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fiber type transition

Gilles Gouspillou, Richard Godin, Jérome Piquereau, Martin Picard, Mahroo Mofarrahi, Jasmin Mathew, Fennigje M Purves-Smith, Nicolas Sgarioto, Russell T Hepple, Yan Burelle, Sabah Na Hussain
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase encoded by the Park2 gene, has been implicated in the regulation of mitophagy, a quality control process whereby defective mitochondria are degraded. The exact physiological significance of Parkin in regulating mitochondrial function and contractility in skeletal muscle remains largely unexplored. Using Park2-/- mice, we show that Parkin ablation causes a decrease in muscle specific force, a severe decrease in mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial uncoupling and an increased susceptibility to opening of the permeability transition pore...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology
G Zaldivar, M B Samad, M Conda-Sheridan, M Tagliazucchi
In this work, a molecular theory is used to study the self-assembly of short diblock and triblock amphiphiles, with head-tail and head-linker-tail structures, respectively. The theory was used to systematically explore the effects of the molecular architecture and the affinity of the solvent for the linker and tail blocks on the relative stability of the different nanostructures formed by the amphiphiles in dilute solution, which include spherical micelles, cylindrical fibers and planar lamellas. Moreover, the theory predicts that each of these nanostructures can adopt two different types of internal organization: (i) normal nanostructures with a core composed of tail segments and a corona composed of head segments, and (ii) nanostructures with a core formed by linker segments and a corona formed by tail and head segments...
April 12, 2018: Soft Matter
Yao-Chin Huang, Yu-Chan Guan, Te-Hwei Suen, Jow-Tsong Shy, Li-Bang Wang
We report absolute frequency measurements of molecular iodine P(46) 5-4 a1 , a10 , and a15 hyperfine transitions at 647 nm with a fiber-based frequency comb. The light source is based on a Littrow-type external-cavity diode laser. A frequency stability of 5×10-12 at a 200 s integration time is achieved when the light source is stabilized to the P(46) 5-4 a15 line. The pressure shift is determined to be -8.3(7)  kHz/Pa. Our determination of the line centers reached a precision of 21 kHz. The light source can serve as a reference laser for lithium spectroscopy (2S→3P)...
March 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Edward J Ciaccio, James Coromilas, Andrew L Wit, Nicholas S Peters, Hasan Garan
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) caused by a re-entrant circuit is a life-threatening arrhythmia that at present cannot always be treated adequately. A realistic model of re-entry would be helpful to accurately guide catheter ablation for interruption of the circuit. In this review, models of electrical activation wavefront propagation during onset and maintenance of re-entrant VT are discussed. In particular, the relationship between activation mapping and maps of transition in infarct border zone thickness, which results in source-sink mismatch, is considered in detail and supplemented with additional data...
January 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
P Marega, E A Liberti, J J S Freitas, K S Kietzer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is common in patients with cancer. There are a few studies about the myenteric plexus in the presence of anatomically remote tumors. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into a control (CT) or Walker-256 (TW) group. Tumor cells were subcutaneously injected and saline was injected in the CT group. After 14 days, the small and large intestines were removed for histochemical analysis. The macroscopic morphology of the intestines and the fecal excretion were also observed...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
E D Feijo, R M Limongi, S Matayoshi
BACKGROUND: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the gold standard surgical treatment for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. External DCR is the traditional approach (EXT-DCR); however, the advent of minimally invasive surgeries and the development of optic fiber and laser technologies have made it possible to perform laser transcanalicular DCR (T-DCR), a minimally invasive procedure. This study measured the fluorescein transit time (FTT) after EXT-DCR or T-DCR to evaluate the lacrimal drainage and lacrimal pump function after these two types of DCR...
March 6, 2018: Rhinology
Philip R Brauer, Jee Hun Kim, Humberto J Ochoa, Elizabeth R Stratton, Kathryn M Black, William Rosencrans, Eliza Stacey, Engda G Hagos
Kru¨ppel like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor that regulates genes related to differentiation and proliferation. KLF4 also plays a role in metastasis via epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Here, we investigate the function of Klf4 in migration and invasion using mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the RKO human colon cancer cell line. Compared to wild-type, cells lacking Klf4 exhibited increased migration-associated phenotypes. In addition, overexpression of Klf4 in Klf4-/- MEFs attenuated the presence of stress fibers to wild-type levels...
December 2018: Cell Communication & Adhesion
Mattea Müller, Emanuel E Canfora, Ellen E Blaak
Gastrointestinal transit time may be an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and metabolic health through effects on nutrient absorption and microbial composition, among other mechanisms. Modulation of gastrointestinal transit may be one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary fibers. These effects include improved glucose homeostasis and a reduced risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we first discuss the regulation of gastric emptying rate, small intestinal transit and colonic transit as well as their relation to glucose homeostasis and metabolic health...
February 28, 2018: Nutrients
Xiukun Cui, Zheng Zhou, Keke Zhu, Ruiping Feng, Jiuli Han, Mengyuan Li, Shuangfeng Wang, Jing Li, Jing Zhang, Qiying Jiang, Wanting Zhang, Hongmei Mu, Yutao Liu, Yanzhong Hu
Mutations in GJA8 are associated with hereditary autosomal dominant and recessive cataract formation. In this study, a novel insert mutation in GJA8 was identified in a Chinese congenital cataract family and cosegregated with the disease in this pedigree. This insert mutation introduces five additional amino acid residues YAVHY after histidine at the 95 site (p.H95_A96insYAVHY) within the second transmembrane (TM2) domain of Cx50 protein (Cx50-insert). Ectopic expression of Cx50-insert protein impairs the hemichannel functions and gap junction activity compared to wild-type Cx50 protein in human lens epithelial cells...
February 28, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Mingchu Zou, Wenqi Zhao, Huaisheng Wu, Hui Zhang, Wenjing Xu, Liusi Yang, Shiting Wu, Yunsong Wang, Yijun Chen, Lu Xu, Anyuan Cao
Carbon fiber (CF) grafted with a layer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) plays an important role in composite materials and other fields; to date, the applications of CNTs@CF multiscale fibers are severely hindered by the limited amount of CNTs grafted on individual CFs and the weak interfacial binding force. Here, monolithic CNTs@CF fibers consisting of a 3D highly porous CNT sponge layer with macroscopic-thickness (up to several millimeters), which is directly grown on a single CF, are fabricated. Mechanical tests reveal high sponge-CF interfacial strength owing to the presence of a thin transitional layer, which completely inhibits the CF slippage from the matrix upon fracture in CNTs@CF fiber-epoxy composites...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Eunhee Chung, Huanbiao Mo, Shu Wang, Yujiao Zu, Manal Elfakhani, Steven R Rios, Ming-Chien Chyu, Rong-Sen Yang, Chwan-Li Shen
Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neuromuscular innervation, transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity, all attributable to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current literature suggests that vitamin E molecules (α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities may mitigate age-associated skeletal dysfunction and enhance muscle regeneration, thus attenuating sarcopenia...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Daniel Kaup, Janine Keller, Erika Most, Joachim Geyer, Klaus Eder, Robert Ringseis
Background: Recently, supplementation of L-carnitine to obese rats was found to improve the carnitine status and to counteract an obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from type I to type II. However, it has not been resolved if the change of muscle fiber distribution induced in obese rats and the restoration of the "normal" muscle fiber distribution, which is found in lean rats, in obese rats by supplemental L-carnitine is causally linked with the carnitine status. In the present study we hypothesized that fiber type distribution in skeletal muscle is dependent on carnitine status...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Shikha Chawla, Sourabh Ghosh
Current therapeutic strategies to reduce scarring in full thickness skin defect offer limited success due to poor understanding of scar tissue formation and the underlying signaling pathways. There is an urgent need to develop human cell based in vitro scar tissue models as animal testing is associated with ethical and logistic complications and inter-species variations. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play critical role in regulating scar development through complex interplay and interaction with the ECM and corresponding signaling pathways...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Dong Yeon Kim, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Eun-Jung Lee, Yun-Ho Kim, Hyeongjoo Oh, Yean-Jung Choi, Young-Hee Kang
Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important event in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Under pathologic conditions, renal tubular epithelial cells undergo transition characterized by loss of cell-cell adhesion and increased cell migration. This study investigated that eucalyptol inhibited tubular epithelial cell disjunction and tubulointerstitial fibrosis stimulated by glucose. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated for up to 72 h in media containing 27.5 mM mannitol as osmotic controls or 33 mM glucose in the presence of 1-20 μM eucalyptol...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
Subo Dong, Ji-Wei Xie, Ji-Lin Zhou, Zheng Zheng, Ali Luo
We discover a population of short-period, Neptune-size planets sharing key similarities with hot Jupiters: both populations are preferentially hosted by metal-rich stars, and both are preferentially found in Kepler systems with single-transiting planets. We use accurate Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Data Release 4 (DR4) stellar parameters for main-sequence stars to study the distributions of short-period [Formula: see text] Kepler planets as a function of host star metallicity...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jacob R Gissinger, Chandrani Pramanik, Bradley Newcomb, Satish Kumar, Hendrik Heinz
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are used as precursors for ultrastrong and lightweight carbon fibers. However, insights into the structure at the nanoscale and the relationships to mechanical and thermal properties have remained difficult to obtain. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation with accurate potentials and available experimental data were used to describe the influence of different degrees of PAN preorientation and CNT diameter on the atomic-scale structure and properties of the composites...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Seo-Ho Lee, Byung-Ju Kim, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a role in muscle fiber-type transition during exercise. Mice were trained at a speed of 12 m/min at a slope of 0° for 60 min for 5 consecutive days/wk for 4 wk. Exhaustion tests were performed on the treadmill (the speed was set at 6 m/min at a slope of 0° and increased at a rate of 1 m/min every 6 min). Isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from TRPM2-knockout (KO) mice showed lower amplitudes of electrical stimuli (ES)-induced Ca2+ signals when compared with wild-type (WT) mice due to a defect in Ca2+ influx...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Siqi Huan, Shingo Yokota, Long Bai, Mariko Ago, Maryam Borghei, Tetsuo Kondo, Orlando J Rojas
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) offer great prospects as a natural stabilizer of colloidal dispersions and complex fluids for application in food, pharma, and cosmetics. In this study, an ionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) was used as emulsifier of oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions that were further costabilized by addition of CNF. The adsorption properties of SDS in both, CNF dispersions and emulsions, as well as the influence of composition (CNF and SDS concentration) and formulation (ionic strength, oil, and CNF types) on the phase behavior were elucidated and described in the framework of Windsor systems...
December 11, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Joanna Maria Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska, Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn
PURPOSE: Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), mainly responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis, is assumed to be central event in the process of liver fibrogenesis. The major objective of the research was to analyze the ultrastructural profile of activated HSCs in children with chronic hepatitis B (chB), with respect to fibrosis intensity. MATERIALS/METHODS: Ultrastructural investigations of HSCs were conducted on liver bioptates from 70 children with clinicopathologically diagnosed chB before antiviral treatment...
November 6, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
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