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Childhood sexual abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779515/health-care-of-sexual-minority-women
#1
REVIEW
Susan Jo Roberts
Sexual minority women may be invisible in health care settings unless practitioners ask every patient about sexual attractions/behaviors and identity. Sexual minority women need to feel comfortable and able to share information about their sexual identity, partners, and lives. No medical diagnoses are found more commonly in sexual minority women, but problems such as overweight/obesity, increased tobacco and alcohol use, increased mental health problems, and a past history of childhood sexual abuse are common...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776641/cortisol-awakening-response-is-decreased-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-and-increased-in-healthy-controls-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-abuse
#2
Simone Ciufolini, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Helen L Fisher, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Marta Di Forti, Patricia Zunszain, Craig Morgan, Robin M Murray, Carmine M Pariante, Paola Dazzan, Valeria Mondelli
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is highly prevalent in psychosis patients, but whether/how it affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the onset of psychosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of severity of childhood abuse on HPA axis activity, in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. METHODS: We recruited 169 FEP patients and 133 controls with different degrees of childhood physical and sexual abuse (i.e. no abuse exposure, non-severe abuse exposure, and severe abuse exposure)...
May 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775876/childhood-abuse-and-depression-in-adulthood-the-mediating-role-of-allostatic-load
#3
Sandra Scheuer, Nicole Wiggert, Tanja Maria Brückl, Yvonne Awaloff, Manfred Uhr, Susanne Lucae, Stefan Kloiber, Florian Holsboer, Marcus Ising, Frank H Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Traumatic experiences during childhood are considered a major risk factor for depression in adulthood. Childhood trauma may induce physiological dysregulation with long-term effects of increased allostatic load until adulthood, which may lead to depression. Thus, our aim was to investigate whether allostatic load - which represents a multi-system measure of physiological dysregulation - mediates the association between childhood trauma and adult depression. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 324 depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and 261 mentally healthy control participants...
April 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775870/adverse-and-adaptive-childhood-experiences-are-associated-with-parental-reflective-functioning-in-mothers-with-substance-use-disorder
#4
Ulrika Håkansson, Reidulf Watten, Kerstin Söderström, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767624/the-maternal-brain-in-women-with-a-history-of-early-life-maltreatment-an-imagination-based-fmri-study-of-conflictual-versus-pleasant-interactions-with-children
#5
Corinne Neukel, Katja Bertsch, Anna Fuchs PhD, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Corinna Reck, Eva Moehler, Romuald Brunner, Felix Bermpohl, Sabine C Herpertz
BACKGROUND: Early-life maltreatment has severe consequences for the affected individual, and it has an impact on the next generation. To improve understanding of the intergenerational effects of abuse, we investigated the consequences of early-life maltreatment on maternal sensitivity and associated brain mechanisms during mother-child interactions. METHODS: In total, 47 mothers (22 with a history of physical and/or sexual childhood abuse and 25 without, all without current mental disorders) took part in a standardized real-life interaction with their 7- to 11-year-old child (not abused) and a subsequent functional imaging script-driven imagery task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766600/effect-of-childhood-adversities-on-alcohol-problems-is-mainly-mediated-by-depression
#6
Raimo K R Salokangas, Tiina From, Sinikka Luutonen, Henri R W Salokangas, Jarmo Hietala
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study how five childhood adversities and trauma (CAT) core domains: emotional abuse (EmoAb), physical abuse (PhyAb), sexual abuse (SexAb), emotional neglect (EmoNeg), physical neglect (PhyNeg), associate with alcohol problems (APs), and whether there are any gender differences in these associations. METHODS: Altogether, 690 adult participants drawn from the general population completed a mailed questionnaire, including the trauma and distress scale, as an indicator of CAT, and questions concerning sociodemographic background, depressive symptoms, and APs...
May 15, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763835/predictors-of-reduced-smoking-quantity-among-recovering-alcohol-dependent-men-in-a-smoking-cessation-trial
#7
Matthew J Worley, Melodie Isgro, Jaimee L Heffner, Soo Yong Lee, Belinda E Daniel, Robert M Anthenelli
INTRODUCTION: Adults with alcohol dependence (AD) have exceptionally high smoking rates and poor smoking cessation outcomes. Discovery of factors that predict reduced smoking among AD smokers may help improve treatment. This study examined baseline predictors of smoking quantity among AD smokers in a pharmacotherapy trial for smoking cessation. METHODS: The sample includes male, AD smokers (N = 129) with 1-32 months of alcohol abstinence who participated in a 12-week trial of medication (topiramate vs...
May 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753201/physical-sexual-and-emotional-abuse-during-childhood-experiences-of-a-sample-of-sri-lankan-young-adults
#8
Nadeeka K Chandraratne, Asvini D Fernando, Nalika Gunawardena
Abuse during childhood is a human tragedy leading to lifelong adverse health, social, and economic consequences for survivors. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abusive experiences among students (aged 18-19 years) in a Sri Lankan district. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 1500 students. Experiences of physical, sexual and emotional abuse and age at abuse, perpetrators, consequences and severity were assessed using a version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective Version (ICAST-R) which was culturally adapted and validated by the authors for use amongst Sinhalese students...
May 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750769/updates-on-adolescent-dating-and-sexual-violence-prevention-and-intervention
#9
Elizabeth Miller, Kelley A Jones, Heather L McCauley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745293/mothers-insightfulness-regarding-their-children-s-inner-world-associations-with-mothers-history-of-sexual-abuse-and-lack-of-resolution-of-the-trauma
#10
Nina Koren-Karie, Rachel Getzler-Yosef
The study examined the insightfulness of mothers who experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA). Based on attachment theory, we hypothesized that mothers who experienced CSA will be less insightful than those who did not experience CSA, and that state of mind with no marked signs of lack of resolution of the trauma can buffer against its negative effects. The insightfulness of 30 mothers who experienced CSA and 30 demographically matched mothers but with no CSA was assessed using the Insightfulness Assessment...
May 10, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739282/young-people-who-display-harmful-sexual-behaviors-and-their-families-a-qualitative-systematic-review-of-their-experiences-of-professional-interventions
#11
Fiona Campbell, Andrew Booth, Simon Hackett, Anthea Sutton
It is estimated that 30-50% of all childhood sexual abuse involves other young people as perpetrators. The treatment of harmful sexual behavior (HSB) in young people has evolved from interventions developed for use with adult perpetrators of sexual offenses. Increasingly, these approaches were not seen as appropriate for use with young people. The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to establish what intervention components are viewed as acceptable or useful by young people and their families in order to inform the development of interventions for young people with HSB...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738944/sex-differences-in-traumatic-events-and-psychiatric-morbidity-associated-to-probable-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-latino-prisoners
#12
Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Rafael A González, José N Caraballo, Carmen E Albizu-García
Latinos comprised 17.1% of the U.S. population and 33.1% of US prisoners, yet they are underrepresented in the psychopathology literature. Despite higher rates of trauma among incarcerated individuals than in the general population, most of the previous research in this area focused primarily on women samples, and very few studies examined sex differences in PTSD and traumatic experiences. In addition, there is a need for research assessing traumatic experiences and probable PTSD in men and women Latino inmates to inform culturally competent care and sex sensitive care for this vulnerable and underserved population...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734111/a-pernicious-cycle-finding-the-pathways-from-child-maltreatment-to-adolescent-peer-victimization
#13
Dalhee Yoon, Susan Yoon, Jiho Park, Miyoung Yoon
The purpose of this study was to identify the pathways from childhood physical and sexual abuse to adolescent physical and sexual victimization by assessing behavior symptoms (both internalizing and externalizing) and peer popularity as potential mediating variables. The data derive from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), which tracks the consequences of child abuse and neglect using five study sites across the US. Child physical and sexual abuse was measured at age 12 using self-reports of life-time maltreatment experiences...
May 4, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702176/bipolar-affective-disorder-and-borderline-personality-disorder-differentiation-based-on-the-history-of-early-life-stress-and-psychoneuroendocrine-measures
#14
Angela Kaline Mazer, Anthony J Cleare, Allan H Young, Mario F Juruena
INTRODUCTION: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (BD) have clinical characteristics in common which often make their differential diagnosis difficult. The history of early life stress (ELS) may be a differentiating factor between BPD and BD, as well as its association with clinical manifestations and specific neuroendocrine responses in each of these diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: Assessing and comparing patients with BD and BPD for factors related to symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and neuroendocrine markers...
April 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701938/childhood-adversity-and-schizophrenia-the-protective-role-of-resilience-in-mental-and-physical-health-and-metabolic-markers
#15
Ellen E Lee, Averria Sirkin Martin, Xin Tu, Barton W Palmer, Dilip V Jeste
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of childhood adversity and current (adulthood) resilience on mental and physical health and markers of metabolic function among adults with schizophrenia and nonpsychiatric comparison participants (NCs). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 114 participants with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and 101 NCs aged 26-65 years during 2012-2017. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory measures were examined. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to retrospectively assess emotional abuse/neglect, physical abuse/neglect, and sexual abuse experienced during childhood...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698876/childhood-sexual-abuse-mental-health-and-religion-across-the-jewish-community
#16
David H Rosmarin, Steven Pirutinsky, Moses Appel, Talia Kaplan, David Pelcovitz
Current estimates of childhood sexual abuse among Jews in the United States are only available for females and do not include a spectrum of religiosity. We examined sexual abuse, mental health, and religion, in a religiously diverse sample of male and female Jewish adults from North America, using a novel methodology to minimize sampling/response biases. A total of 372 diversely religious Jews participated. Prevalence of any form of childhood sexual abuse was statistically equivalent to national rates, except that females reported less involuntary penetration (OR = 0...
April 23, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695993/the-efficacy-of-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-in-children-and-adults-who-have-experienced-complex-childhood-trauma-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Runsen Chen, Amy Gillespie, Yanhui Zhao, Yingjun Xi, Yanping Ren, Loyola McLean
Background: Survivors of complex childhood trauma (CT) such as sexual abuse show poorer outcomes compared to single event trauma survivors. A growing number of studies investigate Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no systematic reviews have focused on EMDR treatment for CT as an intervention for both adults and children. This study therefore systematically reviewed all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of EMDR on PTSD symptoms in adults and children exposed to CT...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695221/parts-unknown-risk-factors-of-intimate-partner-violence-in-azerbaijan-kyrgyzstan-tajikistan-and-moldova
#18
Brittany E Hayes, Ryan Randa
Extant research has argued that there are variations in predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) across nations and it is necessary to examine country-specific correlates of IPV. Much remains unknown about factors that affect risk of IPV in transitional countries. Specifically, we explore risk factors for IPV among four former nations of the Soviet Union-Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Moldova-with data from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys. Rates of physical abuse were similar within Tajikistan (18...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694921/socio-sexual-processing-in-cortical-circuits
#19
REVIEW
Michael Brecht, Constanze Lenschow, Rajnish P Rao
How does social and sexual information processing map onto cortical circuits? Addressing this question has been difficult, because of a lack of circuit-oriented social neuroscience and an absence of measurements from interacting brains. Recent work showed social information is already differentially processed in the primary sensory cortices. Converging evidence suggests that prefrontal areas contribute to social interaction processing and determining social hierarchies. In social interactions, we identify gender in split seconds, but after centuries of anatomy we are still unable to distinguish male and female cortices...
April 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686496/child-and-youth-advocacy-centres-a-change-in-practice-that-can-change-a-lifetime
#20
Christina L Shaffer, Tanya D Smith, Amy E Ornstein
While often a silent and invisible issue, childhood trauma is pervasive, and has profound individual, societal and economic impacts. Many forms of childhood trauma exist, including child physical and sexual abuse. Given the prevalence, impact and availability of prevention and intervention approaches, child abuse deserves the same level of awareness, policy priority and investment as is directed to other issues of significant public health importance. The complex issue of child abuse requires a coordinated multifaceted response, which minimizes system trauma and revictimization for the child and family...
April 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
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