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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924567/rearrangeable-and-exchangeable-optical-module-with-system-on-chip-for-wearable-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-system
#1
Tsukasa Funane, Takashi Numata, Hiroki Sato, Shinsuke Hiraizumi, Yuichi Hasegawa, Hidenobu Kuwabara, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Masashi Kiguchi
We developed a system-on-chip (SoC)-incorporated light-emitting diode (LED) and avalanche photodiode (APD) modules to improve the usability and flexibility of a fiberless wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. The SoC has a microprocessing unit and programmable circuits. The time division method and the lock-in method were used for separately detecting signals from different positions and signals of different wavelengths, respectively. Each module autonomously works for this time-divided-lock-in measurement with a high sensitivity for haired regions...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906462/time-resolved-diffuse-optical-spectroscopy-and-imaging-using-solid-state-detectors-characteristics-present-status-and-research-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Mrwan Alayed, M Jamal Deen
Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and diffuse optical imaging (DOI) are emerging non-invasive imaging modalities that have wide spread potential applications in many fields, particularly for structural and functional imaging in medicine. In this article, we review time-resolved diffuse optical imaging (TR-DOI) systems using solid-state detectors with a special focus on Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). These TR-DOI systems can be categorized into two types based on the operation mode of the detector (free-running or time-gated)...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900169/negative-differential-conductance-hot-carrier-avalanching-in-monolayer-ws2-fets
#3
G He, J Nathawat, C-P Kwan, H Ramamoorthy, R Somphonsane, M Zhao, K Ghosh, U Singisetti, N Perea-López, C Zhou, A L Elías, M Terrones, Y Gong, X Zhang, R Vajtai, P M Ajayan, D K Ferry, J P Bird
The high field phenomena of inter-valley transfer and avalanching breakdown have long been exploited in devices based on conventional semiconductors. In this Article, we demonstrate the manifestation of these effects in atomically-thin WS2 field-effect transistors. The negative differential conductance exhibits all of the features familiar from discussions of this phenomenon in bulk semiconductors, including hysteresis in the transistor characteristics and increased noise that is indicative of travelling high-field domains...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866108/characteristics-and-outcome-of-patients-with-hypothermic-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-experience-from-a-european-trauma-center
#4
Elfriede Ruttmann, Marion Dietl, Tobias Kastenberger, Rene El Attal, Mathias Ströhle, Hanno Ulmer, Peter Mair
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to investigate patient characteristics, survival rates and neurological outcome among hypothermic patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) admitted to a trauma center. METHODS: A review of patients with OHCA and a core temperature ≤32°C admitted to a trauma center between 2004 and 2016. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients (mean temperature 25.8°C±3.9°C) were entered in the study, 37 (39%) of them after avalanche burial...
September 1, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863689/32-channel-time-correlated-single-photon-counting-system-for-high-throughput-lifetime-imaging
#5
P Peronio, I Labanca, G Acconcia, A Ruggeri, A A Lavdas, A A Hicks, P P Pramstaller, M Ghioni, I Rech
Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is a very efficient technique for measuring weak and fast optical signals, but it is mainly limited by the relatively "long" measurement time. Multichannel systems have been developed in recent years aiming to overcome this limitation by managing several detectors or TCSPC devices in parallel. Nevertheless, if we look at state-of-the-art systems, there is still a strong trade-off between the parallelism level and performance: the higher the number of channels, the poorer the performance...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863653/sine-wave-gating-silicon-single-photon-detectors-for-multiphoton-entanglement-experiments
#6
Nan Zhou, Wen-Hao Jiang, Luo-Kan Chen, Yu-Qiang Fang, Zheng-Da Li, Hao Liang, Yu-Ao Chen, Jun Zhang, Jian-Wei Pan
Silicon single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for detecting single photons in the visible wavelength range. Here we present high detection efficiency silicon SPDs dedicated to the generation of multiphoton entanglement based on the technique of high-frequency sine wave gating. The silicon single-photon avalanche diode components are acquired by disassembling 6 commercial single-photon counting modules (SPCMs). Using the new quenching electronics, the average detection efficiency of SPDs is increased from 68...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860677/a-walk-on-the-wild-side-disturbance-dynamics-and-the-conservation-and-management-of-european-mountain-forest-ecosystems
#7
Dominik Kulakowski, Rupert Seidl, Jan Holeksa, Timo Kuuluvainen, Thomas A Nagel, Momchil Panayotov, Miroslav Svoboda, Simon Thorn, Giorgio Vacchiano, Cathy Whitlock, Thomas Wohlgemuth, Peter Bebi
Mountain forests are among the most important ecosystems in Europe as they support numerous ecological, hydrological, climatic, social, and economic functions. They are unique relatively natural ecosystems consisting of long-lived species in an otherwise densely populated human landscape. Despite this, centuries of intensive forest management in many of these forests have eclipsed evidence of natural processes, especially the role of disturbances in long-term forest dynamics. Recent trends of land abandonment and establishment of protected forests have coincided with a growing interest in managing forests in more natural states...
March 15, 2017: Forest Ecology and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860675/changes-of-forest-cover-and-disturbance-regimes-in-the-mountain-forests-of-the-alps
#8
P Bebi, R Seidl, R Motta, M Fuhr, D Firm, F Krumm, M Conedera, C Ginzler, T Wohlgemuth, D Kulakowski
Natural disturbances, such as avalanches, snow breakage, insect outbreaks, windthrow or fires shape mountain forests globally. However, in many regions over the past centuries human activities have strongly influenced forest dynamics, especially following natural disturbances, thus limiting our understanding of natural ecological processes, particularly in densely-settled regions. In this contribution we briefly review the current understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests across the European Alps over the past millennia...
March 15, 2017: Forest Ecology and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829575/electrical-breakdown-of-suspended-mono-and-few-layer-tungsten-disulfide-via-sulfur-depletion-identified-by-in-situ-atomic-imaging
#9
Ye Fan, Alex W Robertson, Yingqiu Zhou, Qu Chen, Xiaowei Zhang, Nigel D Browning, Haimei Zheng, Mark H Rummeli, Jamie H Warner
The high-bias and breakdown behavior of suspended mono- and few-layer WS2 was explored by in situ aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). The suspended WS2 devices were found to undergo irreversible breakdown at sufficiently high biases due to vaporization of the WS2. Simultaneous to the removal of WS2 was the accompanying formation of few-layer graphene decorated with W and WS2 nanoparticles, with the carbon source attributed to organic residues present on the WS2 surface. The breakdown of few-layer WS2 resulted in the formation of facetted S-depleted WS2 tendrils along the vaporization boundary, which were found to exhibit lattice contraction indicative of S depletion, alongside pure W phases incorporated into the structure, with the interfaces imaged at atomic resolution...
August 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825916/statistics-of-twinning-in-strained-ferroelastics
#10
Xiangdong Ding, Oktay Aktas, Xiaofei Wang, Suzhi Li, Ziyuan Zhao, Libo Zhang, Xiaomei He, Turab Lookman, Avadh Saxena, Jun Sun
In this review, we show that the evolution of the microstructure and kinetics of ferroelastic crystals under external shear can be explored by computer simulations of 2D model materials. We find that the nucleation and propagation of twin boundaries in ferroelastics depend sensitively on temperature. In the plastic regime, the evolution of the ferroelastic microstructure under strain deformation maintains a stick-and-slip mechanism in all temperature regimes, whereas the dynamic behavior changes dramatically from power-law statistics at low temperature to a Kohlrausch law at intermediate temperature, and then to a Vogel-Fulcher law at high temperature...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818232/review-of-the-endothelial-pathogenic-mechanism-of-tie2-related-venous-malformation
#11
REVIEW
Zhong Du, JiaWei Zheng, ZhiYuan Zhang, YanAn Wang
BACKGROUND: Venous malformation (VM) is a type of disease involving vascular morphogenesis in humans. Clinically, VM can be sporadic or inherited. TIE2, also known as TEK or HYK, is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily and is highly conserved among species. In 1996, an arginine-to-tryptophan substitution at position 849 (R849W) in TIE2 was found to induce hereditary VM. Additional alterations in TIE2 involved in the pathogenesis of inherited or sporadic VM have since been reported...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791170/fire-ants-perpetually-rebuild-sinking-towers
#12
Sulisay Phonekeo, Nathan Mlot, Daria Monaenkova, David L Hu, Craig Tovey
In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790056/alcoholic-versus-aqueous-chlorhexidine-for-skin-antisepsis-the-avalanche-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daniel Charles, Clare F Heal, Meth Delpachitra, Michael Wohlfahrt, Debbie Kimber, Julie Sullivan, Sheldon Browning, Sabine Saednia, Alexandra Hardy, Jennifer Banks, Petra Buttner
BACKGROUND: Preoperative skin antisepsis is routine practice. We compared alcoholic chlorhexidine with aqueous chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis to prevent surgical site infection after minor skin excisions in general practice. METHODS: We conducted this prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial in 4 private general practices in North Queensland, Australia, from October 2015 to August 2016. Consecutive adult patients presenting for minor skin excisions were randomly assigned to undergo preoperative skin antisepsis with 0...
August 8, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769096/refractory-period-in-network-models-of-excitable-nodes-self-sustaining-stable-dynamics-extended-scaling-region-and-oscillatory-behavior
#14
S Amin Moosavi, Afshin Montakhab, Alireza Valizadeh
Networks of excitable nodes have recently attracted much attention particularly in regards to neuronal dynamics, where criticality has been argued to be a fundamental property. Refractory behavior, which limits the excitability of neurons is thought to be an important dynamical property. We therefore consider a simple model of excitable nodes which is known to exhibit a transition to instability at a critical point (λ = 1), and introduce refractory period into its dynamics. We use mean-field analytical calculations as well as numerical simulations to calculate the activity dependent branching ratio that is useful to characterize the behavior of critical systems...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745161/nhs-homes-fund-could-offer-a-glimmer-of-hope
#15
James Buchan
Buried in the recent avalanche of negative news about nursing shortages and Brexit is a glimmer of hope - perhaps. The NHS Confederation has floated the idea of setting up a £10 billion NHS homes fund to enable the health service to provide staff housing.
July 26, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745086/fog-computing-and-edge-computing-architectures-for-processing-data-from-diabetes-devices-connected-to-the-medical-internet-of-things
#16
David C Klonoff
The Internet of Things (IoT) is generating an immense volume of data. With cloud computing, medical sensor and actuator data can be stored and analyzed remotely by distributed servers. The results can then be delivered via the Internet. The number of devices in IoT includes such wireless diabetes devices as blood glucose monitors, continuous glucose monitors, insulin pens, insulin pumps, and closed-loop systems. The cloud model for data storage and analysis is increasingly unable to process the data avalanche, and processing is being pushed out to the edge of the network closer to where the data-generating devices are...
July 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736534/self-organizing-complex-networks-individual-versus-global-rules
#17
Korosh Mahmoodi, Bruce J West, Paolo Grigolini
We introduce a form of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) inspired by the new generation of evolutionary game theory, which ranges from physiology to sociology. The single individuals are the nodes of a composite network, equivalent to two interacting subnetworks, one leading to strategy choices made by the individuals under the influence of the choices of their nearest neighbors and the other measuring the Prisoner's Dilemma Game payoffs of these choices. The interaction between the two networks is established by making the imitation strength K increase or decrease according to whether the last two payoffs increase or decrease upon increasing or decreasing K...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720854/laser-pulse-shape-control-of-seeded-qed-cascades
#18
Matteo Tamburini, Antonino Di Piazza, Christoph H Keitel
QED cascades are complex avalanche processes of hard photon emission and electron-positron pair creation driven by ultrastrong electromagnetic fields. They play a fundamental role in astrophysical environments such as a pulsars' magnetosphere, rendering an earth-based implementation with intense lasers attractive. In the literature, QED cascades were also predicted to limit the attainable intensity in a set-up of colliding laser beams in a tenuous gas such as the residual gas of a vacuum chamber, therefore severely hindering experiments at extreme field intensities...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702255/diabetes-and-its-drivers-the-largest-epidemic-in-human-history
#19
EDITORIAL
Paul Z Zimmet
The "Diabesity" epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore "the rise and rise" of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686281/identification-of-microrna-precursors-using-reduced-and-hybrid-features
#20
Asad Khan, Sajid Shah, Fazli Wahid, Fiaz Gul Khan, Saima Jabeen
MicroRNAs (also called miRNAs) are a group of short non-coding RNA molecules. They play a vital role in the gene expression of transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. However, abnormality of their expression has been observed in cancer, heart diseases and nervous system disorders. Therefore for basic research and microRNA based therapy, it is imperative to separate real pre-miRNAs from false ones (hairpin sequences similar to pre-miRNA stem loops). Different conservation and machine learning methods have been applied for the identification of miRNAs...
July 25, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
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