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Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu, Rosemary Chinazam Okoye
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals...
April 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Xiumin Li, Qing Chen, Fangzheng Xue
In recent years, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that networks in the brain can self-organize into a critical state where dynamics exhibit a mixture of ordered and disordered patterns. This critical branching phenomenon is termed neuronal avalanches. It has been hypothesized that the homeostatic level balanced between stability and plasticity of this critical state may be the optimal state for performing diverse neural computational tasks. However, the critical region for high performance is narrow and sensitive for spiking neural networks (SNNs)...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Prabodh Shukla, Diana Thongjaomayum
We present general criteria for the occurrence of infinite avalanches and critical hysteresis in the zero-temperature nonequilibrium random-field Ising model on a Bethe lattice. Drawing upon extant results as well as a result on a dilute four-coordinated (z=4) lattice, we show that diverging avalanches can occur if an arbitrarily small fraction of sites on a spanning cluster have connectivity z≥4.
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Rianne de Jong, Song-Chuan Zhao, Devaraj van der Meer
After a raindrop impacts on a granular bed, a crater is formed as both drop and target deform. After an initial, transient, phase in which the maximum crater depth is reached, the crater broadens outwards until a final steady shape is attained. By varying the impact velocity of the drop and the packing density of the bed, we find that avalanches of grains are important in the second phase and hence affect the final crater shape. In a previous paper, we introduced an estimate of the impact energy going solely into sand deformation and here we show that both the transient and final crater diameter collapse with this quantity for various packing densities...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
T Chevalier, A K Dubey, S Atis, A Rosso, D Salin, L Talon
We report on numerical studies of avalanches of an autocatalytic reaction front in a porous medium. The front propagation is controlled by an adverse flow resulting in upstream, static, or downstream regimes. In an earlier study focusing on front shape, we identified three different universality classes associated with this system by following the front dynamics experimentally and numerically. Here, using numerical simulations in the vicinity of the second-order transition, we identify an avalanche dynamics characterized by power-law distributions of avalanche sizes, durations, and lateral extensions...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Romain Demur, Arnaud Grisard, Loïc Morvan, Eric Lallier, Nicolas Treps, Claude Fabre
We report an upconversion experiment using an orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) crystal to detect small mid-infrared signals on an InGaAs avalanche photodiode. A conversion efficiency up to 20% with a nonpolarized pulsed fiber pump is demonstrated. Our uncooled setup is favorably compared in terms of noise equivalent power, dynamic range, and response time to cryogenically cooled HgCdTe detectors. Its dependence on the polarization of both the pump and signal beams is also investigated.
May 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Raphaël Paris, Juan J Coello Bravo, María E Martín González, Karim Kelfoun, François Nauret
Giant mass failures of oceanic shield volcanoes that generate tsunamis potentially represent a high-magnitude but low-frequency hazard, and it is actually difficult to infer the mechanisms and dynamics controlling them. Here we document tsunami deposits at high elevation (up to 132 m) on the north-western slopes of Tenerife, Canary Islands, as a new evidence of megatsunami generated by volcano flank failure. Analyses of the tsunami deposits demonstrate that two main tsunamis impacted the coasts of Tenerife 170 kyr ago...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
M Mancinelli, A Trenti, S Piccione, G Fontana, J S Dam, P Tidemand-Lichtenberg, C Pedersen, L Pavesi
Quantum measurements using single-photon detectors are opening interesting new perspectives in diverse fields such as remote sensing, quantum cryptography and quantum computing. A particularly demanding class of applications relies on the simultaneous detection of correlated single photons. In the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges suitable single-photon detectors do exist. However, low detector quantum efficiency or excessive noise has hampered their mid-infrared (MIR) counterpart. Fast and highly efficient single-photon detectors are thus highly sought after for MIR applications...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Jae-Eun Kang Miller, Rafael Yuste, Ralf Wessel
Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that the cortex operates near a critical state, defined as the transition point between order (large-scale activity) and disorder (small-scale activity). This criticality is manifested by power law distribution of the size and duration of spontaneous cascades of activity, which are referred as neuronal avalanches. The existence of such neuronal avalanches has been confirmed by several studies both in vitro and in vivo, among different species and across multiple spatial scales...
2017: PloS One
Ion Vornicu, Ricardo Carmona-Galán, Ángel Rodríguez-Vázquez
The design of a direct time-of-flight complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor (dToF-CIS) based on a single-photon avalanche-diode (SPAD) array with an in-pixel time-to-digital converter (TDC) must contemplate system-level aspects that affect its overall performance. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the impact of process parameters, voltage supply, and temperature (PVT) variations on the time bin of the TDC array. Moreover, the design and characterization of a global compensation loop is presented...
May 9, 2017: Sensors
A Levina, V Priesemann
In real-world applications, observations are often constrained to a small fraction of a system. Such spatial subsampling can be caused by the inaccessibility or the sheer size of the system, and cannot be overcome by longer sampling. Spatial subsampling can strongly bias inferences about a system's aggregated properties. To overcome the bias, we derive analytically a subsampling scaling framework that is applicable to different observables, including distributions of neuronal avalanches, of number of people infected during an epidemic outbreak, and of node degrees...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
Ingrid Reiweger, Manuel Genswein, Peter Paal, Jürg Schweizer
Recent technical and strategical developments have increased the survival chances for avalanche victims. Still hundreds of people, primarily recreationists, get caught and buried by snow avalanches every year. About 100 die each year in the European Alps-and many more worldwide. Refining concepts for avalanche rescue means to optimize the procedures such that the survival chances are maximized in order to save the greatest possible number of lives. Avalanche rescue includes several parameters related to terrain, natural hazards, the people affected by the event, the rescuers, and the applied search and rescue equipment...
2017: PloS One
Ashot Chilingarian, Suren Chilingaryan, Tigran Karapetyan, Lev Kozliner, Yeghia Khanikyants, Gagik Hovsepyan, David Pokhsraryan, Suren Soghomonyan
The relationship of lightning and elementary particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements - TGEs) as a probe we investigate the characteristics of the interrelated atmospheric processes. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux by the lightning flash. With new precise electronics, we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with the rearranging of the charge centers in the cloud...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cécile Clavaud, Antoine Bérut, Bloen Metzger, Yoël Forterre
Shear thickening in dense particulate suspensions was recently proposed to be driven by the activation of friction above an onset stress needed to overcome repulsive forces between particles. Testing this scenario represents a major challenge because classical rheological approaches do not provide access to the frictional properties of suspensions. Here we adopt a different strategy inspired by pressure-imposed configurations in granular flows that specifically gives access to this information. By investigating the quasi-static avalanche angle, compaction, and dilatancy effects in different nonbuoyant suspensions flowing under gravity, we demonstrate that particles in shear-thickening suspensions are frictionless under low confining pressure...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chao-Yin Kuo, Yuan-Yung Lin, Hsin-Chien Chen, Cheng-Ping Shih, Chih-Hung Wang
Objectives. The primary objective for this study is to evaluate the advantages, disadvantages, surgical applicability, and outcome of the pulsed electron avalanche knife (PEAK) PlasmaBlade in transoral adenoidectomy under direct visualization using video nasoendoscopy. Patients and Methods. In this series, six cases of adenoid hypertrophy showing varying clinical presentations in relation to its clinical course were surgically treated using a PEAK PlasmaBlade. Before and after surgery, all patients underwent nasal endoscopy to define the grading of hypertrophic adenoids and postoperative outcome...
2017: BioMed Research International
Petra Innerhofer, Dietmar Fries, Markus Mittermayr, Nicole Innerhofer, Daniel von Langen, Tobias Hell, Gottfried Gruber, Stefan Schmid, Barbara Friesenecker, Ingo H Lorenz, Mathias Ströhle, Verena Rastner, Susanne Trübsbach, Helmut Raab, Benedikt Treml, Dieter Wally, Benjamin Treichl, Agnes Mayer, Christof Kranewitter, Elgar Oswald
BACKGROUND: Effective treatment of trauma-induced coagulopathy is important; however, the optimal therapy is still not known. We aimed to compare the efficacy of first-line therapy using fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or coagulation factor concentrates (CFC) for the reversal of trauma-induced coagulopathy, the arising transfusion requirements, and consequently the development of multiple organ failure. METHODS: This single-centre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised trial was done at the Level 1 Trauma Center in Innsbruck Medical University Hospital (Innsbruck, Austria)...
April 27, 2017: Lancet Haematology
Rajeev Soman, Vidyullata Koparkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Karlis Kanders, Tom Lorimer, Ruedi Stoop
There are indications that for optimizing neural computation, neural networks may operate at criticality. Previous approaches have used distinct fingerprints of criticality, leaving open the question whether the different notions would necessarily reflect different aspects of one and the same instance of criticality, or whether they could potentially refer to distinct instances of criticality. In this work, we choose avalanche criticality and edge-of-chaos criticality and demonstrate for a recurrent spiking neural network that avalanche criticality does not necessarily entrain dynamical edge-of-chaos criticality...
April 2017: Chaos
F Lombardi, H J Herrmann, L de Arcangelis
The 1/f-like decay observed in the power spectrum of electro-physiological signals, along with scale-free statistics of the so-called neuronal avalanches, constitutes evidence of criticality in neuronal systems. Recent in vitro studies have shown that avalanche dynamics at criticality corresponds to some specific balance of excitation and inhibition, thus suggesting that this is a basic feature of the critical state of neuronal networks. In particular, a lack of inhibition significantly alters the temporal structure of the spontaneous avalanche activity and leads to an anomalous abundance of large avalanches...
April 2017: Chaos
Hao Wang, Can Yu, Xu Wei, Zhenhua Gao, Guang Lei Xu, Da Rui Sun, Zhenjie Li, Yangfan Zhou, Qiu Ju Li, Bing Bing Zhang, Jin Qiang Xu, Lin Wang, Yan Zhang, Ying Lei Tan, Ye Tao
A new setup and commissioning of transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy are described, based on the high-repetition-rate laser pump/X-ray probe method, at the 1W2B wiggler beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A high-repetition-rate and high-power laser is incorporated into the setup with in-house-built avalanche photodiodes as detectors. A simple acquisition scheme was applied to obtain laser-on and laser-off signals simultaneously. The capability of picosecond transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurement was demonstrated for a photo-induced spin-crossover iron complex in 6 mM solution with 155 kHz repetition rate...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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