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Amino acids

Jian Zheng, Tao Lin, Wei Chen, Hui Tao, Yiwen Tan, Baiwen Ma
The O3 /BAC process has been widely used in drinking water treatment to improve the removal of dissolved organic matters (DOMs), including the precursors of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). In this study, the removal of N-DBP precursors by biological activated carbon (BAC) filters with different usage time of granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated. Results showed that the BAC filter with 6 years of usage time of GAC (old BAC filter) had a poor performance in the removal of precursors of N-DBPs such as dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN; an average of only 4...
June 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Takeshi Hano, Mana Ito, Katsutoshi Ito, Motoharu Uchida
Gut microbiota play an essential role in an organism's health. The fecal metabolite profiling content reflects these microbiota-mediated physiological changes in various organisms, including fish. Therefore, metabolomics analysis of fish feces should provide insight into the dynamics linking physiology and gut microbiota. However, metabolites are often unstable in aquatic environments, making fecal metabolites difficult to examine in fish. In this study, a novel method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and optimized for the preparation of metabolomics samples from the feces of the marine fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Kun Cao, Fubin Lai, Xin-Lu Zhao, Qiu-Xia Wei, Xin-Yu Miao, Ruiguang Ge, Qing-Yu He, Xuesong Sun
Given their involvement in catalysis, infection, and biofilm formation, Fe and Mn are essential for bacterial survival and virulence. In this study, we found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) could grow in the Mn-deficient medium (MDCM). Furthermore, findings showed that the Fe concentration in the bacterium increased when the Mn concentration decreased. In addition, it was noted that supplementing MDCM with Fe resulted in the recovery of bacterial growth. Quantitative proteomics using stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was performed to investigate the adaptive growth mechanism of S...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Hironobu Murakami, Jumpei Uchiyama, Chihiro Suzuki, Sae Nikaido, Kaho Shibuya, Reiichiro Sato, Yosuke Maeda, Michiko Tomioka, Shin-Nosuke Takeshima, Hajime Kato, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Hiroshi Sentsui, Yoko Aida, Kenji Tsukamoto
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which causes enormous economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. To reduce the economic loss caused by BLV infection, it is important to clarify the characters associated with BLV transmissibility and pathogenesis in cattle. In this study, we focused on viral characters and examined spontaneous mutations in the virus and viral properties by analyses of whole genome sequences and BLV molecular clones derived from cows with and without EBL...
June 15, 2018: Virus Research
S Pescina, C Ostacolo, I M Gomez-Monterrey, M Sala, A Bertamino, F Sonvico, C Padula, P Santi, A Bianchera, S Nicoli
Despite the increasing number of effective therapeutics for eye diseases, their treatment is still challenging due to the presence of effective barriers protecting eye tissues. Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs), synthetic and natural short amino acid sequences able to cross cellular membrane thanks to a transduction domain, have been proposed as possible enhancing strategies for ophthalmic delivery. In this review, a general description of CPPs classes, design approaches and proposed cellular uptake mechanisms will be provided to the reader as an introduction to ocular CPPs application, together with an overview of the main problems related to ocular administration...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Qi Tang, Peng Wu, Huiqing Chen, Guohui Li
Protein ubiquitination is a highly conserved post-translational modification affecting various biological processes including viral propagation. Ubiquitination has multiple effects on viral propagation, including viral genome uncoating, viral replication, and immune evasion. Ubiquitination of viral proteins is triggered by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). This involves the covalent attachment of the highly conserved 76 amino acid residue ubiquitin protein to target proteins by the consecutive actions of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, and the 26S proteasome that together form a multiprotein complex that degrades target proteins...
June 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Cheng Peng, Ling Xiao, Huimin Chen, Yulong Han, Minwei Huang, Mi Zhao, Shuisheng Li, Yun Liu, Yuqing Yang, Haifa Zhang, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin
Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) plays a critical role in reproduction by mediating LH signaling in the gonad. In this study, we cloned a novel lhr gene from the orange-spotted grouper, named glhr2. The cloned complete open reading frame sequence of glhr2 was 2082 bp in length, encoding a protein of 693 amino acids, sharing approximately 50% amino acid identity with glhr1. glhr1 and glhr2 were primarily expressed in gonad, brain and hypothalamus with lowe expression in other tissues such as gill, spleen, etc...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Simon F Müller, Alexander König, Barbara Döring, Dieter Glebe, Joachim Geyer
The hepatic Na+/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP in man, Ntcp in animals) is the high-affinity receptor for the hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) viruses. Species barriers for human HBV/HDV within the order Primates were previously attributed to Ntcp sequence variations that disable virus-receptor interaction. However, only a limited number of primate Ntcps have been analysed so far. In the present study, a total of 11 Ntcps from apes, Old and New World monkeys were cloned and expressed in vitro to characterise their interaction with HBV and HDV...
2018: PloS One
Jessica J Hobson, Austin S Gallegos, Benjamin W Atha, John P Kelly, Christina D Lein, Cailtin E VanOrsdel, John E Weldon, Matthew R Hemm
Small proteins are a new and expanding area of research. Many characterized small proteins are composed of a single hydrophobic α-helix, and the functional requirements of their limited amino acid sequence are not well understood. One hydrophobic small protein, CydX, has been shown to be a component of the cytochrome bd oxidase complex in Escherichia coli, and is required for enzyme function. To investigate small protein sequence specificity, an alanine scanning mutagenesis on the small protein CydX was conducted using mutant alleles expressed from the E...
2018: PloS One
Chu Kion Yao, James Fung, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Liver cirrhosis is associated with significant nutritional risks that often result in serious hepatic complications and poor survival rates. Diet is an important but underutilized aspect in the treatment modality of cirrhosis. Therefore, the aims of this review are to ascertain nutritional risks associated with its pathophysiology and to summarize existing evidence that support dietary recommendations for managing this patient population. Alterations in substrate utilization for energy production is a main feature of liver cirrhosis, resulting in increased catabolism of protein stores and a predisposition toward protein-energy malnutrition, even in the early stages of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Tatsuki Kikegawa, Takuya Yamaguchi, Ryohei Nambu, Kenji Etchuya, Masami Ikeda, Yuri Mukai
Despite studies of the mechanism underlying the intracellular localization of membrane proteins, the specific mechanisms by which each membrane protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane in the secretory pathway are unclear. In this study, a discriminant analysis of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane-localized type II membrane proteins was performed using a position-specific scoring matrix derived from the amino acid propensity of the sequences around signal-anchors...
June 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yong-Qiang Yang, Yun-Xia Li, Chang-Wei Lei, An-Yun Zhang, Hong-Ning Wang
Objectives: To identify a novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from chickens in China. Methods: WGS was used to identify a novel colistin resistance gene. The transferability of plasmids carrying mcr-7.1 was investigated by conjugation experiments. The expression of the mcr-7.1 gene was examined using an expression vector. Results: A novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-7.1, sharing 70% amino acid identity with the mcr-3 gene, was identified in three K...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Dong Ai, Shenhang Cheng, Hetan Chang, Ting Yang, Guirong Wang, Caihong Yu
Trehalase is an indispensable component of insect hemolymph that plays important role in energy metabolism and stress resistance. In this study, we cloned and expressed the gene encoding soluble trehalase (HaTreh-1) of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) and characterized the enzyme. HaTreh-1 had a full-length open reading frame encoding a protein of 571 amino acids. Sequence comparison indicated that HaTreh-1 was similar to some known insect trehalases. Two essential active sites (D321 and E519) and three essential residues (R168, R221, and R286) were conserved in HaTreh-1...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Lu Liu, Yu Feng, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
Objectives: New Delhi MBL (NDM) is a type of carbapenemase; 20 variants of NDM have been identified to date. We have found a new variant of NDM, NDM-21, and describe it here. Methods: A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli was subjected to WGS using an Illumina X10 sequencer to identify the antimicrobial resistance genes and its ST. The gene encoding the new variant of NDM was cloned into E. coli DH5α, with blaNDM-5 being cloned as the control. Transformants were tested for susceptibility to carbapenems...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Weiwei Wang, Zhui Li, Liping Gan, Hao Fan, Yuming Guo
Metabolomics is used to evaluate the bioavailability of food components, as well as to validate the metabolic changes associated with food consumption. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplement Kluyveromyces marxianus on the serum metabolite profile in broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-d-old broilers were divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates. Birds were fed basal diets without or with K. marxianus supplementation (5 × 1010 CFU kg-1 of diet). Serum samples were collected on d 21 and were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of flight/mass spectrometry...
June 18, 2018: Food & Function
Marta Guerola, Marcos Escolano, Gloria Alzuet-Piña, Enrique Gómez-Bengoa, Carmen Ramírez de Arellano, María Sánchez-Roselló, Carlos Del Pozo
An organocatalytic enantioselective intramolecular aza-Michael reaction has been described for the first time in a desymmetrization process employing substrates different from cyclohexadienones. By using 9-amino-9-deoxy-epi-hydroquinine as the catalyst and trifluoroacetic acid as a co-catalyst, a series of enantiomerically enriched 2,5-and 2,6-disubstituted piperidines have been obtained in good yields and with moderate diastereoselectivity. Depending on the catalyst/co-catalyst loading ratio, either the major or the minor diastereoisomer of the final piperidine products was achieved with high levels of enantioselectivity...
June 18, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
L Pietrogrande, E Raimondo
Abaloparatide is a synthetic 34-amino acid peptide analogue of the 1-34 portion of the human parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). It has been approved in the U.S. for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at a high risk for fracture. Abaloparatide is an anabolic agent and it seems to have a potent anabolic activity with reduced effects on bone resorption. It reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, major osteoporotic fractures and clinical fractures, with a significant improvement in bone mineral density at femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine...
May 2018: Drugs of Today
Zhi-Xuan Xia, Zu-Cheng Shen, Shao-Qi Zhang, Ji Wang, Tai-Lei Nie, Qiao Deng, Jian-Guo Chen, Fang Wang, Peng-Fei Wu
AIMS: Palmitoylation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) subunits or their "scaffold" proteins produce opposite effects on AMPAR surface delivery. Considering AMPARs have long been identified as suitable drug targets for central nervous system (CNS) disorders, targeting palmitoylation signaling to regulate AMPAR function emerges as a novel therapeutic strategy. However, until now, much less is known about the effect of palmitoylation-deficient state on AMPAR function...
June 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Zhaoyuan Liu, Wenli Yu, Christopher T Nomura, Junhui Li, Shouwen Chen, Yong Yang, Qin Wang
The dodecapeptide antibiotic bacitracin, produced by several strains of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, is widely used as an antibacterial animal feed additive. Several genetic strategies were explored to enhance its production. The availability of building block amino acids for bacitracin production was found to play an important role in its synthesis. In this study, the TCA cycle in the industrial strain B. licheniformis DW2 was strengthened by overexpression of the key enzymes citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH)...
June 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Genciana Terova, Simona Rimoldi, Marisol Izquierdo, Cristina Pirrone, Wafa Ghrab, Giovanni Bernardini
Currently, the larviculture of many marine fish species with small-sized larvae depends for a short time after hatching, on the supply of high-quality live zooplankton to ensure high survival and growth rates. During the last few decades, the research community has made great efforts to develop artificial diets, which can completely substitute live prey. However, studies aimed at determining optimal levels of minerals in marine larvae compound feeds and the potential of novel delivery vectors for mineral acquisition has only very recently begun...
June 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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