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Adipocyte dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327709/fish-oil-supplementation-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-improves-insulin-resistance-involvement-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#1
Wenqi Yang, Xu Chen, Ming Chen, Yanping Li, Qing Li, Xinwei Jiang, Yan Yang, Wenhua Ling
The beneficial effects of fish oil consumption on glucose metabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism underlying the fish oil-induced protective effects against insulin resistance remains unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as an important contributor to insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation reduces ER stress and ameliorates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, and to investigate the molecular mechanism of fish oil-induced benefits on ER stress...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323914/menopause-is-a-determinant-of-breast-aromatase-expression-and-its-associations-with-bmi-inflammation-and-systemic-markers
#2
Kristy A Brown, Neil M Iyengar, Xi Kathy Zhou, Ayca Gucalp, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Hanhan Wang, Dilip D Giri, Monica Morrow, Domenick J Falcone, Nils K Wendel, Lisle A Winston, Michael Pollak, Anneloor Dierickx, Clifford A Hudis, Andrew J Dannenberg
CONTEXT: Most estrogen-dependent breast cancers occur after menopause despite low levels of circulating estrogens. Breast expression of the estrogen-biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, is proposed to drive breast cancer development after menopause. However, the effects of menopause on breast aromatase expression are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of menopause on breast aromatase expression in relation to body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue inflammation (WATi) and systemic markers of metabolic dysfunction...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292262/low-adiponectin-is-associated-with-diastolic-dysfunction-in-women-a-cross-sectional-study-from-the-troms%C3%A3-study
#3
Jon V Norvik, Henrik Schirmer, Kirsti Ytrehus, Trond G Jenssen, Svetlana N Zykova, Anne E Eggen, Bjørn O Eriksen, Marit D Solbu
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is closely associated with diastolic dysfunction and related to obesity and female sex. We investigated whether adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein hormone with cardioprotective effects, was associated with indices of diastolic dysfunction, and whether the association was sex dependent. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 1165 women and 896 men without diabetes. We stratified the multivariable adjusted logistic regression analyses and the fractional polynomial regression analyses according to sex, with echocardiographic markers of diastolic dysfunction as dependent variables, and adiponectin as the independent variable of interest...
March 14, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286779/adipokines-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-vascular-dysfunction-in-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El Husseny, Mediana Mamdouh, Sara Shaban, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Marwa Mostafa Mohamed Zaki, Osama M Ahmed, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285191/polychlorinated-biphenyls-153-induces-metabolic-dysfunction-through-activation-of-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-via-downregulation-of-hnf1b
#5
Hao Wu, Weihua Yu, Fansen Meng, Jie Mi, Jie Peng, Jiangzheng Liu, Xiaodi Zhang, Chunxu Hai, Xin Wang
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is a major type of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In the current study, we examined the mechanism underlying the effect of PCB-153 on glucose and lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro. We found that PCB-153 induced per se and worsened high fat diet (HFD)-resulted increase of blood glucose level and glucose and insulin intolerance. In addition, PCB-153 induced per se and worsened HFD-resulted increase of triglyceride content and adipose mass...
March 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273471/forecasting-fat-fibrosis
#6
Brett Shook, Matthew S Rodeheffer
Excess ECM and fibrosis of white adipose tissue (WAT) is associated with tissue dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Marcelin et al. (2017) elucidate a key mechanism behind WAT fibrosis in which the activation of PDGFRα on adipocyte precursors drives this population toward a fibrotic phenotype.
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270386/metabolic-obesity-adipose-inflammation-and-elevated-breast-aromatase-in-women-with-normal-body-mass-index
#7
Neil M Iyengar, Kristy A Brown, Xi Kathy Zhou, Ayca Gucalp, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Dilip D Giri, Heba Zahid, Priya Bhardwaj, Nils K Wendel, Domenick J Falcone, Hanhan Wang, Samantha Williams, Michael Pollak, Monica Morrow, Clifford A Hudis, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that have been linked to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we determined whether metabolic obesity, including changes in breast biology and systemic effects, occurs in a subset of women with normal body mass index (BMI). Breast WAT and fasting blood were collected from 72 women with normal BMI (<25 kg/m(2)) undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment...
March 7, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257140/pro-contractile-effects-of-perivascular-fat-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
J G Ramirez, E J O'Malley, W S V Ho
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognised as an active player in vascular homeostasis. Expansion of PVAT in obesity and the possible role of PVAT in vascular dysfunction has attracted much interest. In terms of the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure, PVAT has been shown to release vasoactive mediators, for instance angiotensin peptides, reactive oxygen species, chemokines and cytokines. The secretory profile of PVAT is altered by obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, leading to imbalance between its pro-contractile and anti-contractile effects...
March 3, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255250/clinical-utility-of-metabolic-syndrome-severity-scores-considerations-for-practitioners
#9
REVIEW
Mark D DeBoer, Matthew J Gurka
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is marked by abnormalities in central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high fasting glucose and appears to be produced by underlying processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte dysfunction. MetS has traditionally been classified based on dichotomous criteria that deny that MetS-related risk likely exists as a spectrum. Continuous MetS scores provide a way to track MetS-related risk over time. We generated MetS severity scores that are sex- and race/ethnicity-specific, acknowledging that the way MetS is manifested may be different by sex and racial/ethnic subgroup...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244046/bioenergetic-analyses-in-adipose-tissue
#10
Lawrence Kazak
Adipose tissue plays an important role in whole body metabolism, and its dysfunction results in poor metabolic health and is associated with a diverse set of disorders, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. The search for cellular processes that can be targeted to activate adipose oxidative metabolism is thought to hold promise for combating these diseases, and so the analysis of adipose bioenergetics is crucial toward this end. A description is provided here for the preparation of mitochondria and primary adipocytes from adipose tissue to be used for bioenergetics profiling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244037/flow-cytometry-assisted-isolation-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#11
Umesh D Wankhade, Sushil G Rane
Adipose tissue dysfunction is typically seen in metabolic diseases, particularly obesity and diabetes. White adipocytes store fat while brown adipocyte dissipates it via thermogenesis. In addition, beige adipocytes develop in white fat depots in response to stimulation of β-adrenergic pathways. It appears that the three types of adipocytes-white, brown, and beige-can be formed de novo from stem/precursor cells or via transdifferentiation. Identifying the presumptive progenitors that harbor capacity to differentiate to these distinct adipocyte cell types will enable their functional characterization...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244036/isolation-of-mouse-stromal-vascular-cells-for-monolayer-culture
#12
Longhua Liu, Louise D Zheng, Sarah R Donnelly, Margo P Emont, Jun Wu, Zhiyong Cheng
Positive energy balance contributes to adipose tissue expansion and dysfunction, which accounts largely for obesity and related metabolic disorders. Thermogenic fat can dissipate energy, activation or induction of which may promote energy balance and address the pressing health issues. Recent studies have shown that stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from white adipose tissue (WAT) can develop both white and brown-like adipocyte phenotypes, thus serving as a unique model to study adipogenesis and thermogenesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243792/hmox1-as-a-marker-of-iron-excess-induced-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-affecting-glucose-uptake-and-respiratory-capacity-in-human-adipocytes
#13
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Francisco Ortega, Amaia Rodríguez, Jèssica Latorre, Sara Becerril, Mònica Sabater-Masdeu, Wifredo Ricart, Gema Frühbeck, José Manuel Fernández-Real
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Iron excess in adipose tissue is known to promote adipose tissue dysfunction. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible role of haem oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction. METHODS: Cross-sectionally, HMOX1 gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue was analysed in two independent cohorts (n = 234 and 40) in relation to obesity. We also evaluated the impact of weight loss (n = 21), weight gain (in rats, n = 20) on HMOX1 mRNA; HMOX1 mRNA levels during human adipocyte differentiation; the effects of inflammation and iron on adipocyte HMOX1; and the effects of HMOX1-induced activity on adipocyte mitochondrial respiratory function, glucose uptake and adipogenesis...
February 27, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242773/adipose-specific-deletion-of-kif5b-exacerbates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#14
Ju Cui, Jing Pang, Ya-Jun Lin, Huan Gong, Zhen-He Wang, Yun-Xuan Li, Jin Li, Zai Wang, Ping Jiang, Da-Peng Dai, Jian Li, Jian-Ping Cai, Jian-Dong Huang, Tie-Mei Zhang
Recent studies have shown that KIF5B (conventional kinesin heavy chain) mediates glucose transporter type 4 translocation and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting an involvement of KIF5B in the homeostasis of metabolism. However, the in vivo physiologic function of KIF5B in adipose tissue remains to be determined. In this study, adipose-specific Kif5b knockout (F-K5bKO) mice were generated using the Cre-LoxP strategy. F-K5bKO mice had similar body weights to controls fed on a standard chow diet...
February 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239164/adipocyte-c1qtnf5-expression-is-bmi-dependently-related-to-early-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-and-systemic-ctrp5-serum-levels-in-obese-children
#15
J T Schwartze, K Landgraf, U Spielau, D Rockstroh, D Löffler, J Kratzsch, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The recently identified adipocytokine C1QTNF5 (encodes for CTRP5) has been demonstrated to inhibit pro-metabolic insulin signaling in adipocytes. We hypothesized that adipocyte C1QTNF5 expression in subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (AT) would correlate with the degree of obesity, systemic CTRP5 serum levels, and early AT and metabolic dysfunction in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sc AT samples were obtained from 33 healthy Caucasian lean children aged 10...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237848/il-17-axis-accelerates-the-inflammatory-progression-of-obese-in-mice-via-tbk1-and-ikbke-pathway
#16
Seung Hoon Lee, JooYeon Jhun, Jae-Kyung Byun, Eun-Kyung Kim, KyoungAh Jung, Ji Eun Lee, Jong Young Choi, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Obesity mediates immune inflammatory response and induces IL-17 expression. Adipgenesis can be regulated by IL-17 and it causes TBK1 activation. The inhibition of TBK1 and the inhibition of I IKBKE reduces inflammatory response and improves obesity. It is hypothesized that IL-17 deficiency inhibits obesity progression and inflammation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in vitro and treated with IL-17. RAW264.7 cells and differentiated 3T3-L1 were pretreated with TBK1 inhibitor and then stimulated with IL-17...
February 22, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236429/adiponectin-improves-endothelial-function-in-mesenteric-arteries-of-high-fat-fed-wistar-rats-role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#17
Cristina M Sena, Ana Pereira, Rosa Fernandes, Liliana Letra, Raquel M Seiça
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adiponectin, the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and vascular physiology. Thus, we investigated the effects of exogenous administration of adiponectin on metabolism, vascular reactivity and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) of rat mesenteric arteries in high-fat fed Wistar rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of adiponectin were investigated on nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and independent vasorelaxation in isolated rat mesenteric arteries from 12-month-old male Wistar rats fed with high-fat diet during 4 months (HFD) and compared with age-matched control Wistar rats (W12m)...
February 25, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228651/adipokines-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#18
Ales Smekal, Jan Vaclavik
Adipokines are peptides that signal the functional status of adipose tissue to the brain and other target organs. In adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokine secretion is altered, and this can contribute to a spectrum of obesity-associated conditions including cardiovascular disease. Some adipokines have anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects (omentin, apelin, adiponectin). Others are pro-inflammatory with negative impact on cardiovascular function (leptin, visfatin, resistin, adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein)...
February 16, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215843/a-pdgfr%C3%AE-mediated-switch-toward-cd9-high-adipocyte-progenitors-controls-obesity-induced-adipose-tissue-fibrosis
#19
Geneviève Marcelin, Adaliene Ferreira, Yuejun Liu, Michael Atlan, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Véronique Pelloux, Yair Botbol, Marc Ambrosini, Magali Fradet, Christine Rouault, Corneliu Hénégar, Jean-Sébastien Hulot, Christine Poitou, Adriana Torcivia, Raphael Nail-Barthelemy, Jean-Christophe Bichet, Emmanuel L Gautier, Karine Clément
Obesity-induced white adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis is believed to accelerate WAT dysfunction. However, the cellular origin of WAT fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we show that adipocyte platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFRα(+)) progenitors adopt a fibrogenic phenotype in obese mice prone to visceral WAT fibrosis. More specifically, a subset of PDGFRα(+) cells with high CD9 expression (CD9(high)) originates pro-fibrotic cells whereas their CD9(low) counterparts, committed to adipogenesis, are almost completely lost in the fibrotic WAT...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214707/shortcuts-to-a-functional-adipose-tissue-the-role-of-small-non-coding-rnas
#20
REVIEW
Bruna B Brandão, Beatriz A Guerra, Marcelo A Mori
Metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes are a major public health issue worldwide. These diseases are often linked to a dysfunctional adipose tissue. Fat is a large, heterogenic, pleiotropic and rather complex tissue. It is found in virtually all cavities of the human body, shows unique plasticity among tissues, and harbors many cell types in addition to its main functional unit - the adipocyte. Adipose tissue function varies depending on the localization of the fat depot, the cell composition of the tissue and the energy status of the organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
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