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Amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223136/allele-exchange-at-the-epsps-locus-confers-glyphosate-tolerance-in-cassava
#1
Aaron W Hummel, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Tomas Cermak, Andrew M Mutka, Anupama Vijayaraghavan, Adam Boyher, Colby G Starker, Rebecca Bart, Daniel F Voytas, Nigel J Taylor
Effective weed control can protect yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots (Doll and Piedrahita Cañola, 1978). Farmers could benefit from using herbicide with a tolerant cultivar. We applied traditional transgenesis and gene editing to generate robust glyphosate tolerance in cassava. By comparing promoters regulating expression of transformed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) genes with various paired amino acid substitutions, we found that strong constitutive expression is required to achieve glyphosate tolerance during in vitro selection and in whole cassava plants...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223098/trisubstituted-barbiturates-and-thiobarbiturates-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-as-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-antioxidants-antibacterial-and-anti-proliferative-agents
#2
Joana Figueiredo, João L Serrano, Eunice Cavalheiro, Leena Keurulainen, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Vânia M Moreira, Susana Ferreira, Fernanda C Domingues, Samuel Silvestre, Paulo Almeida
Barbituric and thiobarbituric acid derivatives have become progressively attractive to medicinal chemists due to their wide range of biological activities. Herein, different series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates and thiobarbiturates were prepared in moderate to excellent yields and their activity as xanthine oxidase inhibitors, antioxidants, antibacterial agents and as anti-proliferative compounds was evaluated in vitro. Interesting bioactive barbiturates were found namely, 1,3-dimethyl-5-[1-(2-phenylhydrazinyl)ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6c) and 1,3-dimethyl-5-[1-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazinyl]ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6e), which showed concomitant xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect (IC50 values of 24...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222951/neuronal-pas-domain-protein-4-npas4-controls-neuronal-homeostasis-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-through-the-induction-of-homer1a
#3
Wei Shan, Taku Nagai, Motoki Tanaka, Norimichi Itoh, Yoko Furukawa-Hibi, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Masahiro Sokabe, Kiyofumi Yamada
Neuronal intrinsic homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapse has been implicated in epilepsy pathogenesis to prevent the neuronal circuits from hyper-excitability. Recent findings suggest a role for neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), an activity-dependent neuron-specific transcription factor in epileptogenesis, however, the underlying mechanism by which Npas4 regulates epilepsy remains unclear. We herein propose that limbic seizure activity up-regulates Npas4-homer1a signaling in the hippocampus, thereby contributing to epileptogenesis in mice...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222874/a-homochiral-porous-organic-cage-with-large-cavity-and-pore-windows-for-the-efficient-gc-separation-of-enantiomers-and-positional-isomers
#4
Jun-Hui Zhang, Sheng-Ming Xie, Bang-Jin Wang, Pin-Gang He, Li-Ming Yuan
Porous organic cages composed of discrete cage molecules have attracted considerable recent attention as gas adsorption materials and separation media. In this study, we report a homochiral porous organic cage CC5 with a large cavity and pore windows as a novel stationary phase for high-resolution gas chromatographic separations. The capillary column was prepared by a static coating method. A large number of racemic compounds have been resolved on the coated capillary column, including derivatized amino acids, alcohols, alcohol amines, esters, ethers, ketones, and epoxides...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222847/synthesis-of-novel-norsufentanil-analogues-via-a-four-component-ugi-reaction-and-in-vivo-docking-and-qsar-studies-of-their-analgesic-activity
#5
Majid Nami, Peyman Salehi, Minoo Dabiri, Morteza Bararjanian, Sajjad Gharaghani, Mona Khoramjouy, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Mehrdad Faizi
Novel substituted amino acid tethered norsufentanil derivatives were synthesized by the four-component Ugi reaction. Norsufentanil was reacted with succinic anhydride to produce the corresponding carboxylic acid. The resulting carboxylic acid has undergone a multicomponent reaction with different aldehydes, amines, and isocyanides to produce a library of the desired compounds. In all cases, amide bond rotation was observed in the NMR spectra. In vivo analgesic activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by a tail flick test...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222836/biochemical-and-structural-insights-into-a-thermostable-cellobiohydrolase-from-myceliophthora-thermophila
#6
Marco Antonio Seiki Kadowaki, Paula Higasi, Mariana Ortiz de Godoy, Rolf A Prade, Igor Polikarpov
Cellobiohydrolases hydrolyze cellulose, a linear polymer with glucose monomers linked exclusively by β-1,4 glycosidic linkages. The widespread hydrogen bonding network tethers individual cellulose polymers forming crystalline cellulose, which prevent the access of hydrolytic enzymes and water molecules. The most abundant enzyme secreted by Myceliophthora thermophila M77 in response to the presence of biomass is the cellobiohydrolase MtCel7A, which is composed by a GH7-catalytic domain (CD), a linker and a CBM1-type carbohydrate binding module...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222808/-just-a-spoonful-of-sugar-import-of-sialic-acid-across-bacterial-cell-membranes
#7
REVIEW
Rachel A North, Christopher R Horne, James S Davies, Daniela M Remus, Andrew C Muscroft-Taylor, Parveen Goyal, Weixiao Yuan Wahlgren, S Ramaswamy, Rosmarie Friemann, Renwick C J Dobson
Eukaryotic cell surfaces are decorated with a complex array of glycoconjugates that are usually capped with sialic acids, a large family of over 50 structurally distinct nine-carbon amino sugars, the most common member of which is N-acetylneuraminic acid. Once made available through the action of neuraminidases, bacterial pathogens and commensals utilise host-derived sialic acid by degrading it for energy or repurposing the sialic acid onto their own cell surface to camouflage the bacterium from the immune system...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222806/identification-of-udp-glucose-binding-site-in-glycosyltransferase-domain-of-sucrose-phosphate-synthase-from-sugarcane-saccharum-officinarum-by-structure-based-site-directed-mutagenesis
#8
REVIEW
Widhi Dyah Sawitri, Siti Nurul Afidah, Atsushi Nakagawa, Toshiharu Hase, Bambang Sugiharto
Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is believed to be the key enzyme for controlling the biosynthesis of sucrose. SPSs consist of a functional glycosyltransferase domain that shares conserved residues with the glycosyltransferase domain of sucrose biosynthesis-related protein. The formation of sucrose-6-phosphate is catalyzed by SPS with the transfer of a glycosyl group of uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) as an activated donor sugar to a fructose-6-phosphate as a sugar acceptor. However, understanding of the mechanism of catalytic and substrate binding in SPS is very limited...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222775/sensory-neurons-from-tau-transgenic-mice-and-their-utility-in-drug-screening
#9
Aviva M Tolkovsky, Jack Brelstaff
Tau misfolding is a major cause of neurodegeneration, tauopathies being a growing group of diseases in which tau forms insoluble aggregates, best known in Alzheimer disease as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Many transgenic mouse models of tauopathies have been generated, but it has been difficult to demonstrate disease in primary brain neurons from these mice because neurons need to be harvested within a few days of birth and tau fails to produce NFTs. Transgenic mice have been generated that express the 0N4R isoform of human tau mutated at amino acid 301 (P301S mice) under the Thy1...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222443/metabolic-versatility-of-small-archaea-micrarchaeota-and-parvarchaeota
#10
Lin-Xing Chen, Celia Méndez-García, Nina Dombrowski, Luis E Servín-Garcidueñas, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Bao-Zhu Fang, Zhen-Hao Luo, Sha Tan, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Esperanza Martinez-Romero, Tanja Woyke, Li-Nan Huang, Jesús Sánchez, Ana Isabel Peláez, Manuel Ferrer, Brett J Baker, Wen-Sheng Shu
Small acidophilic archaea belonging to Micrarchaeota and Parvarchaeota phyla are known to physically interact with some Thermoplasmatales members in nature. However, due to a lack of cultivation and limited genomes on hand, their biodiversity, metabolisms, and physiologies remain largely unresolved. Here, we obtained 39 genomes from acid mine drainage (AMD) and hot spring environments around the world. 16S rRNA gene based analyses revealed that Parvarchaeota were only detected in AMD and hot spring habitats, while Micrarchaeota were also detected in others including soil, peat, hypersaline mat, and freshwater, suggesting a considerable higher diversity and broader than expected habitat distribution for this phylum...
December 8, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222186/new-splicing-variants-of-mitochondrial-rho-gtpase-1-miro1-transport-peroxisomes
#11
Kanji Okumoto, Tatsuaki Ono, Ryusuke Toyama, Ayako Shimomura, Aiko Nagata, Yukio Fujiki
Microtubule-dependent long-distance movement of peroxisomes occurs in mammalian cells. However, its molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In this study, we identified three distinct splicing variants of human mitochondrial Rho GTPase-1 (Miro1), each containing amino acid sequence insertions 1 (named Miro1-var2), 2 (Miro1-var3), and both 1 and 2 (Miro1-var4), respectively, at upstream of the transmembrane domain. Miro1-var4 and Miro1-var2 are localized to peroxisomes in a manner dependent on the insertion 1 that is recognized by the cytosolic receptor Pex19p...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222112/rheb-localized-on-the-golgi-membrane-activates-lysosome-localized-mtorc1-at-the-golgi-lysosome-contact-site
#12
Feike Hao, Kazuhiko Kondo, Takashi Itoh, Sumiko Ikari, Shigeyuki Nada, Masato Okada, Takeshi Noda
In response to amino acid supply, mTORC1, a master regulator of cell growth, is recruited to the lysosome and activated by a small GTPase, Rheb. However, the intracellular localization of Rheb is controversial. In this study, we showed that a significant portion of Rheb was localized on the Golgi but not on the lysosome. GFP-Rheb could activate mTORC1, even when forced to exclusively localize to the Golgi. Likewise, artificial recruitment of mTORC1 to the Golgi allowed its activation. Accordingly, the Golgi was in contact with the lysosome at the newly described Golgi lysosome contact site (GLCS)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222027/tbk1-from-orange-spotted-grouper-exerts-antiviral-activity-against-fish-viruses-and-regulates-interferon-response
#13
Yin Hu, Youhua Huang, Jiaxin Liu, Jingcheng Zhang, Qiwei Qin, Xiaohong Huang
TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) has been well studied in mammals because of its importance in type I interferon induction in antiviral immunity. However, the roles of fish TBK1 in virus infection still remained largely uncertain. In the current study, a TBK1 homolog from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcTBK1) was cloned and its roles in fish viral infections were investigated. Sequence analysis showed that EcTBK1 encoded a 723-amino acid peptide which shared 98% and 73% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and human (homo sapiens), respectively...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222016/the-toxin-bjussulaao-ii-induces-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-upregulates-the-inflammatory-cytokine-genes-tnf-and-il6-and-downregulates-the-apoptotic-related-genes-bax-bcl2-and-rela-in-human-caco-2-cells
#14
A R T Machado, A F Aissa, D L Ribeiro, L C Hernandes, C S Machado, M L P Bianchi, S V Sampaio, L M G Antunes
Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in adults. As chemotherapy, the first-choice treatment for colorectal carcinoma, is often infeasible due to acquired tumor resistance and several adverse effects. It is important to discover and explore new molecules with better therapeutic action. Snake venom toxins have shown promising results with high cytotoxicity against tumor cells, but their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here we examined how BjussuLAAO-II, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, exerts cytotoxicity towards colorectal adenocarcinoma human cells (Caco-2) and in human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221987/hierarchical-recognition-of-amino-acid-co-germinants-during-clostridioides-difficile-spore-germination
#15
Ritu Shrestha, Joseph A Sorg
Bile acids are an important signal for germination of Clostridioides difficile spores; however, the bile acid signal alone is not sufficient. Amino acids, such as glycine, are another signal necessary for germination by C. difficile spores. Prior studies on the amino acid signal required for germination have shown that there is a preference for the amino acid used as a signal for germination. Previously we found that d-alanine can function as a co-germinant for C. difficile spores at 37 °C but not at 25 °C...
December 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221970/practical-application-of-biogenic-amine-profiles-for-the-diagnosis-of-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#16
Natalia Miękus, Ilona Olędzka, Piotr Kowalski, Paweł Miękus, Tomasz Baczek
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke (IS) is still one of the major issues in medicine. Still, early diagnosis and misdiagnosis remain the main barriers for proper patient treatment and follow-up. Exploring new potential diagnostic biomarkers for IS is relevant to decrease patient morbidity and the occurrence of poststroke diseases. Biomedical analysis could bring new light to the background of IS and-in such a way-propose new bioanalytical tools for the early diagnosis, prognostication, and monitoring of IS...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221868/influence-of-hydrogen-bond-accepting-ability-of-anions-on-the-adsorption-performance-of-ionic-liquid-surface-molecularly-imprinted-polymers
#17
Guifen Zhu, Xia Gao, Xiaolong Wang, Jianji Wang, Jing Fan
To illuminate the influence mechanism of anionic structure of ionic liquids (ILs) on the adsorption performance of surface molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), in this work, six newly designed MIPs were prepared on the surface of amino-poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles by using imidazolium ILs with the same cation [C4mim]+ but different anions (Cl, CH3SO3, PF6, BF4, C4F7O2, C4F9SO3) as template molecules, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, and ethylene dimethacrylate as cross-linker. The resulting MIP materials were characterized by IR and SEM, and the influence of hydrogen bond accepting ability of anions on the adsorption performance of the MIPs for the ILs was investigated in acetonitrile...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221796/synthesis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-new-peptides-from-alfalfa-rubisco-protein-hydrolysates-and-mode-of-action-via-a-membrane-damage-mechanism-against-listeria-innocua
#18
Sabrine Kobbi, Naima Nedjar, Nourdine Chihib, Rafik Balti, Mickael Chevalier, Amandine Silvain, Semia Chaabouni, Pascal Dhulster, Ali Bougatef
In this work we evaluated the mode of action of six new synthesized peptides (Met-Asp-Asn; Glu-leu-Ala-Ala-Ala-Cys; Leu-Arg-Asp-Asp-Phe; Gly-Asn-Ala-Pro-Gly-Ala-Val-Ala; Ala-Leu-Arg-Met-Ser-Gly and Arg-Asp-Arg-Phe-Leu), previously identified, from the most active peptide fractions of RuBisCO peptic hydrolysate against Listeria innocua via a membrane damage mechanism. Antibacterial effect and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these peptides were evaluated against six strains and their hemolytic activities towards bovine erythrocytes were determined...
December 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221753/pura-the-gene-encoding-pur-alpha-member-of-an-ancient-nucleic-acid-binding-protein-family-with-mammalian-neurological-functions
#19
REVIEW
Dianne C Daniel, Edward M Johnson
The PURA gene encodes Pur-alpha, a 322 amino acid protein with repeated nucleic acid binding domains that are highly conserved from bacteria through humans. PUR genes with a single copy of this domain have been detected so far in spirochetes and bacteroides. Lower eukaryotes possess one copy of the PUR gene, whereas chordates possess 1-4 PUR family members. Human PUR genes encode Pur-alpha (Pura), Pur-beta (Purb) and two forms of Pur-gamma (Purg). Pur-alpha is a protein that binds specific DNA and RNA sequence elements...
December 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221569/functional-analysis-of-the-igf-system-in-milk
#20
REVIEW
Andreas Hoeflich, Zianka Meyer
The development of milk during evolution is considered a more recent step to provide the neonate with adequate amounts of energy, nutrients, and specific hormonal signals thereby, granting a fast and efficient rate of postnatal growth and development. Since the insulin- or the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems were evolved much earlier, it can be assumed that the functionality of the IGF-system has been integrated into the novel matrix milk containing casein and whey proteins from the beginnings. In fact, IGFs and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are abundantly present in milk, which is particularly true for fore-milk or colostrum and the potential effects of milk-borne IGF-compounds on the consuming organisms have in fact been addressed by several studies...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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