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Adipocyte dysfunction

Jessica H Hill, Claudia Solt, Michelle T Foster
Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
G L, Yuwei Wang, Zhenhua Wang, Wenna Zhou, Na Hu, Gang Li, Honglun Wang
Fenugreek is a well-known annual herb widely used in both medicine and food. Four flavonoid glycosides have been separated from fenugreek seeds in our previous study. In this study, the effects of the four flavonoid glycosides on regulating glycolipid metabolism and improving mitochondrial function was investigated. Isoorientin showed a very significant activity among these flavonoid glycosides. Firstly, isoorientin decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression of adipokines including PPARγ, C/EBPα and FAS...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tiande Zou, Bo Wang, Qiyuan Yang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jinming You, Daiwen Chen, Min Du
Development of brown and beige/brite adipocytes increases thermogenesis and helps to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggests that dietary raspberry can ameliorate metabolic syndromes in diet-induced obese mice. Here, we further evaluated the effects of raspberry on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis and determined whether these effects were mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 5% raspberry (RAS) for 10 weeks...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Erica Silvestris, Giovanni de Pergola, Raffaele Rosania, Giuseppe Loverro
Both obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and have detrimental influences on several human body functions including the reproductive health. In particular, obese women undergo perturbations of the 'hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis', and frequently suffer of menstrual dysfunction leading to anovulation and infertility. Besides the hormone disorders and subfertility that are common in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in obesity the adipocytes act as endocrine organ. The adipose tissue indeed, releases a number of bioactive molecules, namely adipokines, that variably interact with multiple molecular pathways of insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, coagulation, and oocyte differentiation and maturation...
March 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Yan-Ling Zhu, Ting Chen, Jia-Li Xiong, Di Wu, Qian-Yun Xi, Jun-Yi Luo, Jia-Jie Sun, Yong-Liang Zhang
Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy metabolism. Adipose dysfunction is closely related to obesity and type II diabetes. Glucose uptake is the key step for fat synthesis in adipocyte. miRNAs have been proven to play a crucial role in adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. In this paper, we firstly reported that miR-146b decreased glucose consumption by up-regulating miR-146b in a porcine primary adipocyte model, while the inhibitor of endogenous miR-146b rescued the reduction...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Theresa Schoettl, Ingrid P Fischer, Siegfried Ussar
Adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ. Unlike other organs, adipose tissue is compartmentalized into individual depots and distributed throughout the body. These different adipose depots show major functional differences and risk associations for developing metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in lineage tracing demonstrate that individual adipose depots are composed of adipocytes that are derived from distinct precursor populations, giving rise to different populations of energy-storing white adipocytes...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Emil Andersen, Lars Roed Ingerslev, Odile Fabre, Ida Donkin, Ali Altıntaş, Soetkin Versteyhe, Thue Bisgaard, Viggo B Kristiansen, David Simar, Romain Barrès
BACKGROUND: Deterioration of the adipogenic potential of preadipocytes may contribute to adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we hypothesized that extracellular factors in obesity epigenetically reprogram adipogenesis potential and metabolic function of preadipocytes. METHODS: The transcriptomic profile of visceral adipose tissue preadipocytes collected from Lean, Obese and Obese with T2D was assessed throughout in vitro differentiation using RNA sequencing...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Lindsey A Muir, Samadhi Kiridena, Cameron Griffin, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn Geletka, Gabriel Martinez-Santibañez, Brian F Zamarron, Hannah Lucas, Kanakadurga Singer, Robert W O' Rourke, Carey N Lumeng
Obesity-related changes in adipose tissue leukocytes, in particular adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and dendritic cells (ATDCs), are implicated in metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered regulation of adipocyte function. We evaluated stromal cell and white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion dynamics with high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 3-56 days, quantifying ATMs, ATDCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and preadipocytes (PAs) in visceral epididymal WAT and subcutaneous inguinal WAT. To better understand mechanisms of the early response to obesity, we evaluated ATM proliferation and lipid accumulation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Milton Packer
Among patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection (HFpEF), obesity is associated with a distinct phenotype that is characterized by adiposity-driven plasma volume expansion and cardiac overfilling, which is coupled with an impairment of ventricular distensibility. These pathophysiological abnormalities may be related to the increased actions of specific adipocyte-derived signalling molecules (aldosterone, neprilysin and leptin) that work in concert with increased renal sympathetic nerve traffic and activated beta2 -adrenergic receptors to promote sodium retention, microvascular rarefaction, cardiac fibrosis and systemic inflammation...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Dushani L Palliyaguru, Nobunao Wakabayashi, Marco Fazzari, Nicholas Kh Khoo, Francisco J Schopfer, Ian Sipula, Yoko Yagishita, George K Michalopoulos, Robert M O'Doherty, Thomas W Kensler
Nrf2 is a canonical regulator of cytoprotective gene expression but evidence of its crosstalk with other pathways, including metabolic ones, is ever increasing. Pharmacologic or systemic genetic activation of the Nrf2 pathway partially protects from obesity in mice and ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia in mice and humans. However, systemic Nrf2 deletion also protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. To further investigate the effect of the disruption of Nrf2 on obesity in a tissue-specific manner, we focused on adipocytes and hepatocytes with targeted deletion of Nrf2...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jeremy E Davis, Darcie Hastings
Adipogenesis is central to adipose tissue plasticity and lipid homeostasis. Regulation of adipogenic signaling by phytoestrogens has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity-related disease. However, it remains unclear how these compounds directly impact transcriptional control of adipogenesis. As such, the focus of this study was to determine how daidzein and genistein effect transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and TCF/LEF in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
William Trim, James E Turner, Dylan Thompson
Ageing, like obesity, is often associated with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory processes resulting in morbidity from diseases characterised by poor metabolic control, insulin insensitivity, and inflammation. Ageing populations also exhibit a decline in immune competence referred to as immunosenescence, which contributes to, or might be driven by chronic, low-grade inflammation termed "inflammageing". In recent years, animal and human studies have started to uncover a role for immune cells within the stromal fraction of adipose tissue in driving the health complications that come with obesity, but relatively little work has been conducted in the context of immunometabolic adipose function in ageing...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiao Zhu, Yixuan Tu, Hainan Chen, Ampadu O Jackson, Vaibhav Patel, Kai Yin
BACKGROUND: The accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in adipose tissue (AT) are considered crucial factors for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlighted the role of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization on AT function in the obese state and the effect of the micro-environment and intracellular metabolism on the dynamic switch of ATMs into their pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes, which may have distinct influences on obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Elisabeth M Haberl, Rebekka Pohl, Verena Schmid, Susanne Feder, Sabrina Krautbauer, Gerhard Liebisch, Christa Buechler
Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The adapter protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is expressed in adipocytes. Knock-down of SNTA increases preadipocyte proliferation and formation of small lipid droplets, which are both characteristics of healthy adipose tissue. To elucidate a potential protective role of SNTA in NASH, SNTA null mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet or an atherogenic diet which are widely used as preclinical NASH models...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nathan L Price, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Allison Wing, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Araldi, Ángel Baldán, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Yajaira Suárez, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Gerald I Shulman, Rafael de Cabo, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
While therapeutic modulation of miRNAs provides a promising approach for numerous diseases, the promiscuous nature of miRNAs raises concern over detrimental off-target effects. miR-33 has emerged as a likely target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the deleterious effects of long-term anti-miR-33 therapies and predisposition of miR-33-/- mice to obesity and metabolic dysfunction exemplify the possible pitfalls of miRNA-based therapies. Our work provides an in-depth characterization of miR-33-/- mice and explores the mechanisms by which loss of miR-33 promotes insulin resistance in key metabolic tissues...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Anna Elisa Laria, Sebastiano Messineo, Biagio Arcidiacono, Mariaconcetta Varano, Eusebio Chiefari, Robert K Semple, Nuno Rocha, Diego Russo, Giovanni Cuda, Marco Gaspari, Antonio Brunetti, Daniela P Foti
In the obese state, as adipose tissue expands, adipocytes become hypoxic and dysfunctional, leading to changes in the pattern of adipocyte-secreted proteins. To better understand the role of hypoxia in the mechanisms linked to obesity, we comparatively analyzed the secretome of murine differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 24 h. Proteins secreted into the culture media were precipitated by trichloroacetic acid and then digested with trypsin. The peptides were labeled with dimethyl labeling and analyzed by reversed phase nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer...
February 21, 2018: Proteomics
O Sulaieva, Y Chereshneva, N Kartashkina, M Ivanova, D Tsomartova
In addition to accumulation and metabolism of triglycerides, white adipose tissue is recognized as the active endocrine organ, whose dysfunction is associated with the development of a wide range of diseases. The secretome of adipocytes is represented by a wide range of adipokines, which vary in depot and sex-specific manner. In addition, adipokines have diverse biological effects, correlations with different metabolic features and functions. In this review, the data on biological effects, origin and the clinical significance of adipokines are discussed...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
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