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Amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656587/juvenile-hormone-mediates-the-positive-effects-of-nitrogen-fertilization-on-weight-and-reproduction-in-pea-aphid
#1
Jing Gao, Huijuan Guo, Yucheng Sun, Feng Ge
BACKGROUND: The positive effects of nitrogen fertilization on the performance of phytophagous insects have been extensively reported, the physiological and molecular basis involved, however, are largely unclear. Here, we experimentally test whether the enhancement of juvenile hormone (JH) is responsible for the increased weight and fecundity of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) under nitrogen fertilization. RESULTS: Aphids fed on Medicago truncatula with nitrogen fertilization have more amino acids content, greater weight at the 4th instar and adult stage, and produce more offspring than those without nitrogen fertilization...
April 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656567/major-venom-proteins-of-the-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-insights-into-possible-pheromone-binding-function-from-mass-spectrometric-analysis
#2
T Das, I Alabi, M Colley, F Yan, W Griffith, S Bach, S T Weintraub, R Renthal
Proteins in the venom of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta have been suggested to function in pheromone binding. Venom from queens and workers contains different isoforms of these proteins, consistent with the differing pheromones they secrete, but questions remain about the venom protein composition and glandular source. We found that the queen venom contains a previously uncharacterized pheromone-binding protein paralogue known as Sol i 2X1. Using imaging mass spectrometry, we located the main venom proteins in the poison sac, implying that pheromones might have to compete with venom alkaloids for binding...
April 15, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656518/genotype-specific-progression-of-hereditary-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#3
Andreas Machens, Kerstin Lorenz, Frank Weber, Henning Dralle
Although already 25 years into the genomic era, age-related progression of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), the prevalence of which is estimated at 1 in 80,000 inhabitants, remains to be delineated for most unique RET (REarranged during Transfection) mutations. Included in this study were 567 RET carriers. The age-related progression of MTC across histopathological groups (normal thyroid/C-cell hyperplasia; node-negative MTC; node-positive MTC) was statistically significant for 13 unique RET mutations (p...
April 14, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656515/comparative-cyp-omic-analysis-between-the-ddt-susceptible-and-resistant-drosophila-melanogaster-strains-91-c-and-91-r
#4
Keon Mook Seong, Brad S Coates, May R Berenbaum, John M Clark, Barry R Pittendrigh
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are involved in the biosynthesis of endogenous intracellular compounds and the metabolism of xenobiotics, including chemical insecticides. We investigated the structural and expression level variance across all P450 genes with respect to the evolution of insecticide resistance under multigenerational DDT selection. RESULTS: RNA-seq and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR indicated that the transcript levels of seven P450 genes were significantly up-regulated and three P450 genes were down-regulated in the DDT-resistant strain 91-R, as compared to the control strain 91-C...
April 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656413/influence-of-thermal-treatment-on-the-characteristics-of-major-oyster-allergen-cra-g-1-tropomyosin
#5
Lei Fang, Guoming Li, Ruizeng Gu, Muyi Cai, Jun Lu
BACKGROUND: Shellfish, including oysters, often cause allergic reactions in adults. Thermal treatment is one of the most common technologies to deal with seafood, which may affect biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of heating on conformation and potential allergenicity of oyster-derived tropomyosin (Cra g 1). RESULTS: SDS-PAGE showed that there was an apparent band at 35KD of raw tropomyosin after purification and more significant polymers appeared in heated protein...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656411/study-on-a-65-mer-peptide-mimetic-enzyme-with-gpx-and-sod-dual-function
#6
Juxin Yin, Jianjian Zhuang, Shaowu Lv, Ying Mu
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are harmful to the body. The peroxidase, GPx, and the superoxide dismutase, SOD, are important antioxidant enzymes for preventing ROS-induced damage. Se-CuZn-65P is an enzyme mimetic with dual GPx and SOD antioxidant function. However, currently, its production is mainly based on the cysteine auxotrophic expression technique, which is inefficient, expensive, and time consuming. In this study, we combined protein engineering and the chemical mutation method to synthesize Se-CuZn-65P...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656381/cowpea-an-overview-on-its-nutritional-facts-and-health-benefits
#7
REVIEW
Chathuni Jayathilake, Rizliya Visvanathan, Afka Deen, Ruksheela Bangamuwage, Barana C Jayawardana, Srinivas Nammi, Ruvini Liyanage
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a legume consumed as a high-quality plant protein source in many parts of the world. High protein and carbohydrate contents with relatively low fat content and complementary amino acid pattern to that of cereal grains make cowpea an important nutritional food in the human diet. Cowpea has gained more attention recently from consumers and researchers worldwide due to its exerted health beneficial properties including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive properties...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656312/evaluation-of-taurine-neuroprotection-in-aged-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Raeesa Gupte, Sarah Christian, Paul Keselman, Joshua Habiger, William M Brooks, Janna L Harris
Despite higher rates of hospitalization and mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients over 65 years old, older patients remain underrepresented in drug development studies. Worse outcomes in older individuals compared to younger adults could be attributed to exacerbated injury mechanisms including oxidative stress, inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and bioenergetic dysfunction. Accordingly, pleiotropic treatments are attractive candidates for neuroprotection. Taurine, an endogenous amino acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, osmolytic, and neuromodulator effects, is neuroprotective in adult rats with TBI...
April 14, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656308/bacterial-lipid-modification-of-icp11-and-a-new-elisa-system-applicable-for-wssv-infection-detection
#9
Vidhyapriya Murugan, Krishnan Sankaran
In ELISA, a popular analytical diagnostic tool, the stable non-covalent immobilization (coating) of hydrophilic proteins/peptides on to hydrophobic polystyrene surface has remained a major common challenge. Recombinant bacterial lipid modification of proteins in Escherichia coli system has been shown in this study to solve this problem owing to the hydrophobic anchorage provided by three fatty acyl groups in N-acyl-S-diacylglyceryl Cys at the N-terminus. Exploiting this first post-translational protein engineering, the most abundantly expressed white spot syndrome viral protein ICP11 was lipid-modified and tested as a new target in a new ELISA method useful to shrimp farming...
April 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656225/biodegradation-of-acrylamide-by-a-novel-isolate-cupriavidus-oxalaticus-ictdb921-identification-and-characterization-of-the-acrylamidase-produced
#10
Dattatray K Bedade, Rekha S Singhal
Acrylamide is neurotoxic, genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. Its widespread use in various industrial processes leads to environmental contamination. Acrylamidase produced by certain bacteria degrade acrylamide to acrylic acid and ammonia. The present study details the isolation and identification of soil bacterium which could degrade acrylamide. Among the 18 acrylamide-degrading isolates tested, isolate ICTDB921 demonstrated superior acrylamide degradation which was confirmed by HPLC, FTIR and GC-MS...
April 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656180/peptide-modification-and-cyclization-via-transition-metal-catalysis
#11
REVIEW
Lara R Malins
Transition-metal catalysis has unlocked new paradigms for the late-stage modification and cyclization of peptides by harnessing the innate reactivity of proteinogenic amino acids. The field is rapidly evolving, with recent advances encompassing three fundamental areas-heteroatom couplings, decarboxylative cross-couplings, and C-H functionalizations-which have markedly extended the scope of conventional peptide modification and bioconjugation strategies. The advances outlined herein facilitate access to high-value peptide targets with promising applications in materials science and drug discovery...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656166/identification-of-molt-inhibiting-hormone-and-ecdysteroid-receptor-cdna-sequences-in-gammarus-pulex-and-variations-after-endocrine-disruptor-exposures
#12
Eric Gismondi
In amphipods, growth, development and reproduction are mediated by the molt, which is a hormonally controlled process and which, therefore, could be impacted by endocrine disruption compounds (EDC). The molt process is controlled by both X-organ (XO) and Y-organ (YO) through a variety of hormones and receptors including the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR). However, although many studies were devoted to characterize MIH and EcR in crustaceans, only few works evaluated their variations under EDCs exposures...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656123/selenium-supplementation-prevents-metabolic-and-transcriptomic-responses-to-cadmium-in-mouse-lung
#13
Xin Hu, Joshua D Chandler, Jolyn Fernandes, Michael L Orr, Li Hao, Karan Uppal, David C Neujahr, Dean P Jones, Young-Mi Go
BACKGROUND: The protective effect of selenium (Se) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity is well documented, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. METHODS: Male mice fed standard diet were given Cd (CdCl2 , 18 μmol/L) in drinking water with or without Se (Na2 SeO4, 20 μmol/L) for 16 weeks. Lungs were analyzed for Cd concentration, transcriptomics and metabolomics. Data were analyzed with biostatistics, bioinformatics, pathway enrichment analysis, and combined transcriptome-metabolome-wide association study...
April 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656122/selenoprotein-synthesis-and-regulation-in-archaea
#14
REVIEW
Michael Rother, Vivien Quitzke
BACKGROUND: The major biological form of selenium is that of the co-translationally inserted amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). In Archaea, the majority of proteins containing Sec, selenoproteins, are involved in methanogenesis. However, the function of this residue is often not known because selenium-independent homologs of the selenoproteins can be employed, sometimes even in one organism. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current knowledge about the selenoproteins of Archaea, the metabolic pathways where they are involved, and discusses the (potential) function of individual Sec residues...
April 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656087/molecular-features-of-hepatitis-e-virus-circulation-in-environmental-and-human-samples
#15
H Fenaux, M Chassaing, S Berger, H Jeulin, A Gentilhomme, M Bensenane, J P Bronowicki, C Gantzer, I Bertrand, E Schvoerer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is emerging but its circulation between humans and the environment remains misunderstood. HEV ORF2 gene encodes the capsid playing a key role in viral interactions with surfaces, ORF3 products are involved in the viral cycle. Our aim was to study the molecular characteristics of ORF2 and ORF3 which could favor HEV fitness in patients and the environment. STUDY DESIGN: Samples from 69 patients with hepatitis (blood/stools), 20 urban wastewaters, 20 effluents of a pig slaughterhouse, 22 farm pigs (stools), 20 wild boars (liver/stools) were collected in North-Eastern France...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655983/catalytic-asymmetric-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-methyl-p-boronophenylalanine
#16
Shingo Harada, Ryota Kajihara, Risa Muramoto, Promsuk Jutabha, Naohiko Anzai, Tetsuhiro Nemoto
p-Boronophenylalanine (l-BPA) is applied in clinical settings as a boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to cure malignant melanomas. Structural modification or derivatization of l-BPA, however, to improve its uptake efficiency into tumor cells has scarcely been investigated. We successfully synthesized (S)-2-amino-3-(4-boronophenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid in enantioenriched form as a novel candidate molecule for BNCT. Key steps to enhance the efficiency of this synthesis were enantioselective alkylation of N-protected alanine tert-butyl ester with a Maruoka catalyst and Miyaura borylation reaction to install the boron functionality...
March 28, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655871/cloning-partial-sequencing-and-expression-analysis-of-the-neural-form-of-p450-aromatase-cyp19a1b-in-the-south-america-catfish-rhamdia-quelen
#17
Helena C Silva de Assis, Laia Navarro-Martín, Letícia S P Fernandes, Cibele C Cardoso, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Vance L Trudeau
Brain aromatase is a key enzyme exclusively expressed in fish radial glial cells that convert androgens into estrogens, thus controlling neuroendocrine functions and neurogenesis. As an important step in characterizing the neuroendocrine systems of Rhamdia quelen (jundiá), a partial cDNA sequence (1045 bp) of brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) was cloned and sequenced. At the nucleotide level the cDNA sequence was found to be 88% identical to cyp19a1b of two species of catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and Silurus meridionalis...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655802/mars-variant-associated-with-both-recessive-interstitial-lung-and-liver-disease-and-dominant-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#18
Jonathan Rips, Rebecca Meyer-Schuman, Oded Breuer, Reuven Tsabari, Avraham Shaag, Shoshana Revel-Vilk, Shimon Reif, Orly Elpeleg, Anthony Antonellis, Tamar Harel
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes responsible for charging tRNA with cognate amino acids during protein translation. Non-canonical functions are increasingly recognized, and include transcription and translation control and extracellular signaling. Monoallelic mutations in genes encoding several ARSs have been identified in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT2) disease, whereas biallelic mutations in ARS loci have been associated with multi-tissue syndromes, variably involving the central nervous system, lung, and liver...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655799/stage-specific-expression-of-the-proline-alanine-transporter-in-the-human-pathogen-leishmania
#19
T Liburkin-Dan, D Schlisselberg, R Fischer-Weinberger, P Pescher, E Inbar, M Ephros, D Rentsch, G F Späth, D Zilberstein
Leishmania are obligatory intracellular parasites that cycle between the sand fly midgut (extracellular promastigotes) and mammalian macrophage phagolysosomes (intracellular amastigotes). They have developed mechanisms of adaptation to the distinct environments of host and vector that favor utilization of both proline and alanine. LdAAP24 is the L. donovani proline-alanine transporter. It is a member of Leishmania system A that translocates neutral amino acids. Since system A is promastigote-specific, we aimed to assess whether LdAAP24 is also expressed exclusively in promastigotes...
April 12, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655769/near-infrared-optical-biosensor-based-on-peptide-functionalized-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-hybrids-for-2-4-6-trinitrotoluene-tnt-explosive-detection
#20
Jin Wang
A near infrared (NIR) optical biosensor based on peptide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrids for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection was developed. The TNT binding peptide was directly anchored on the sidewall of the SWCNTs using the π-π interaction between the aromatic amino acids and SWCNTs, forming the peptide-SWCNTs hybrids for near infrared absorption spectra measurement. The evidence of the morphology of peptide-SWCNTs hybrids were obtained using Atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
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