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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736534/self-organizing-complex-networks-individual-versus-global-rules
#1
Korosh Mahmoodi, Bruce J West, Paolo Grigolini
We introduce a form of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) inspired by the new generation of evolutionary game theory, which ranges from physiology to sociology. The single individuals are the nodes of a composite network, equivalent to two interacting subnetworks, one leading to strategy choices made by the individuals under the influence of the choices of their nearest neighbors and the other measuring the Prisoner's Dilemma Game payoffs of these choices. The interaction between the two networks is established by making the imitation strength K increase or decrease according to whether the last two payoffs increase or decrease upon increasing or decreasing K...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720854/laser-pulse-shape-control-of-seeded-qed-cascades
#2
Matteo Tamburini, Antonino Di Piazza, Christoph H Keitel
QED cascades are complex avalanche processes of hard photon emission and electron-positron pair creation driven by ultrastrong electromagnetic fields. They play a fundamental role in astrophysical environments such as a pulsars' magnetosphere, rendering an earth-based implementation with intense lasers attractive. In the literature, QED cascades were also predicted to limit the attainable intensity in a set-up of colliding laser beams in a tenuous gas such as the residual gas of a vacuum chamber, therefore severely hindering experiments at extreme field intensities...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702255/diabetes-and-its-drivers-the-largest-epidemic-in-human-history
#3
EDITORIAL
Paul Z Zimmet
The "Diabesity" epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore "the rise and rise" of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686281/identification-of-microrna-precursors-using-reduced-and-hybrid-features
#4
Asad Khan, Sajid Shah, Fazli Wahid, Fiaz Gul Khan, Saima Jabeen
MicroRNAs (also called miRNAs) are a group of short non-coding RNA molecules. They play a vital role in the gene expression of transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. However, abnormality of their expression has been observed in cancer, heart diseases and nervous system disorders. Therefore for basic research and microRNA based therapy, it is imperative to separate real pre-miRNAs from false ones (hairpin sequences similar to pre-miRNA stem loops). Different conservation and machine learning methods have been applied for the identification of miRNAs...
July 7, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671191/universal-features-of-amorphous-plasticity
#5
Zoe Budrikis, David Fernandez Castellanos, Stefan Sandfeld, Michael Zaiser, Stefano Zapperi
Plastic yielding of amorphous solids occurs by power-law distributed deformation avalanches whose universality is still debated. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulations are hampered by limited statistical samples, and although existing stochastic models give precise exponents, they require strong assumptions about fixed deformation directions, at odds with the statistical isotropy of amorphous materials. Here, we introduce a fully tensorial, stochastic mesoscale model for amorphous plasticity that links the statistical physics of plastic yielding to engineering mechanics...
July 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667968/fast-x-ray-detector-system-with-simultaneous-measurement-of-timing-and-energy-for-a-single-photon
#6
T Masuda, S Okubo, H Hara, T Hiraki, S Kitao, Y Miyamoto, K Okai, R Ozaki, N Sasao, M Seto, S Uetake, A Yamaguchi, Y Yoda, A Yoshimi, K Yoshimura
We developed a fast X-ray detector system for nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) experiments. Our system employs silicon avalanche photo-diode (Si-APD) as a fast X-ray sensor. The system is able to acquire both timing and energy of a single X-ray photon simultaneously in a high rate condition, 10(6) counts per second for one Si-APD. The performance of the system was investigated in SPring-8, a synchrotron radiation facility in Japan. Good time resolution of 120 ps (FWHM) was achieved with a slight tail distribution in the time spectrum by a level of 10(-9) at 1 ns apart from the peak...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660879/common-mechanism-of-thermodynamic-and-mechanical-origin-for-ageing-and-crystallization-of-glasses
#7
Taiki Yanagishima, John Russo, Hajime Tanaka
The glassy state is known to undergo slow structural relaxation, where the system progressively explores lower free-energy minima which are either amorphous (ageing) or crystalline (devitrification). Recently, there is growing interest in the unusual intermittent collective displacements of a large number of particles known as 'avalanches'. However, their structural origin and dynamics are yet to be fully addressed. Here, we study hard-sphere glasses which either crystallize or age depending on the degree of size polydispersity, and show that a small number of particles are thermodynamically driven to rearrange in regions of low density and bond orientational order...
June 29, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644840/linking-structure-and-activity-in-nonlinear-spiking-networks
#8
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Krešimir Josić, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael A Buice
Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634385/vertical-and-bevel-structured-sic-etching-techniques-incorporating-different-gas-mixture-plasmas-for-various-microelectronic-applications
#9
Ho-Kun Sung, Tian Qiang, Zhao Yao, Yang Li, Qun Wu, Hee-Kwan Lee, Bum-Doo Park, Woong-Sun Lim, Kyung-Ho Park, Cong Wang
This study presents a detailed fabrication method, together with validation, discussion, and analysis, for state-of-the-art silicon carbide (SiC) etching of vertical and bevelled structures by using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) for microelectronic applications. Applying different gas mixtures, a maximum bevel angle of 87° (almost vertical), large-angle bevels ranging from 40° to 80°, and small-angel bevels ranging from 7° to 17° were achieved separately using distinct gas mixtures at different ratios...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630879/imaging-cajal-s-neuronal-avalanche-how-wide-field-optical-imaging-of-the-point-spread-advanced-the-understanding-of-neocortical-structure-function-relationship
#10
REVIEW
Ron D Frostig, Cynthia H Chen-Bee, Brett A Johnson, Nathan S Jacobs
This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627571/the-fractal-correlation-between-relaxation-dynamics-and-atomic-level-structures-observed-in-metallic-glasses-by-computer-simulation
#11
M H Yang, J H Li, B X Liu
In the present study, atomistic simulation reveals that the microscopic mechanism of the relaxation dynamics in amorphous materials is governed by the activating atoms that jump more than half of the average nearest neighbor distance within a given time. Based on the unsupervised machine-learning algorithm, hierarchical clustering analysis shows that the activating atoms are excited in a cooperative and avalanche-like model to form activating units. Correlation analysis suggests that large free volumes facilitate the formation of activating atoms...
June 28, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624202/2l-pirna-a-two-layer-ensemble-classifier-for-identifying-piwi-interacting-rnas-and-their-function
#12
Bin Liu, Fan Yang, Kuo-Chen Chou
Involved with important cellular or gene functions and implicated with many kinds of cancers, piRNAs, or piwi-interacting RNAs, are of small non-coding RNA with around 19-33 nt in length. Given a small non-coding RNA molecule, can we predict whether it is of piRNA according to its sequence information alone? Furthermore, there are two types of piRNA: one has the function of instructing target mRNA deadenylation, and the other does not. Can we discriminate one from the other? With the avalanche of RNA sequences emerging in the postgenomic age, it is urgent to address the two problems for both basic research and drug development...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623315/avalanche-of-entanglement-and-correlations-at-quantum-phase-transitions
#13
Konstantin V Krutitsky, Andreas Osterloh, Ralf Schützhold
We study the ground-state entanglement in the quantum Ising model with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic coupling J and find a sequential increase of entanglement depth d with growing J. This entanglement avalanche starts with two-point entanglement, as measured by the concurrence, and continues via the three-tangle and four-tangle, until finally, deep in the ferromagnetic phase for J = ∞, arriving at a pure L-partite (GHZ type) entanglement of all L spins. Comparison with the two, three, and four-point correlations reveals a similar sequence and shows strong ties to the above entanglement measures for small J...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618531/noise-focusing-in-neuronal-tissues-symmetry-breaking-and-localization-in-excitable-networks-with-quenched-disorder
#14
Javier G Orlandi, Jaume Casademunt
We introduce a coarse-grained stochastic model for the spontaneous activity of neuronal cultures to explain the phenomenon of noise focusing, which entails localization of the noise activity in excitable networks with metric correlations. The system is modeled as a continuum excitable medium with a state-dependent spatial coupling that accounts for the dynamics of synaptic connections. The most salient feature is the emergence at the mesoscale of a vector field V(r), which acts as an advective carrier of the noise...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618481/crack-propagation-through-disordered-materials-as-a-depinning-transition-a-critical-test-of-the-theory
#15
Laurent Ponson, Nadjime Pindra
The dynamics of a planar crack propagating within a brittle disordered material is investigated numerically. The fracture front evolution is described as the depinning of an elastic line in a random field of toughness. The relevance of this approach is critically tested through the comparison of the roughness front properties, the statistics of avalanches, and the local crack velocity distribution with experimental results. Our simulations capture the main features of the fracture front evolution as measured experimentally...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604365/avalanche-criticality-in-thermal-driven-martensitic-transitions-the-asymmetry-of-the-forward-and-reverse-transitions-in-shape-memory-materials
#16
Antoni Planes, Eduard Vives
Martensitic transitions take place intermittently as a sequence of avalanches, which are accompanied by the emission of acoustic waves. The study of this acoustic emission (AE) reveals the scale-free nature of the avalanches. In a number of shape memory materials undergoing a martensitic transition it has been found that, in spite of the relatively low hysteresis, the dynamics of forward and reverse transitions are different, which may explain the fact that the AE activity is different in both forward and reverse transitions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573013/thin-al1-x-ga-x-as0-56sb0-44-diodes-with-extremely-weak-temperature-dependence-of%C3%A2-avalanche-breakdown
#17
Xinxin Zhou, Chee Hing Tan, Shiyong Zhang, Manuel Moreno, Shiyu Xie, Salman Abdullah, Jo Shien Ng
When using avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in applications, temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown voltage is one of the performance parameters to be considered. Hence, novel materials developed for APDs require dedicated experimental studies. We have carried out such a study on thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 p-i-n diode wafers (Ga composition from 0 to 0.15), plus measurements of avalanche gain and dark current. Based on data obtained from 77 to 297 K, the alloys Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 exhibited weak temperature dependence of avalanche gain and breakdown voltage, with temperature coefficient approximately 0...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572578/integrated-fiber-optical-receiver-reducing-the-gap-to-the-quantum-limit
#18
Horst Zimmermann, Bernhard Steindl, Michael Hofbauer, Reinhard Enne
Experimental results of a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) based optical fiber receiver integrated in 0.35 µm PIN-photodiode CMOS technology are presented. To cope with the parasitic effects of SPADs an array of four receivers is implemented. The SPADs consist of a multiplication zone and a separate thick absorption zone to achieve a high photon detection probability (PDP). In addition cascoded quenchers allow to use a quenching voltage of twice the usual supply voltage, i.e. 6.6 V instead of 3.3 V, in order to increase the PDP further...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571308/bright-single-photon-source-at-1-3%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-based-on-inas-bilayer-quantum-dot-in-micropillar
#19
Ze-Sheng Chen, Ben Ma, Xiang-Jun Shang, Hai-Qiao Ni, Jin-Liang Wang, Zhi-Chuan Niu
A pronounced high count rate of single-photon emission at the wavelength of 1.3 μm that is capable of fiber-based quantum communication from InAs/GaAs bilayer quantum dots coupled with a micropillar (diameter ~3 μm) cavity of distributed Bragg reflectors was investigated, whose photon extraction efficiency has achieved 3.3%. Cavity mode and Purcell enhancement have been observed clearly in microphotoluminescence spectra. At the detection end of Hanbury-Brown and Twiss setup, the two avalanched single-photon counting modules record a total count rate of ~62,000/s; the time coincidence counting measurement demonstrates single-photon emission, with the multi-photon emission possibility, i...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552964/criticality-meets-learning-criticality-signatures-in-a-self-organizing-recurrent-neural-network
#20
Bruno Del Papa, Viola Priesemann, Jochen Triesch
Many experiments have suggested that the brain operates close to a critical state, based on signatures of criticality such as power-law distributed neuronal avalanches. In neural network models, criticality is a dynamical state that maximizes information processing capacities, e.g. sensitivity to input, dynamical range and storage capacity, which makes it a favorable candidate state for brain function. Although models that self-organize towards a critical state have been proposed, the relation between criticality signatures and learning is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
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