most experiments on vascular pharmacology begin by removing the fat surrounding the vessels. Thus, PVAT was thought of having a minor role in vascular function and present for structural support. The need to rethink our old friend PVAT's role was precipitated by observations that obesity carries a high cardiovascular risk and PVAT dysfunction occurs with obesity...
November 3, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805870/prolactin-promotes-adipose-tissue-fitness-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-males
#15
Xarubet Ruiz-Herrera, Ericka A de Los Ríos, Juan M Díaz, Ricardo M Lerma-Alvarado, Lucía Martínez de la Escalera, Fernando López-Barrera, María Lemini, Edith Arnold, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp, Yazmín Macotela
Excessive accumulation of body fat triggers insulin resistance and features of the metabolic syndrome. Recently, evidence has accumulated that obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are associated with reduced levels of serum prolactin (PRL) in humans and rodents, raising the question of whether low PRL levels contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we have addressed this question by investigating the role of PRL in insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue fitness in obese rodents and humans. In diet-induced obese rats, treatment with PRL delivered via osmotic mini-pumps, improved insulin sensitivity, prevented adipocyte hypertrophy, and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in visceral fat...
November 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787838/a-clinical-perspective-contribution-of-dysfunctional-perivascular-adipose-tissue-pvat-to-cardiovascular-risk
#16
REVIEW
Xiaoming Lian, Maik Gollasch
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an important paracrine organ influencing the homeostasis of the vessel wall, regional blood flow and peripheral arterial resistance. There is remarkable phenotypic variability and plasticity of PVAT among various vascular beds, exhibiting phenotypes from white to brown and beige adipocytes. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by disturbed secretion of various adipokines, which, together with endothelial dysfunction, contribute to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
November 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783862/adipose-tissue-derived-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-function-and-regulation
#17
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766312/insulin-resistance-uncoupled-from-dyslipidemia-due-to-c-terminal-pik3r1-mutations
#18
Isabel Huang-Doran, Patsy Tomlinson, Felicity Payne, Alexandra Gast, Alison Sleigh, William Bottomley, Julie Harris, Allan Daly, Nuno Rocha, Simon Rudge, Jonathan Clark, Albert Kwok, Stefano Romeo, Emma McCann, Barbara Müksch, Mehul Dattani, Stefano Zucchini, Michael Wakelam, Lazaros C Foukas, David B Savage, Rinki Murphy, Stephen O'Rahilly, Inês Barroso, Robert K Semple
Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754030/yia-03-06-ramelteon-attenuates-cardiac-injury-improves-insulin-signaling-in-white-adipose-tissue-and-attenuates-whitening-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Mamoru Yoneda, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
OBJECTIVE: The pineal hormone melatonin, which regulates the body's circadian rhythm, possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and thereby improves metabolic disorders. Ramelteon is a potent and highly selective agonist of melatonin receptors and attenuates age-associated hypertension and body weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats. However, the effects of ramelteon on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in a rat model of MetS...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753870/poa-02-3-small-vessel-disease-and-hypertension-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#20
Rhian M Touyz
Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to hypertension include injury to small arteries, characterised by endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, (so called hypertensive vascular phenotype). These changes are initially adaptive but in the long term become maladaptive leading to vascular damage and loss of function, particularly important in small resistance arteries, critically involved in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and consequently in blood pressure control...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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