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Adipocyte dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645211/akr1c3-mediated-adipose-androgen-generation-drives-lipotoxicity-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
Michael W O'Reilly, Punith Kempegowda, Mark Walsh, Angela E Taylor, Konstantinos N Manolopoulos, J William Allwood, Robert K Semple, Daniel Hebenstreit, Warwick B Dunn, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Wiebke Arlt
Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent metabolic disorder, occurring in up to 10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Androgen excess is a defining feature of PCOS and has been suggested as causally associated with insulin resistance; however, mechanistic evidence linking both is lacking. We hypothesized that adipose tissue is an important site linking androgen activation and metabolic dysfunction in PCOS...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643028/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-adipose-tissue-and-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Alessandro P Delitala, Giampiero Capobianco, Giuseppe Delitala, Pier Luigi Cherchi, Salvatore Dessole
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641779/macrophage-functions-in-lean-and-obese-adipose-tissue
#3
REVIEW
Dylan Thomas, Caroline Apovian
Interactions between macrophages and adipocytes influence both metabolism and inflammation. Obesity-induced changes to macrophages and adipocytes lead to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. This paper reviews the various functions of macrophages in lean and obese adipose tissue and how obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes. Metabolic disease and insulin resistance shift the balance between numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators of macrophages and create a feed-forward loop of increasing inflammatory macrophage activation and worsening adipocyte dysfunction...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638152/combination-of-a-high-fat-diet-with-sweetened-condensed-milk-exacerbates-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-each-separately-in-mice
#4
Laureane Nunes Masi, Amanda Roque Martins, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Cátia Lira do Amaral, Mariana Rodrigues Davanso, Tamires Duarte Afonso Serdan, Roberta Dourado Cavalcante da Cunha de Sá, Maysa Mariana Cruz, Maria Isabel Cardoso Alonso-Vale, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Joice Naiara Bertaglia Pereira, Marta Maria da Silva Righetti, Edson Aparecido Liberti, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Rui Curi
Obesogenic diets increase body weight and cause insulin resistance (IR), however, the association of these changes with the main macronutrient in the diet remains to be elucidated. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with: control (CD), CD and sweetened condensed milk (HS), high-fat (HF), and HF and condensed milk (HSHF). After 2 months, increased body weight, glucose intolerance, adipocyte size and cholesterol levels were observed. As compared with CD, HS ingested the same amount of calories whereas HF and HSHF ingested less...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635626/adiponectin-a-therapeutic-target-for-obesity-diabetes-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Arunkumar E Achari, Sushil K Jain
Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, whose reduction plays a central role in obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to adipocytes, other cell types, such as skeletal and cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells, can also produce this adipocytokine. Adiponectin effects are mediated by adiponectin receptors, which occur as two isoforms (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Adiponectin has direct actions in liver, skeletal muscle, and the vasculature...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628672/low-dose-exposure-to-bisphenols-a-f-and-s-of-human-primary-adipocyte-impacts-coding-and-non-coding-rna-profiles
#6
Marie Verbanck, Mickaël Canouil, Audrey Leloire, Véronique Dhennin, Xavier Coumoul, Loïc Yengo, Philippe Froguel, Odile Poulain-Godefroy
Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been suspected to be associated with deleterious effects on health including obesity and metabolically-linked diseases. Although bisphenols F (BPF) and S (BPS) are BPA structural analogs commonly used in many marketed products as a replacement for BPA, only sparse toxicological data are available yet. Our objective was to comprehensively characterize bisphenols gene targets in a human primary adipocyte model, in order to determine whether they may induce cellular dysfunction, using chronic exposure at two concentrations: a "low-dose" similar to the dose usually encountered in human biological fluids and a higher dose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623240/adipose-tissue-between-the-extremes
#7
REVIEW
Alexandros Vegiopoulos, Maria Rohm, Stephan Herzig
Adipose tissue represents a critical component in healthy energy homeostasis. It fulfills important roles in whole-body lipid handling, serves as the body's major energy storage compartment and insulation barrier, and secretes numerous endocrine mediators such as adipokines or lipokines. As a consequence, dysfunction of these processes in adipose tissue compartments is tightly linked to severe metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy, and cachexia. While numerous studies have addressed causes and consequences of obesity-related adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia for health, critical pathways and mechanisms in (involuntary) adipose tissue loss as well as its systemic metabolic consequences are far less understood...
June 16, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616781/impact-of-hyperglycemia-on-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-expression-during-resuscitated-murine-septic-shock
#8
Tamara Merz, Josef A Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Enrico Calzia, Csaba Szabo, Rui Wang, Peter Radermacher, Oscar McCook
BACKGROUND: Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) was shown to have a regulatory role in glucose metabolism. Circulatory shock can induce metabolic stress, thereby leading to hyperglycemia and mitochondrial dysfunction. In vitro data suggest an effect of high glucose on CSE expression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on CSE expression in resuscitated murine septic shock. METHODS: Normo- (80-150 mg/dl) and hyperglycemic (>200 mg/dl) male C57/BL6J mice (n = 5-6 per group) underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis or sham procedure (n = 6 per group) and, 15 h afterwards, were anesthetized again, surgically instrumented and received intensive care treatment, including antibiotics, lung protective mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, and intravenous (i...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606124/remodeling-adipose-tissue-through-in-silico-modulation-of-fat-storage-for-the-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#9
Thierry Chénard, Frédéric Guénard, Marie-Claude Vohl, André Carpentier, André Tchernof, Rafael J Najmanovich
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is one of the leading non-infectious diseases worldwide and closely relates to excess adipose tissue accumulation as seen in obesity. Specifically, hypertrophic expansion of adipose tissues is related to increased cardiometabolic risk leading to type 2 diabetes. Studying mechanisms underlying adipocyte hypertrophy could lead to the identification of potential targets for the treatment of these conditions. RESULTS: We present iTC1390adip, a highly curated metabolic network of the human adipocyte presenting various improvements over the previously published iAdipocytes1809...
June 12, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602513/glycolipids-essential-regulator-of-neuro-inflammation-metabolism-and-gliomagenesis
#10
REVIEW
Koichi Furukawa, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Shuting Ji, Pu Zhang, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Yuki Ohkawa, Orie Tajima, Noboru Hashimoto, Keiko Furukawa
Gene knockout mice of glycosyltransferases have clearly showed roles of their products in the bodies, while there are examples where phenotype of knockout was much less severe than expected probably due to functional redundancy. The most striking novel finding obtained from ganglioside-deficient mice was that progressive inflammatory reaction took place, leading to neurodegeneration. In particular, dysfunction of complement-regulatory proteins due to deteriorated architecture of lipid rafts seemed to be essential mechanisms for the inflammation...
June 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601955/suksdorfin-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-and-improves-abnormalities-in-glucose-metabolism-via-ppar%C3%AE-activation
#11
Mari Iwase, Takayuki Yamamoto, Kanako Nishimura, Haruya Takahashi, Shinsuke Mohri, Yongjia Li, Huei-Fen Jheng, Wataru Nomura, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Chu-Sook Kim, Rina Yu, Masahiko Taniguchi, Kimiye Baba, Shigeru Murakami, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Although the Apiaceae herb family has been traditionally used for the management of type 2 diabetes, its molecular mechanism has not been clarified. Coumarin derivatives, which are abundant in plants of the Apiaceae family, were evaluated for their effects on adipogenesis. We found that suksdorfin significantly promoted adipocyte differentiation and enhanced production of adiponectin, an anti-diabetic adipokine. We also demonstrated that suksdorfin activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis...
June 10, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599253/alantolactone-improves-palmitate-induced-glucose-intolerance-and-inflammation-in-both-lean-and-obese-states-in-vitro-adipocyte-and-adipocyte-macrophage-co-culture-system
#12
Minjee Kim, Kwangho Song, Yeong Shik Kim
Obesity is characterized by a massive infiltration of the adipose tissue by macrophages. Adipocytes, together with macrophages create a crosstalk between inflammation and insulin resistance. Excess saturated FFA, such as palmitate, absorbed via the portal system may cause glucose intolerance and inflammation, which leads to insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potency of alantolactone (AL), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium in reducing palmitate-induced glucose intolerance, fat accumulation, and inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocyte-macrophage co-culture system (3T3-L1-RAW264...
June 6, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598969/cucurbitacin-e-reduces-obesity-and-related-metabolic-dysfunction-in-mice-by-targeting-jak-stat5-signaling-pathway
#13
Munazza Murtaza, Gulnaz Khan, Meha Fatima Aftab, Shabbir Khan Afridi, Safina Ghaffar, Ayaz Ahmed, Rahman M Hafizur, Rizwana Sanaullah Waraich
Several members of cucurbitaceae family have been reported to regulate growth of cancer by interfering with STAT3 signaling. In the present study, we investigated the unique role and molecular mechanism of cucurbitacins (Cucs) in reducing symptoms of metabolic syndrome in mice. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) was found to reduce adipogenesis in murine adipocytes. CuE treatment diminished hypertrophy of adipocytes, visceral obesity and lipogenesis gene expression in diet induced mice model of metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592801/immune-cell-derived-cytokines-contribute-to-obesity-related-inflammation-fibrogenesis-and-metabolic-deregulation-in-human-adipose-tissue
#14
Charles Caër, Christine Rouault, Tiphaine Le Roy, Christine Poitou, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Adriana Torcivia, Jean-Christophe Bichet, Karine Clément, Michèle Guerre-Millo, Sébastien André
Adipose tissue contains a variety of immune cells, which vary in abundance and phenotype with obesity. The contribution of immune cell-derived factors to inflammatory, fibrotic and metabolic alterations in adipose tissue is not well established in human obesity. Human primary adipose tissue cells, including pre-adipocytes, endothelial cells and mature adipocytes, were used to investigate deregulation of cell- and pathway-specific gene profiles. Among factors known to alter adipose tissue biology, we focus on inflammatory (IL-1β and IL-17) and pro-fibrotic (TGF-β1) factors...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591164/alamandine-reduces-leptin-expression-through-the-c-src-p38-map-kinase-pathway-in-adipose-tissue
#15
Tsuyoshi Uchiyama, Fumikazu Okajima, Chihiro Mogi, Ayaka Tobo, Shoichi Tomono, Koichi Sato
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. Angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine are heptameric renin angiotensin system peptide hormones. Further, alamandine levels increase with renal dysfunction. In the cardiovascular system, angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine produce similar improvements and counterbalance angiotensin II in regulating vascular function. We aimed to determine whether the effect of alamandine on leptin expression and secretion in adipocytes was similar to that of angiotensin 1-7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587148/the-role-of-caveolin-1-in-hiv-infection-and-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Ayalew Mergia
Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is a major component of the caveolae structure and is expressed in a variety of cell types including macrophages, which are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Caveolae structures are present in abundance in mechanically stressed cells such as endothelial cells and adipocytes. HIV infection induces dysfunction of these cells and promotes pathogenesis. Cav-1 and the caveolae structure are believed to be involved in multiple cellular processes that include signal transduction, lipid regulation, endocytosis, transcytosis, and mechanoprotection...
May 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585207/endothelial-dysfunction-in-obesity
#17
Atilla Engin
Chronic inflammatory state in obesity causes dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors, which disrupt vascular homeostasis and contribute to endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and subsequent hypertension. While normal healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) ensures the dilation of blood vessels, obesity-associated PVAT leads to a change in profile of the released adipo-cytokines, resulting in a decreased vasorelaxing effect. Adipose tissue inflammation, nitric oxide (NO)-bioavailability, insulin resistance and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are main participating factors in endothelial dysfunction of obesity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585205/adipose-tissue-hypoxia-in-obesity-and-its-impact-on-preadipocytes-and-macrophages-hypoxia-hypothesis
#18
Atilla Engin
Obese subjects exhibit lower adipose tissue oxygen consumption in accordance with the lower adipose tissue blood flow. Thus, compared with lean subjects, obese subjects have 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF expression together with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) activity also requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and target of rapamycin (TOR)-mediated signaling. HIF-1alpha is an important signaling molecule for hypoxia to induce the inflammatory responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585200/what-is-lipotoxicity
#19
Ayse Basak Engin
Enlarged fat cells in obese adipose tissue diminish capacity to store fat and are resistant to the anti-lipolytic effect of insulin. Insulin resistance (IR)-associated S-nitrosylation of insulin-signaling proteins increases in obesity. In accordance with the inhibition of insulin-mediated anti-lipolytic action, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels increase. Additionally, endoplasmic reticulum stress stimuli induce lipolysis by activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK1/2) signaling in adipocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585199/adipose-tissue-function-and-expandability-as-determinants-of-lipotoxicity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Stefania Carobbio, Vanessa Pellegrinelli, Antonio Vidal-Puig
The adipose tissue organ is organised as distinct anatomical depots located all along the body axis and it is constituted of three different types of adipocytes : white, beige and brown which are integrated with vascular, immune, neural and extracellular stroma cells. These distinct adipocytes serve different specialised functions. The main function of white adipocytes is to ensure healthy storage of excess nutrients/energy and its rapid mobilisation to supply the demand of energy imposed by physiological cues in other organs, whereas brown and beige adipocytes are designed for heat production through uncoupling lipid oxidation from energy production...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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