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Adipocyte dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331565/saroglitazar-reduces-obesity-and-associated-inflammatory-consequences-in-murine-adipose-tissue
#1
Durgesh Kumar, Umesh Kumar Goand, Sanchita Gupta, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anurag Kumar Srivastava, Anil N Gaikwad
Prevailing knowledge links chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue to obesity and its associated metabolic complications. In this study, we evaluated immunometabolic effects of a recently launched dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α & γ agonist 'Saroglitazar' in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Body composition analysis revealed that saroglitazar treatment promoted hepatic weight gain, while attenuated epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass in DIO. In the eWAT of saroglitazar treated mice, histological analysis showed reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and matrix deposition (picrosirius red staining)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325128/relationship-between-twelve-adipocytokines-and-distinct-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Thomas Ebert, Claudia Gebhardt, Markus Scholz, Tobias Wohland, Dorit Schleinitz, Mathias Fasshauer, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Peter Kovacs, Anke Tönjes
Objective: Adipose tissue-derived signals potentially link obesity and adipose tissue dysfunction with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Although some adipocytokines have been closely related to metabolic and cardiovascular traits, it remains open which adipocytokine or adipocytokine cluster serve as meaningful marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) components. Therefore, this study investigates the associations of twelve adipocytokines with components of the MS to identify the most relevant cytokines potentially related to specific metabolic profiles...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323267/scaffold-free-generation-of-uniform-adipose-spheroids-for-metabolism-research-and-drug-discovery
#3
Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Francoise A Gourronc, Anna Chaly, David A Wadkins, Anthony J Burand, Kathleen R Markan, Sharon O Idiga, Meng Wu, Matthew J Potthoff, James A Ankrum
Adipose tissue dysfunction is critical to the development of type II diabetes and other metabolic diseases. While monolayer cell culture has been useful for studying fat biology, 2D culture often does not reflect the complexity of fat tissue. Animal models are also problematic in that they are expensive, time consuming, and may not completely recapitulate human biology because of species variation. To address these problems, we have developed a scaffold-free method to generate 3D adipose spheroids from primary or immortal human or mouse pre-adipocytes...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322691/raspberry-supplementation-improves-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-brown-like-adipocyte-development-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#4
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenolics and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318960/the-role-of-inflammation-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-heart-diseases
#5
Zdenek Matloch, Anna Cinkajzlova, Milos Mraze, Martin Haluzik
Epicardial adipose tissue is not only a specific adipose tissue depot but also an active endocrine organ producing numerous substances with an important role in the development of obesity-related heart diseases. It is located between myocardium and visceral pericardium and consists predominantly of adipocytes, immunocompetent cells, ganglia and interconnecting nerve branches. Several studies documented a positive correlation between pericardial and epicardial fat and left ventricular hypertrophy and septal thickening, leading to diastolic dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities and facilitating cardiac failure...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318723/endothelium-specific-cyp2j2-overexpression-attenuates-age-related-insulin-resistance
#6
Yan Yang, Ruolan Dong, Zhihui Chen, Danli Hu, Menglu Fu, Ying Tang, Dao Wen Wang, Xizhen Xu, Ling Tu
Ample evidences demonstrate that cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) exert diverse biological activities, which include potent vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on age-related insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Endothelium-specific targeting of the human CYP epoxygenase, CYP2J2, transgenic mice (Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice) was utilized. The effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on aging-associated obesity, inflammation, and peripheral insulin resistance were evaluated by assessing metabolic parameters in young (3 months old) and aged (16 months old) adult male Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice...
January 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315906/antiobesity-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene
#7
REVIEW
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
Obesity is a current global epidemic that has led to a marked increase in metabolic diseases. However, its treatment remains a challenge. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which involves the dysfunction of neuropeptides, hormones, and inflammatory adipokines from the brain, gut, and adipose tissue. An understanding of the mechanisms and signal interactions in the crosstalk between organs and tissue in the coordination of whole-body energy metabolism would be helpful to provide therapeutic and putative approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and related complications...
January 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311623/basal-p53-expression-is-indispensable-for-mesenchymal-stem-cell-integrity
#8
Siddaraju V Boregowda, Veena Krishnappa, Jacqueline Strivelli, Christopher L Haga, Cori N Booker, Donald G Phinney
Marrow-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serve as a functional component of the perivascular niche that regulates hematopoiesis. They also represent the main source of bone formed in adult bone marrow, and their bifurcation to osteoblast and adipocyte lineages plays a key role in skeletal homeostasis and aging. Although the tumor suppressor p53 also functions in bone organogenesis, homeostasis, and neoplasia, its role in MSCs remains poorly described. Herein, we examined the normal physiological role of p53 in primary MSCs cultured under physiologic oxygen levels...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302078/adipose-tissue-the-dysfunctional-adipocyte-a-cancer-cell-s-best-friend
#9
Zhuzhen Zhang, Philipp E Scherer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295664/effect-of-different-combination-of-maternal-and-postnatal-diet-on-adipose-tissue-morphology-in-male-rat-offspring
#10
Darija Šnajder, Željka Perić Kačarević, Anđela Grgić, Nikola Bijelić, Matija Fenrich, Tatjana Belovari, Radivoje Radić
PURPOSE: Adipose tissue expansion can occur through several different ways and, under certain conditions, can be connected with chronic inflammation. TNF-α is one of the important cytokines involved in this process. Prolonged inflammation in obesity can lead to obesity-related insulin resistance and tissue dysfunction. The aim of our study was to investigate how different combination of maternal and postnatal diet affects offspring adipose tissue morphology and adipose tissue TNF-α expression...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289515/conditioned-medium-from-contracting-skeletal-muscle-cells-reverses-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunction-of-endothelial-cells
#11
Yihe Zhao, Nana Li, Zhu Li, Da Zhang, Liming Chen, Zhi Yao, Wenyan Niu
OBJECTIVE: Obese adipose tissue has been characterized with chronic inflammation associated with elevated secretion of inflammatory cytokines and declined secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines which can impair endothelial function in an endocrine manner. Adipose tissue hypoxia plays a role in the changes of cytokines. Physical exercise / muscle contraction may help preventing cardiovascular disease through improving insulin resistance and endothelium function. However the mechanism is unclear...
December 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288588/il-1%C3%AE-inhibits-proliferation-and-adipogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-erk1-2-mediated-proinflammatory-cytokines
#12
Xuerong Sun, Tangbin Zou, Changqing Zuo, Mingmeng Zhang, Benyan Shi, Zhiwen Jiang, Hongjing Cui, Xiaoxin Liao, Xiaoyi Li, Yuelian Tang, Yusheng Liu, Xinguang Liu
Dysfunctional adipogenesis such as subcutaneous lipoatrophy is closely related to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. Although the expression or release of the cytokine interleukin-1α(L-1α) is known to increase in adipose tissue in response to cell death, cell senescence, aging, or solar radiation, the regulatory role of IL-1α in adipogenesis has not been sufficiently investigated. To investigate the problem, we explored the effect of IL-1α on the proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) using cell counting, alamarBlue assay, oil O staining, Western blot, among others...
December 30, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283422/hyperglycemia-augments-the-adipogenic-transdifferentiation-potential-of-tenocytes-and-is-alleviated-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch
#13
Yu-Fu Wu, Yu-Ting Huang, Hsing-Kuo Wang, Chung-Chen Jane Yao, Jui-Sheng Sun, Yuan-Hung Chao
Diabetes mellitus is associated with damage to tendons, which may result from cellular dysfunction in response to a hyperglycemic environment. Tenocytes express diminished levels of tendon-associated genes under hyperglycemic conditions. In contrast, mechanical stretch enhances tenogenic differentiation. However, whether hyperglycemia increases the non-tenogenic differentiation potential of tenocytes and whether this can be mitigated by mechanical stretch remains elusive. We explored the in vitro effects of high glucose and mechanical stretch on rat primary tenocytes...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283284/endothelial-dysfunction-occurs-independently-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-yucatan-miniature-swine
#14
Thomas J Jurrissen, T Dylan Olver, Nathan C Winn, Zachary I Grunewald, Gabriela S Lin, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Craig A Emter, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
In rodents, experimentally-induced ovarian hormone deficiency increases adiposity and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, which is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, whether this occurs in a translationally-relevant large animal model remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that ovariectomy would promote visceral and perivascular AT (PVAT) inflammation, as well as subsequent insulin resistance and peripheral vascular dysfunction in female swine...
December 28, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279183/increased-fibrosis-a-novel-means-by-which-gh-influences-white-adipose-tissue-function
#15
Lara A Householder, Ross Comisford, Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Kevin Lee, Katie Troike, Cody Wilson, Adam Jara, Mitchell Harberson, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman
OBJECTIVE: White adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis - the buildup of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily collagen - is now a recognized hallmark of tissue dysfunction and is increased with obesity and lipodystrophy. While growth hormone (GH) is known to increase collagen in several tissues, no previous research has addressed its effect on ECM in WAT. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine if GH influences WAT fibrosis. DESIGN: This study examined WAT from four distinct strains of GH-altered mice (bGH and GHA transgenic mice as well as two tissue specific GH receptor gene disrupted lines, fat growth hormone receptor knockout or FaGHRKO and liver growth hormone receptor knockout or LiGHRKO mice)...
December 20, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273198/enlarged-adipocytes-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-associated-to-hyperandrogenism-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-volume-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Bárbara Echiburú, Francisco Pérez-Bravo, José E Galgani, Daniel Sandoval, Carolina Saldías, Nicolás Crisosto, Manuel Maliqueo, Teresa Sir-Petermann
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an androgen excess disorder associated with obesity and adipose tissue disturbances. Our aim was to evaluate gene expression of adipocytokines and adipocyte characteristics in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of PCOS women. DESIGN: Twelve PCOS (PCOSw) and 12 control (Cw) premenopausal women (BMI 20-35 kg/m2) were included, with measurements of whole-body composition assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume, by magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261514/association-of-prothrombotic-adipokine-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-with-tsh-in-metabolic-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#17
Ashok Kumar Ahirwar, Archana Singh, Anju Jain, Kirti Kaim, Shilpa Bhardwaj, Surajeet Kumar Patra, Binita Goswami, M K Bhatnagar, Jayashree Bhattacharjee
Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) involves a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, including abnormal lipids, insulin resistance and hypertension. The aim of the present study is to investigate associations between thyroid profile and the pro-thrombotic mediator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), in MetS and identify associated biochemical markers. Materials and methods The present study was a case control study and consisted of 50 diagnosed cases of MetS and 50 healthy volunteers as controls...
December 20, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258500/anti-adipogenic-effects-of-the-traditional-herbal-formula-dohongsamul-tang-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#18
Eun Hyoung Shim, Hoyoung Lee, Myeong Soo Lee, Sooseong You
BACKGROUND: Blood stasis syndrome (BSS) is a general pattern identification and refers to pathological stagnation of blood circulation, dysfunction of endothelial cells or metabolic disorder in traditional Korean medicine (TKM). Dohongsamul-Tang (DHSMT) is a well-known traditional herbal formula which used for treatment and prevention of BSS by promoting blood circulation in TKM. METHODS: Cytotoxicity of DHSMT was examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). We also investigated the anti-adipogenesis effect of DHSMT by using Oil Red O staining, intracellular triglyceride assay leptin ELISA and western blot analysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248005/short-term-disuse-promotes-fatty-acid-infiltration-into-skeletal-muscle
#19
Allan F Pagano, Thomas Brioche, Coralie Arc-Chagnaud, Rémi Demangel, Angèle Chopard, Guillaume Py
BACKGROUND: Many physiological and/or pathological conditions lead to muscle deconditioning, a well-described phenomenon characterized by a loss of strength and muscle power mainly due to the loss of muscle mass. Fatty infiltrations, or intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), are currently well-recognized components of muscle deconditioning. Despite the fact that IMAT is present in healthy human skeletal muscle, its increase and accumulation are linked to muscle dysfunction. Although IMAT development has been largely attributable to inactivity, the precise mechanisms of its establishment are still poorly understood...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243339/causes-and-mechanisms-of-adipocyte-enlargement-and-adipose-expansion
#20
REVIEW
F Haczeyni, K S Bell-Anderson, G C Farrell
Adipose tissue plays a significant role in whole body energy homeostasis. Obesity-associated diabetes, fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are closely linked to adipose stress and dysfunction. Genetic predisposition, overeating and physical inactivity influence the expansion of adipose tissues. Under conditions of constant energy surplus, adipocytes become hypertrophic and adipose tissues undergo hyperplasia so as to increase their lipid storage capacity, thereby keeping circulating blood glucose and fatty acids below toxic levels...
December 15, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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