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Adipocyte dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100772/de-novo-sphingolipid-biosynthesis-is-required-for-adipocyte-survival-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#1
Aikaterini Alexaki, Benjamin A Clarke, Oksana Gavrilova, Yinyan Ma, Hongling Zhu, Xinran Ma, Lingyan Xu, Galina Tuymetova, Bridget C Larman, Maria L Allende, Teresa M Dunn, Richard L Proia
Sphingolipids are a diverse class of essential cellular lipids that function as structural membrane components and as signaling molecules. Cells acquire sphingolipids by both de novo biosynthesis and recycling of exogenous sphingolipids. The individual importance of these pathways for the generation of essential sphingolipids in differentiated cells is not well understood. To investigate the requirement for de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis in adipocytes, a cell type with highly regulated lipid metabolism, we generated mice with an adipocyte-specific deletion of Sptlc1 Sptlc1 is an obligate subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for the first and rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088621/4-hydroxynonenal-causes-impairment-of-human-subcutaneous-adipogenesis-and-induction-of-adipocyte-insulin-resistance
#2
Mohamed A Elrayess, Shamma Almuraikhy, Wael Kafienah, Afnan Al-Menhali, Fatima Al-Khelaifi, Moataz Bashah, Kamelija Zarkovic, Neven Zarkovic, Georg Waeg, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Morana Jaganjac
OBJECTIVE: Increased adipose production of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a bioreactive aldehyde, directly correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of 4-HNE in mediating adipocyte differentiation and function in two metabolically distinct obese groups; the insulin sensitive (IS) and the insulin resistant (IR). METHODS: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues were obtained from eighteen clinically well characterized obese premenopausal women undergoing weight reduction surgery...
January 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077136/increased-leptin-adiponectin-ratio-relates-to-low-normal-thyroid-function-in-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Lynnda J N van Tienhoven-Wind, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may contribute to increased atherosclerosis susceptibility. The leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio is associated with cardiovascular disease and reflects adipose tissue dysfunction. Relationships of the L/A ratio with low-normal thyroid function are unknown. METHODS: Relationships of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) with leptin, adiponectin and the L/A ratio in euthyroid subjects were documented in 67 fasting subjects with metabolic syndrome (Mets) and 86 euthyroid subjects without MetS (TSH and free T4 levels within the institutional reference range)...
January 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067333/transcription-regulator-trip-br2-mediates-er-stress-induced-brown-adipocytes-dysfunction
#4
Guifen Qiang, Hyerim Whang Kong, Victoria Gil, Chong Wee Liew
In contrast to white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to play critical roles for both basal and inducible energy expenditure. Obesity is associated with reduction of BAT function; however, it is not well understood how obesity promotes BAT dysfunction, especially at the molecular level. Here we show that the transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced inhibition of lipolysis and thermogenesis in BAT. Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced inflammation upregulates brown adipocytes TRIP-Br2 expression via the ER stress pathway and amelioration of ER stress in mice completely abolishes high fat diet-induced upregulation of TRIP-Br2 in BAT...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064117/differential-proteomic-and-oxidative-profiles-unveil-dysfunctional-protein-import-to-adipocyte-mitochondria-in-obesity-associated-aging-and-diabetes
#5
María Gómez-Serrano, Emilio Camafeita, Juan A López, Miguel A Rubio, Irene Bretón, Inés García-Consuegra, Eva García-Santos, Jesús Lago, Andrés Sánchez-Pernaute, Antonio Torres, Jesús Vázquez, Belén Peral
Human age-related diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), have long been associated to mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the role for adipose tissue mitochondria in these conditions remains unknown. We have tackled the impact of aging and T2DM on adipocyte mitochondria from obese patients by quantitating not only the corresponding abundance changes of proteins, but also the redox alterations undergone by Cys residues thereof. For that, we have resorted to a high-throughput proteomic approach based on isobaric labeling, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry...
December 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062567/short-term-high-fat-diet-compromises-myocardial-function-a-radial-strain-rate-imaging-study
#7
Julien Ternacle, Feng Wan, Daigo Sawaki, Mathieu Surenaud, Maria Pini, Raquel Mercedes, Laura Ernande, Etienne Audureau, Jean-Luc Dubois-Rande, Serge Adnot, Sophie Hue, Gabor Czibik, Genevieve Derumeaux
AIM: Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) induces both cardiac remodelling and myocardial dysfunction in murine models. The aim was to assess the time course and mechanisms of metabolic and cardiac modifications induced by short-term HFD in wild-type (WT) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-three WT mice were subjected to HFD (60% fat, n = 16) and chow diet (CD, 13% fat, n = 17). Metabolic and echocardiographic data were collected at baseline and every 5 weeks for 20 weeks...
January 6, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030645/disruption-of-lipid-raft-function-increases-expression-and-secretion-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#8
Juu-Chin Lu, Yu-Ting Chiang, Yu-Chun Lin, Yu-Tzu Chang, Chia-Yun Lu, Tzu-Yu Chen, Chia-Shan Yeh
The adipocyte is unique in its capacity to store lipids. In addition to triglycerides, the adipocyte stores a significant amount of cholesterol. Moreover, obese adipocytes are characterized by a redistribution of cholesterol with depleted cholesterol in the plasma membrane, suggesting that cholesterol perturbation may play a role in adipocyte dysfunction. We used methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a molecule with high affinity for cholesterol, to rapidly deplete cholesterol level in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026829/retinol-binding-protein-4-rbp4-as-the-causative-factor-and-marker-of-vascular-injury-related-to-insulin-resistance
#9
Marcin Majerczyk, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Jerzy Chudek
One of adipokines involved in the development of insulin resistance is retinol-binding protein 4(RBP4). The physiological role of RBP4 is transport of retinol from the liver to peripheral tissues. One of the first events related to the excessive visceral fat accumulation is the development of inflammation followed by hormonal adipose tissue dysfunction, including excessive RBP4 production. Reduced density of the membrane-type glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is considered as a direct cause for the stimulation of RBP4 release to the circulation by adipocytes...
December 21, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011892/adipose-type-i-interferon-signalling-protects-against-metabolic-dysfunction
#10
Verena Wieser, Timon Erik Adolph, Christoph Grander, Felix Grabherr, Barbara Enrich, Patrizia Moser, Alexander Rupert Moschen, Susanne Kaser, Herbert Tilg
OBJECTIVE: Low-grade chronic inflammation emerges as a potent driver of insulin resistance and glucose dysregulation in obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver, subcutaneous fat and the immune system participate in disturbances of metabolism. Type I interferon (IFN) signalling initiated by innate and adaptive immunity modulates inflammatory responses consequent to infection. However, little is known about the role of type I IFN signalling in metabolic diseases and the development of NAFLD...
December 23, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004237/sanggenol-f-exerts-anti-diabetic-effects-via-promoting-adipocyte-differentiation-and-modifying-adipokines-expression
#11
Jing-Jie Zhu, Jun-Shang Huang, Ting Wang, Jun Ji, Ai-Jun Hou, He-Yao Wang
Adipose tissue is not only a lipid storage site, but also a well-known endocrine organ. Dysfunction of adipose tissue is associated with irregular lipid metabolism, ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. It is proposed that modulating on adipose tissue is a reasonable way to ameliorate glucose and lipid metabolism. (±)-sanggenol F (SGF, purity >98.5%) was synthesized as a racemic mixture of natural (+)-sanggenol F. In this study, SGF was found to promote adipocyte differentiation, enhance insulin sensitivity, and upregulate beneficial adipokines expression in 3T3-L1 cells...
December 21, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004036/the-microbial-hypothesis-contributions-of-adenovirus-infection-and-metabolic-endotoxaemia-to-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Amos Tambo, Mohsin H K Roshan, Nikolai P Pace
The global obesity epidemic, dubbed "globesity" by the World Health Organisation, is a pressing public health issue. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial incorporating both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, epidemiological studies have observed an association between microbes and obesity. Obesity-promoting microbiome and resultant gut barrier disintegration have been implicated as key factors facilitating metabolic endotoxaemia. This is an influx of bacterial endotoxins into the systemic circulation, believed to underpin obesity pathogenesis...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000916/pathological-changes-of-adipose-tissue-in-secondary-lymphedema
#13
K Tashiro, J Feng, S-H Wu, T Mashiko, K Kanayama, M Narushima, H Uda, S Miyamoto, I Koshima, K Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of lymphedema is poorly understood. Current treatment options include compression therapy, resection, liposuction, and lymphatic microsurgery, but determining the optimal treatment approach for each patient remains challenging. OBJECTIVES: We characterized skin and adipose tissue alterations in the setting of secondary lymphedema. METHODS: Morphologic and histopathologic evaluations were conducted for 70 specimens collected from 26 female patients with lower extremity secondary lymphedema following surgical intervention for gynecologic cancers...
December 21, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994674/obesity-and-cancer-the-role-of-adipose-tissue-and-adipo-cytokines-induced-chronic-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Rosa Divella, Raffaele De Luca, Ines Abbate, Emanuele Naglieri, Antonella Daniele
Adipose tissue in addition to its ability to keep lipids is now recognized as a real organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Recent studies demonstrated that in obese animals is established a status of adipocyte hypoxia and in this hypoxic state interaction between adipocytes and stromal vascular cells contribute to tumor development and progression. In several tumors such as breast, colon, liver and prostate, obesity represents a poor predictor of clinical outcomes. Dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity releases a disturbed profile of adipokines with elevated levels of pro-inflammatory factors and a consequent alteration of key signaling mediators which may be an active local player in establishing the peritumoral environment promoting tumor growth and progression...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992452/enhancement-of-adipocyte-browning-by-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#15
Kana Tsukuda, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Harumi Kanno, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Xiao-Li Wang, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Akinori Higaki, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941950/thyroid-hormone-status-defines-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-and-browning-of-white-adipose-tissues-in-mice
#16
Juliane Weiner, Mathias Kranz, Nora Klöting, Anne Kunath, Karen Steinhoff, Eddy Rijntjes, Josef Köhrle, Vilia Zeisig, Mohammed Hankir, Claudia Gebhardt, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, John T Heiker, Susan Kralisch, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Osama Sabri, Swen Hesse, Peter Brust, Anke Tönjes, Kerstin Krause
The present study aimed to determine the effect of thyroid hormone dysfunction on brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in mice. Twenty randomized female C57BL/6NTac mice per treatment group housed at room temperature were rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. In-vivo small animal (18)F-FDG PET/MRI was performed to determine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on BAT mass and BAT activity. Ex-vivo(14)C-acetate loading assay and assessment of thermogenic gene and protein expression permitted analysis of oxidative and thermogenic capacities of WAT and BAT of eu-, hyper and hypothyroid mice...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939617/hypoxia-mimetic-induces-lipid-accumulation-through-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-stimulates-autophagy-in-murine-preadipocyte-cell-line
#17
Ana Patrícia Marques, Joana Rosmaninho-Salgado, Marta Estrada, Vera Cortez, Rui Jorge Nobre, Cláudia Cavadas
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia occurs within adipose tissue of obese human and mice. However, its role in adipose tissue regulation is still controversial. METHODS: We used murine preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and hypoxia was induced by using hypoxia mimetic agents, as CoCl2. To study adipocyte differentiation, we evaluated the adipocyte markers (PPARγ, C/EBPα and aP2), and a preadipocyte marker (pref-1) by qPCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. Lipid accumulation was evaluated by Oil red-O assay and perilipin levels by western blotting and immunofluorescence...
December 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909015/diabetic-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fail-to-differentiate-in-functional-adipocytes
#18
Ignazio Barbagallo, Giovanni Li Volti, Fabio Galvano, Guido Tettamanti, Francesca R Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Luca Vanella
Adipose tissue dysfunction represents a hallmark of diabetic patients and is a consequence of the altered homeostasis of this tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their differentiation into adipocytes contribute significantly in maintaining the mass and function of adult adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differentiation of MSCs from patients suffering type 2 diabetes (dASC) and how such process results in hyperplasia or rather a stop of adipocyte turnover resulting in hypertrophy of mature adipocytes...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899023/ghrelin-function-in-human-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-concise-review
#19
REVIEW
R Churm, J S Davies, J W Stephens, S L Prior
The 28 amino acid hormone, ghrelin, has been found to have various effects on metabolism. This review will focus on the pathways integrated into ghrelin's effect within the hypothalamus, pancreas and adipocytes. The identification of molecules and pathways that regulate ghrelin-mediated lipid retention could establish new mechanisms underlying cellular energy homeostasis. The impact of acyl-ghrelin on glucose metabolism and lipid homeostasis may allow for novel preventative or early intervention therapeutic strategies to treat obesity related type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic dysfunction...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#20
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
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