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Adipocyte dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529941/humans-and-mice-display-opposing-patterns-of-browning-gene-expression-in-visceral-and-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-depots
#1
Maria A Zuriaga, Jose J Fuster, Noyan Gokce, Kenneth Walsh
Visceral adiposity is much more strongly associated with cardiometabolic disease in humans than subcutaneous adiposity. Browning, the appearance of brown-like adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT), has been shown to protect mice against metabolic dysfunction, suggesting the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. In mice, subcutaneous WAT depots express higher levels of browning genes when compared with visceral WAT, further suggesting that differences in WAT browning could contribute to the differences in the pathogenicity of the two depots...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505257/micrornas-in-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-cardiovascular-implications
#2
Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and signaling pathways, in dysfunctional adipose tissue. We highlight current paradigms of microRNAs involved in adipose differentiation and function in depots such as white, brown, and beige adipose tissues and potential implications of microRNA dysregulation in human disease such as obesity, inflammation, microvasculature dysfunction, and related cardiovascular diseases. We highlight accumulating studies indicating that adipocyte-derived microRNAs may not only serve as biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease, but also may directly regulate gene expression of other tissues...
May 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500782/melatonin-protects-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-iron-overload-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-dysfunction-and-senescence
#3
Fan Yang, Lei Yang, Yuan Li, Gege Yan, Chao Feng, Tianyi Liu, Rui Gong, Ye Yuan, Ning Wang, Elina Idiiatullina, Timur Bikkuzin, Valentin Pavlov, Yang Li, Chaorun Dong, Dawei Wang, Yang Cao, Zhenbo Han, Lai Zhang, Qi Huang, Fengzhi Ding, Zhengang Bi, Benzhi Cai
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are an expandable population of stem cells which can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dysfunction of BMSCs in response to pathological stimuli contributes to bone diseases. Melatonin, a hormone secreted from pineal gland, has been proved to be an important mediator in bone formation and mineralization. The aim of this study was to investigate whether melatonin protected against iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499669/atorvastatin-reduces-cardiac-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Yuichiro Yamada, Shino Takeuchi, Mamoru Yoneda, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Ayako Uchinaka, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
BACKGROUND: Statins are strong inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis and help to prevent cardiovascular disease. They also exert additional pleiotropic effects that include an anti-inflammatory action and are independent of cholesterol, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these additional effects have remained unclear. We have now examined the effects of atorvastatin on cardiac and adipose tissue inflammation in DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which we previously established as a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490763/methylglyoxal-induced-glycation-changes-adipose-tissue-vascular-architecture-flow-and-expansion-leading-to-insulin-resistance
#5
Tiago Rodrigues, Paulo Matafome, José Sereno, José Almeida, João Castelhano, Luís Gamas, Christian Neves, Sónia Gonçalves, Catarina Carvalho, Amina Arslanagic, Elinor Wilcken, Rita Fonseca, Ilda Simões, Silvia Vilares Conde, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Raquel Seiça
Microvascular dysfunction has been suggested to trigger adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. This study investigates the hypothesis that glycation impairs microvascular architecture and expandability with an impact on insulin signalling. Animal models supplemented with methylglyoxal (MG), maintained with a high-fat diet (HFD) or both (HFDMG) were studied for periepididymal adipose (pEAT) tissue hypoxia and local and systemic insulin resistance. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was used to quantify blood flow in vivo, showing MG-induced reduction of pEAT blood flow...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483479/sulfuretin-has-therapeutic-activity-against-acquired-lymphedema-by-reducing-adipogenesis
#6
Kangsan Roh, Suji Kim, Hee Kang, Jin-Mo Ku, Kye Won Park, Sukchan Lee
Acquired lymphedema is a pathological condition associated with lymphatic dysfunction caused by surgical treatments for cancer. Although global estimates of the prevalence of acquired lymphedema have been rising, there are currently no effective therapeutics available. Since adipose tissue accumulation is a clinical hallmark of lymphedema, we hypothesized that regulation of adipogenesis in lymphedematous tissue could be used as a therapeutic intervention against lymphedema. Toward this, we investigated the possibility of anti-adipogenic 30% ethanol Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) extract as a potential lymphedema treatment...
May 5, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473884/characterisation-of-adipocyte-derived-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes-identifies-distinct-protein-and-lipid-signatures-for-large-and-small-extracellular-vesicles
#7
Maëva Durcin, Audrey Fleury, Emiliane Taillebois, Grégory Hilairet, Zuzana Krupova, Céline Henry, Sandrine Truchet, Martin Trötzmüller, Harald Köfeler, Guillaume Mabilleau, Olivier Hue, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Patrice Martin, Soazig Le Lay
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological vectors that can modulate the metabolism of target cells by conveying signalling proteins and genomic material. The level of EVs in plasma is significantly increased in cardiometabolic diseases associated with obesity, suggesting their possible participation in the development of metabolic dysfunction. With regard to the poor definition of adipocyte-derived EVs, the purpose of this study was to characterise both qualitatively and quantitatively EVs subpopulations secreted by fat cells...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473440/deficiency-of-lrp1-in-mature-adipocytes-promotes-diet-induced-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#8
Eddy S Konaniah, David G Kuhel, Joshua E Basford, Neal L Weintraub, David Y Hui
OBJECTIVE: Mice with adipocyte-specific inactivation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia because of compensatory thermogenic response by muscle. However, the physiological function of LRP1 in mature adipocytes and its role in cardiovascular disease modulation are unknown. This study compared perivascular adipose tissues (PVAT) from wild-type (adLrp1(+/+) ) and adipocyte-specific LRP1 knockout (adLrp1(-/-)) mice in modulation of atherosclerosis progression...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468243/effect-of-high-glucose-levels-on-white-adipose-cells-and-adipokines-fuel-for-the-fire
#9
REVIEW
Alexander Sorisky
White adipocytes release adipokines that influence metabolic and vascular health. Hypertrophic obesity is associated with adipose tissue malfunctioning, leading to inflammation and insulin resistance. When pancreatic islet β cells can no longer compensate, the blood glucose concentration rises (hyperglycemia), resulting in type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycaemia may further aggravate adipose cell dysfunction in ~90% of patients with type 2 diabetes who are obese or overweight. This review will focus on the effects of high glucose levels on human adipose cells and the regulation of adipokines...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465089/adipocyte-lipid-storage-and-adipokine-production-are-modulated-by-lipoxygenase-derived-oxylipins-generated-from-18-carbon-fatty-acids
#10
Peter Zahradka, Shannon Neumann, Harold M Aukema, Carla G Taylor
Generation of oxylipins (oxygenated metabolites of fatty acids) by lipoxygenases may be responsible for the beneficial effects of 20- and 22-carbon n-3 fatty acids on adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, but the potential actions of oxylipins derived from 18-carbon fatty acids, which are generally at higher levels in the diet, are unknown. We therefore compared the effects of select lipoxygenase-derived oxylipins produced from α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3), linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6), and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4 n-6) on key adipocyte functions that are altered in obesity...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455674/androgens-and-hypertension-in-men-and-women-a-unifying-view
#11
REVIEW
Costanzo Moretti, Giulia Lanzolla, Marta Moretti, Lucio Gnessi, Enrico Carmina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review was designed to revaluate the androgen role on the mechanisms of hypertension and cardiovascular risks in both men and women. Sex steroids are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but pathophysiological mechanism is not well understood. Androgens have an important effect on metabolism, adipose and endothelial cell function, and cardiovascular risk in both men and women. A focal point in this contest is represented by the possible gender-specific regulation of different tissues and in particular of the adipose cell...
May 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455142/a-fish-oil-diet-induces-mitochondrial-uncoupling-and-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response-in-epididymal-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#12
Shylesh Bhaskaran, Archana Unnikrishnan, Rojina Ranjit, Rizwan Qaisar, Gavin Pharaoh, Stephanie Matyi, Michael Kinter, Sathyaseelan S Deepa
White adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of obesity driven insulin resistance. Dietary conditions that alter fat mass are known to affect white adipocyte mitochondrial function, however, the impact of high calorie diets on white adipocyte mitochondria is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a diet rich in saturated or polyunsaturated fat on mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a retrograde signaling response that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, in epididymal WAT (eWAT)...
April 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439091/abdominal-adiposity-intensifies-the-negative-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lung-function-in-korean-men
#13
H-J Kim, J-H Park, J-Y Min, K-B Min, Y-S Seo, J M Yun, H Kwon, J-I Kim, B Cho
BACKGROUND: Some studies have provided the possibility that adipose tissue may mediate air pollution-induced lung dysfunction. Studies using quantified fat mass data are needed to understand the biological mechanisms between adipocyte and air pollution in lung function. We aimed to investigate whether abdominal adiposity measured by computed tomography (CT) modifies the effects of air pollution on lung function in Korean men. METHODS: A total of 1876 men who visited one of two health checkup centers were recruited for this study...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437198/branched-chain-amino-acids-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-independent-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-subjects-with-varying-degrees-of-glucose-tolerance
#14
Margery A Connelly, Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the extent to which the association of BCAA with insulin resistance is attributable to altered leptin and adiponectin levels in individuals with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. METHODS: BCAA were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, whereas leptin and adiponectin were measured by immunoassay, in subjects with normal fasting glucose (n = 30), impaired fasting glucose (n = 25), and T2DM (n = 15)...
May 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425849/age-dependent-obesity-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#15
Qilong Oscar Yang Li, Ines Soro-Arnaiz, Julián Aragonés
Aging is associated with progressive visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion both in human and mouse. Importantly, WAT enlargement is initiated early in life, suggesting that molecular mechanisms underlying age-dependent obesity are activated at early stages of lifetime. Our recent study found that age-dependent obesity was associated with a specific decline in mitochondrial complex IV activity, which leads to reduced fatty acid oxidation and subsequent adipocyte hypertrophy. At the molecular level, global mitochondrial complex IV inhibition was driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)-mediated repression of some of its key subunits, including cytochrome c oxidase 5b (Cox5b)...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424360/intermittent-hypoxia-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-mediates-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#16
Aoife M Murphy, Amandine Thomas, Sophie J Crinion, Brian D Kent, Murtaza M Tambuwala, Aurelie Fabre, Jean-Louis Pepin, Helen M Roche, Claire Arnaud, Silke Ryan
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly associated with insulin resistance. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear but intermittent hypoxia (IH)-mediated inflammation and subsequent dysfunction of the adipose tissue has been hypothesised to play a key role.We tested this hypothesis employing a comprehensive translational approach using a murine IH model of lean and diet-induced obese mice, an innovative IH system for cell cultures and a tightly controlled patient cohort.IH led to the development of insulin resistance in mice, corrected for the degree of obesity, and reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, associated with inhibition of the insulin-signalling pathway and downregulation of insulin-receptor substrate-1 mRNA...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420707/role-of-the-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-in-heart-failure-and-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Ricardo Rodriguez-Calvo, Josefa Girona, Josep M Alegret, Alba Bosquet, Daiana Ibarretxe, Lluís Masana
Obesity and ectopic fat accumulation in non-adipose tissues are major contributors to heart failure (HF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adipocytes act as endocrine organs by releasing a large number of bioactive molecules into the bloodstream, which participate in a communication network between white adipose tissue and other organs, including the heart. Among these molecules, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been recently shown to increase cardiometabolic risk. Both clinical and experimental evidence have identified FABP4 as a relevant player in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, and it has been directly related to cardiac alterations such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or both systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416283/activation-of-irf1-in-human-adipocytes-leads-to-phenotypes-associated-with-metabolic-disease
#18
Max Friesen, Raymond Camahort, Youn-Kyoung Lee, Fang Xia, Robert E Gerszten, Eugene P Rhee, Rahul C Deo, Chad A Cowan
The striking rise of obesity-related metabolic disorders has focused attention on adipocytes as critical mediators of disease phenotypes. To better understand the role played by excess adipose in metabolic dysfunction it is crucial to decipher the transcriptional underpinnings of the low-grade adipose inflammation characteristic of diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Through employing a comparative transcriptomics approach, we identified IRF1 as differentially regulated between primary and in vitro-derived genetically matched adipocytes...
May 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414270/human-biallelic-mfn2-mutations-induce-mitochondrial-dysfunction-upper-body-adipose-hyperplasia-and-suppression-of-leptin-expression
#19
Nuno Rocha, David A Bulger, Andrea Frontini, Hannah Titheradge, Sigrid Bjerge Gribsholt, Rachel Knox, Matthew Page, Julie Harris, Felicity Payne, Claire Adams, Alison Sleigh, John Crawford, Anette Prior Gjesing, Jette Bork-Jensen, Oluf Pedersen, Inês Barroso, Torben Hansen, Helen Cox, Mary Reilly, Alex Rossor, Rebecca J Brown, Simeon I Taylor, Duncan McHale, Martin Armstrong, Elif A Oral, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen O'Rahilly, Eamonn R Maher, Bjørn Richelsen, David B Savage, Robert K Semple
MFN2 encodes mitofusin 2, a membrane-bound mediator of mitochondrial membrane fusion and inter-organelle communication. MFN2 mutations cause axonal neuropathy, with associated lipodystrophy only occasionally noted, however homozygosity for the p.Arg707Trp mutation was recently associated with upper body adipose overgrowth. We describe similar massive adipose overgrowth with suppressed leptin expression in four further patients with biallelic MFN2 mutations and at least one p.Arg707Trp allele. Overgrown tissue was composed of normal-sized, UCP1-negative unilocular adipocytes, with mitochondrial network fragmentation, disorganised cristae, and increased autophagosomes...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408438/prdm16-represses-the-type-i-interferon-response-in-adipocytes-to-promote-mitochondrial-and-thermogenic-programing
#20
Megan Kissig, Jeff Ishibashi, Matthew J Harms, Hee-Woong Lim, Rachel R Stine, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale
Brown adipose has the potential to counteract obesity, and thus, identifying signaling pathways that regulate the activity of this tissue is of great clinical interest. PRDM16 is a transcription factor that activates brown fat-specific genes while repressing white fat and muscle-specific genes in adipocytes. Whether PRDM16 also controls other gene programs to regulate adipocyte function was unclear. Here, we identify a novel role for PRDM16 in suppressing type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs), including Stat1, in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo Ectopic activation of type I IFN signaling in brown adipocytes induces mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression...
April 13, 2017: EMBO Journal
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