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Fish oils

Kazushi Yamamoto, Yui Iwagaki, Kouichi Watanabe, Tomonori Nochi, Hisashi Aso, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
OBJECTIVES: We examined a moderate-fat (MF) diet that is enriched with fish oil (FO) and assessed whether lipid absorption was inhibited in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAM-P8). METHODS: All mice (N = 70) were fed a normal diet that contained 4 g soybean oil/100 g of diet for 6 mo and then divided the mice into four groups (n = 10 or 20/group). Mice in the baseline group were euthanized at 6 mo old, those in the control group continued on a normal diet until 15 mo of age, those in the MF diet group switched to an MF diet (8 g soybean oil/100 g of diet) until 15 mo of age, and those in the MF + FO group switched to an MF diet that was enriched with FO (6...
December 2, 2017: Nutrition
James C Jackson, Dariush Mozaffarian, Amy J Graves, Nancy J Brown, Roberto Marchioli, Amy L Kiehl, E Wesley Ely
Background: Cognitive decline has been reported following cardiac surgery, leading to great interest in interventions to minimize its occurrence. Long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with less cognitive decline in observational studies, yet no trials have tested the effects of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive decline after surgery. Objective: We sought to determine whether perioperative n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces postoperative cognitive decline in patients postcardiac surgery...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Behjat Javadi
Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Narges Sadeghi, Farnoush Paknezhad, Mohamadreza Rashidi Nooshabadi, Maria Kavianpour, Sima Jafari Rad, Hossein Khadem Haghighian
Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common complaints of women. The aim of this study was to investigate the adjuvant effect of vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids, separately or in combination, supplements on pain in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. This clinical trial conducted on students of university. Qualified girls completed the VAS before randomization. Arrangement was determined according to the severity of the pain (mild 0-3; moderate 3.1-6; severe 6.1-10). One hundred patients were randomly assigned to four groups receiving omega-3 (n = 25), vitamin E (n = 25), vitamin E- omega-3 (n = 25), or placebo (n = 25)...
March 15, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Noelia Urquiza-Salvat, Manrique Pascual-Geler, Olga Lopez-Guarnido, Lourdes Rodrigo, Alba Martinez-Burgos, Jose Manuel Cozar, Francisco Manuel Ocaña-Peinado, Maria Jesus Álvarez-Cubero, Ana Rivas
In Europe, countries following the traditional Mediterranean Diet (MeDi), particularly Southern European countries, have lower prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality compared to other European regions. In the present study, we investigated the association between the MeDi and the relative risk of PCa and tumor aggressiveness in a Spanish population. Among individual score components, it has been found that subjects with PCa were less likely to consume olive oil as the main culinary fat, vegetables, fruits and fish than those without...
March 15, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Stacy Buckingham-Howes, Katherine Holmes, J Glenn Morris, Lynn M Grattan
The economic impact of disasters is well known; however, the link between financial loss and behavioral health problems is unknown. Participants included 198 adults of ages 21 to 82, living within 10 miles of the Gulf Coast during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and were involved in the fishing, harvesting, seafood processing, or service/tourism industries. The functional impact of financial resource loss at 2.5 years post spill was measured using the 26-item Financial Life Events Checklist (FLEC). Individuals responded to financial distress by reducing social events and utility bills and changing food-shopping habits...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Bridget Simon-Friedt, Jessi L Howard, Ericka Frahm, Buffy Meyer, Mark J Wilson, Deepa Pangeni, Edward B Overton
Following oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon accident (DWH), contamination of seafood resources and possible increased health risks attributable to consumption of seafood in spill areas are major concerns. In this study, locally harvested finfish and shrimp were collected from research participants in southeast Louisiana and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are some of the most important chemicals of concern regarding oil-spill-contaminated seafood resources during and following oil spills...
March 13, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Marihan Lansing, Yves Sauvé, Ioannis Dimopoulos, Catherine J Field, Miyoung Suh, Pamela Wizzard, Susan Goruk, David Lim, Mitsuru Muto, Paul Wales, Justine Turner
BACKGROUND: A dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) is critical for neonatal retinal development. Both are absent/minimal in parenteral nutrition (PN) using soy-oil emulsions ([SO] Intralipid®) traditionally used for neonatal intestinal failure. In contrast, fish-oil emulsions ([FO] Omegaven®) are enriched in DHA/AA. The aim of this study was to compare retinal function and fatty acid content in neonatal piglets fed PN with SO or FO. METHODS: Two-5-day-old piglets were randomly allocated to SO (n = 4) or FO (n = 4), provided at equivalent doses (5g/kg/d)...
March 13, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kali G Makedou, Eleni Vagdatli, Evangelia Patziarela, Vasiliki Konstantinidou, Eirini Poimenidou, Evgenia Lymperaki
BACKGROUND: Orthodox Christian believers fast abstaining from meat, eggs, dairy products or even fish and oil in certain days of the fasting period, three times a year. AIM: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of a 48-day fast before Easter in blood count parameters, coagulation and antioxidant status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 35 healthy volunteers, 19-66 years old, were included in the study. White blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes (Lymph), granulocytes (Gran), haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBC), mean erythrocyte volume (MCV), platelets (Plt), were measured...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Mouokeu Raymond Simplice, Womeni Hilaire Macaire, Njike Ngamga Fabrice Hervé, Tonfack Djikeng Fabrice, Djopnang DJimbie Justin, Tchoumbougnang François, Kuiate Jules-Roger
BACKGROUNDS: Oils of fish origin are a very rich source of Omega - 3 and Omega - 6 fatty acids. They have been suggested to provide numerous health benefits for humans involving antimicrobial properties. Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Hepsetus odoe are two fishes well known in Cameroon. The chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of these fishes derived oils are unknown. The study was designed to valorise C. nigrodigitatus and H.s odoe oils activity against food poisoning bacteria...
March 12, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Matthew Osse, Jean-François Hamel, Annie Mercier
In spite of increasing naval activities and petroleum exploration in cold environments, there is currently a paucity of tools available to monitor oil contamination in boreal marine life, especially in sedentary (non-fish) species that dominate benthic communities. This research aimed to identify biotic sources of variation in biomarkers using subarctic echinoderms, and to identify suitable biomarkers of their exposure to hydrocarbons. The focal species included the sea star Asterias rubens, the brittle star Ophiopholis aculeata, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, which are among the most abundant echinoderms in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Anna M Brzozowska, Marek Lukaszewicz, Jolanta M Oprzadek
This article addresses the hypothesis that lactation stage, parity and energy-protein feed additive affect fatty acid composition of blood, liver and adipose tissue of cows. The experiment was conducted on 24 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows divided into two feeding groups. One group of cows was fed solely a total mixed ration, while the other group was fed a ration with the addition of 2 kg of energy-protein supplement per cow/day. During the experiment, the samples of liver, adipose tissue and blood were taken and their fatty acid compositions were determined...
March 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jens Lund, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Lotte Lauritzen
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line of research suggests that browning of white adipose depots and activation of uncoupled respiration in brown fat contributes to these effects. This mini-review summarizes the observations in rodents, highlights several mechanisms that might explain these observations and discusses the translational potential...
March 9, 2018: Adipocyte
Gulzar Ahmad, Florence Gattacecca, Rana El Sadda, Galina Botchkina, Iwao Ojima, James Egan, Mansoor Amiji
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to formulate an oil-in-water nanoemulsion of a next generation taxoid DHA-SBT-1214 and evaluate its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics. METHODS: DHA-SBT-1214 was encapsulated in a fish oil containing nanoemulsion using a high pressure homogenization method. Following morphological characterization of the nanoemulsions, qualitative and quantitative biodistribution was evaluated in naïve and cancer stem cell-enriched PPT-2 human prostate tumor bearing mice...
March 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Ewa Stefańska, Lucyna Ostrowska
The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Laura A van der Velde, Anh N Nguyen, Josje D Schoufour, Anouk Geelen, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. METHODS: For 4733 children participating in a population-based cohort, we assessed dietary intake using a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a median age of 8.1 years (interquartile range 8.0-8.2) (2011-2014). Based on dietary guidelines, we developed and validated a food-based diet quality score for children consisting of ten components (score 0-10): sufficient intake of vegetables; fruit; whole grains; fish; legumes; nuts; dairy; oils and soft fats; and low intake of sugar-containing-beverages; and high-fat and processed meat...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Humeira Badsha
Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
Nini H Sissener
'Are we what we eat?' Yes and no. Although dietary fat affects body fat, there are many modifying mechanisms. In Atlantic salmon, there is a high level of retention of the n-3 fatty acid (FA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) relative to the dietary content, whereas saturated FAs never seem to increase above a specified level, which is probably an adaptation to low and fluctuating body temperature. Net production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially DHA occurs in salmon when dietary levels are low; however, this synthesis is not sufficient to maintain EPA and DHA at similar tissue levels to those of a traditional fish oil-fed farmed salmon...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Bjørn Henrik Hansen, Julia Farkas, Trond Nordtug, Dag Altin, Odd Gunnar Brakstad
Microbial degradation following oil spills results in metabolites from the original oil. Metabolites are expected to display lower bioaccumulation potential and acute toxicity to marine organisms due to microbial-facilitated incorporation of chemical functional groups and a general decrease in lipophilicity. The toxicity and characterization of metabolites are poorly studied. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the toxicity of degraded (0-21 days) water-soluble oil components. Low-energy water accommodated fraction (LE-WAF) of a weathered crude oil was prepared with nutrient amended seawater at 5°C, kept in dark, and sampled at 0, 10, 14 and 21 days...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Huimin Jin, Cheng Yan, Tengfei Xiao, Nannan Yan, Jie Xu, Liping Zhou, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Diets rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) fish oil (FO) have beneficial effects in obesity‑associated metabolic disease. However, contradictory roles in inflammatory disease intervention have been reported. Our previous work revealed that a high‑FO diet promoted myeloid cell differentiation by modifying the bone marrow microenvironment; however, its effects on liver inflammation and complement system activation remain unknown. By performing ELISA, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry and histology on mice fed with high‑FO and low‑fat diets, the present study demonstrated that a 4‑week high‑FO diet promoted liver inflammation in mice without affecting body or liver weight...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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