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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045881/confocal-rheology-probes-the-structure-and-mechanics-of-collagen-through-the-sol-gel-transition
#1
Khanh-Hoa Tran-Ba, Daniel J Lee, Jieling Zhu, Keewook Paeng, Laura J Kaufman
Fibrillar type I collagen-based hydrogels are commonly used in tissue engineering and as matrices for biophysical studies. Mechanical and structural properties of these gels are known to be governed by the conditions under which fibrillogenesis occurs, exhibiting variation as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Deeper understanding of how macroscopic structure affects viscoelastic properties of collagen gels over the course of fibrillogenesis provides fundamental insight into biopolymer gel properties and promises enhanced control over the properties of such gels...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032335/identification-of-the-optimal-dose-and-calpain-system-regulation-of-tetramethylpyrazine-on-the-prevention-of-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-hindlimb-unloading-rats
#2
Jie Zhang, Yang Li, Guangyue Li, Xiufeng Ma, Huiping Wang, Nandu Goswami, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Hui Chang, Yunfang Gao
Previous studies in our lab have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) could effectively attenuate disuse induced muscle atrophy. In order to screening out the optimal dose of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) for protection against disuse induced muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloading (HLU) rats, in this study, we compared effects of 4 TMP doses on muscle wet weight (MWW), the ratios of muscle wet weight/body weight (MWW/BW) and muscle wet weight/dry weight (MWW/DW), fiber type composition, as well as cross-sectional area (CSA) in soleus (SOL) muscle...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944436/correlation-between-production-performance-and-feeding-behavior-of-steers-on-pasture-during-the-rainy-dry-transition-period
#3
Rita K C Brandão, Gleidson G P de Carvalho, Robério R Silva, Daniel L S Dias, Fabrício B L Mendes, Túlio O J D'A Lins, Maria M S Pereira, Joanderson O Guimarães, Manuela S L Tosto, Luana M de A Rufino, Maria L G M L de Araujo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between production performance and feeding behavior of steers reared on pasture during the rainy-dry transition period. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu crossbred steers at an average age of 10 months and with an average initial body weight of 234.5 ± 16.0 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with two types of supplementation and eleven replications. Pearson's linear correlation analysis was performed between behavioral variables and weight gain and feed conversion...
September 24, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942365/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-participates-in-mouse-hair-cycle-control-and-plays-distinct-roles-in-the-various-pelage-hair-follicle-types
#4
Karsten Krieger, Sarah E Millar, Nadine Mikuda, Inge Krahn, Jennifer E Kloepper, Marta Bertolini, Claus Scheidereit, Ralf Paus, Ruth Schmidt-Ullrich
The transcription factor NF-κB controls key features of hair follicle (HF) development, but the role of NF-κB in adult HF cycle regulation remains obscure. Using NF-κB reporter mouse models, strong NF-κB activity was detected in the secondary hair germ (SHG) of late telogen and early anagen HFs, suggesting a potential role for NF-κB in HF stem/progenitor cell activation during anagen induction. At mid-anagen, NF-κB activity was observed in the inner root sheath (IRS) and unilaterally clustered in the HF matrix, which indicates that NF-κB activity is also involved in hair fiber morphogenesis during HF cycling...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924224/analytic-model-for-the-complex-effective-index-of-the-leaky-modes-of-tube-type-anti-resonant-hollow-core-fibers
#5
Matthias Zeisberger, Markus A Schmidt
Due to their promising applications, hollow-core fibers, in particular, their anti-resonant versions, have recently attracted the attention of the photonics community. Here, we introduce a model that approximates, using the reflection of a wave on a single planar film, modal guidance in tube-type anti-resonant waveguides whose core diameters are large compared to the wavelength. The model yields analytic expressions for the real and imaginary parts of the complex effective index of the leaky modes supported, and is valid in all practically relevant situations, excellently matching all the important dispersion and loss parameters...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894262/role-of-sonication-pre-treatment-and-cation-valence-in-the-sol-gel-transition-of-nano-cellulose-suspensions
#6
C A Maestri, M Abrami, S Hazan, E Chistè, Y Golan, J Rohrer, A Bernkop-Schnürch, M Grassi, M Scarpa, P Bettotti
Sol-gel transition of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals has been investigated using rheology, SAXS, NMR and optical spectroscopies to unveil the distinctive roles of ultrasound treatments and addition of various cations. Besides cellulose fiber fragmentation, sonication treatment induces fast gelling of the solution. The gelation is independent of the addition of cations, while the final rheological properties are highly influenced by the type, concentration and sequence of the operations since the cations must be added prior to sonication to produce stiff gels...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776604/the-role-of-diet-physical-activity-body-fatness-and-breastfeeding-in-breast-cancer-in-young-women-epidemiological-evidence
#7
I Isabelle Romieu, A Amadou, V Chajes
The incidence of breast cancer (BC) is rising worldwide, with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Traditionally, BC in young women has been thought to be etiologically driven, primarily by genetic/hereditary factors. However, these factors explain only a small proportion of BCs, pointing to a role of the environment. Suspected factors responsible for this increase include lifestyle changes, notably alcohol consumption, diet with high intake of refined carbohydrates and saturated fat and low intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), fiber and vitamins (such as folate, vitamin D, and carotenoids), low physical activity, and body fatness, all of which may act from childhood and adolescent years through adulthood...
July 2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732069/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-ibs
#8
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Gloria Sarasin, Valentina Caputi, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Cecilia Giron, Giorgio Palù, Ignazio Castagliuolo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure. METHODS: Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU) or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG) route (108 PFU). Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712912/multixplore-visual-exploration-platform-for-multimodal-neuroimaging-data
#9
Saeed M Bakhshmand, Ali R Khan, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, Roy Eagleson
BACKGROUND: Construction of brain functional and structural networks by neuroimaging methods facilitates inter-modal studies. These type of studies often demand exploration tools to carry out functional-structural discoveries and answer questions regarding the anatomical basis of brain networks. NEW METHOD: This paper describes the design and development of a software module for interactive visualization and exploration of dual-modal brain networks. Our objective was to equip the user with a research tool to investigate brain connectivity matrices while visualizing relevant anatomical landmarks within a 3D volumetric view...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704886/tensiomyographic-assessment-of-muscle-contractile-properties-in-9-to-14-year-old-children
#10
Bostjan Simunic, Hans Degens, Jernej Zavrsnik, Katja Koren, Tadeja Volmut, Rado Pisot
While there are numerous data on the skeletal muscle fiber type composition in adults, little is known about the changes in fiber type composition and contractile properties during maturational growth in children. Using noninvasive tensiomyography, we measured contraction time (Tc), an indirect estimate of the myosin heavy chain I (MHC-I) proportion, to assess the longitudinal changes of the biceps brachii (BB), biceps femois (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), and erector spinae (ES) muscles in 53 boys and 54 girls...
September 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698144/inhibiting-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-to-promote-epithelial-transition-of-human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Melina Setiawan, Xiao-Wei Tan, Tze-Wei Goh, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Jodhbir S Mehta
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigate the epithelial differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. METHODS AND RESULTS: STEMPRO human ADSCs at passage 2 were treated with CHIR99021 (GSK3 inhibitor), E-616452 (TGFβ1 receptor kinase inhibitor), A-83-01 (TGFβ type 1 receptor inhibitor), valproic acid (histone deacetylase inhibitor), tranylcypromine (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) and all-trans retinoic acid for 72 h...
September 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604909/a-supramolecular-assembly-based-on-an-engineered-hemoprotein-exhibiting-a-thermal-stimulus-driven-conversion-to-a-new-distinct-supramolecular-structure
#12
Koji Oohora, Yoshitaka Onuma, Yuta Tanaka, Akira Onoda, Takashi Hayashi
Supramolecular assembly of an engineered hemoprotein with an externally-attached heme moiety via an azobenzene or stilbene linker demonstrates drastic structural transitions between two distinct forms: the thermodynamically stable fiber-type assembly and the kinetically trapped metastable micelle-type assembly induced by transient thermal stimulus.
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592414/effects-of-sarcolipin-deletion-on-skeletal-muscle-adaptive-responses-to-functional-overload-and-unload
#13
Val A Fajardo, Bradley A Rietze, Paige J Chambers, Catherine Bellissimo, Eric Bombardier, Joe Quadrilatero, A Russell Tupling
Overexpression of sarcolipin (SLN), a regulator of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs), stimulates calcineurin signaling to enhance skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Some studies have shown that calcineurin may also control skeletal muscle mass and remodeling in response to functional overload and unload stimuli by increasing myofiber size and the proportion of slow fibers. To examine whether SLN might mediate these adaptive responses, we performed soleus and gastrocnemius tenotomy in wild-type (WT) and Sln-null (Sln(-/-)) mice and examined the overloaded plantaris and unloaded/tenotomized soleus muscles...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586162/chain-length-dependent-effects-of-inulin-type-fructan-dietary-fiber-on-human-systemic-immune-responses-against-hepatitis-b
#14
Leonie M Vogt, Marlies E Elderman, Theo Borghuis, Bart J de Haan, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: In vivo studies demonstrating that only specific dietary-fibers contribute to immunity are still inconclusive, as measuring immune effects in healthy humans remains difficult. We applied a relatively inefficacious vaccination-challenge to study chain length-dependent effects of inulin-type fructan (ITF) dietary fibers on human immunity. METHODS AND RESULTS: ITFs with two different 'degree of polymerization-' (DP)-profiles were tested in vitro for effects on PBMC-cytokines and TLR2 activation...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585281/the-deep-fascia-and-retinacula-of-the-equine-forelimb-structure-and-innervation
#15
Aleksandra Skalec, Monika Egerbacher
Recent advances in human fascia research have shed new light on the role of the fascial network in movement perception and coordination, transmission of muscle force, and integrative function in body biomechanics. Evolutionary adaptations of equine musculoskeletal apparatus that assure effective terrestrial locomotion are employed in equestrianism, resulting in the wide variety of movements in performing horses, from sophisticated dressage to jumping and high-speed racing. The high importance of horse motion efficiency in the present-day equine industry indicates the significance of scientific knowledge of the structure and physiology of equine fasciae...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525556/transcriptome-of-the-gsh-depleted-lens-reveals-changes-in-detoxification-and-emt-signaling-genes-transport-systems-and-lipid-homeostasis
#16
Jeremy A Whitson, Xiang Zhang, Mario Medvedovic, Jenny Chen, Zongbo Wei, Vincent M Monnier, Xingjun Fan
Purpose: To understand the effects of glutathione (GSH)-deficiency on genetic processes that regulate lens homeostasis and prevent cataractogenesis. Methods: The transcriptome of lens epithelia and fiber cells was obtained from C57BL/6 LEGSKO (lens GSH-synthesis knockout) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)-treated LEGSKO mice and compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice using RNA-Seq. Transcriptomic data were confirmed by qPCR and Western blot/ELISA on a subset of genes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522766/ontogeny-of-myosin-isoform-expression-and-prehensile-function-in-the-tail-of-the-gray-short-tailed-opossum-monodelphis-domestica
#17
Dylan R Thomas, Brad A Chadwell, Gary R Walker, Julio E Budde, John L VandeBerg, Michael T Butcher
Terrestrial opossums use their semi-prehensile tail for grasping nesting materials as opposed to arboreal maneuvering. We relate the development of this adaptive behavior with ontogenetic changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression from 21 days to adulthood. Monodelphis domestica is expected to demonstrate a progressive ability to flex the distal tail up to age 7 months, when it should exhibit routine nest construction. We hypothesize that juvenile stages (3-7 months) will be characterized by retention of the neonatal isoform (MHC-Neo), along with predominant expression of fast MHC-2X and 2B, which will transition into greater MHC-1β and 2A isoform content as development progresses...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513985/self-assembled-nanofiber-coatings-for-controlling-cell-responses
#18
Raquel C Barros, Edith Gelens, Erna Bulten, Annemarie Tuin, Menno R de Jong, Roel Kuijer, Theo G van Kooten
Nanofibers are thought to enhance cell adhesion, growth, and function. We demonstrate that the choice of building blocks in self-assembling nanofiber systems can be used to control cell behavior. The use of 2 D-coated, self-assembled nanofibers in controlling lens epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells was investigated, focusing on gene and protein expression related to the fibrotic response. To this end, three nanofibers with different characteristics (morphology, topography, and wettability) were compared with two standard materials frequently used in culturing cells, TCPS, and a collagen type I coating...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#19
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
July 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315692/role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-fibroblast-function-in-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-induced-lung-fibrosis
#20
Jane Ma, Bridget Bishoff, R R Mercer, Mark Barger, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Vincent Castranova
The emission of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2) from diesel engines, using cerium compounds as a catalyst to lower the diesel exhaust particles, is a health concern. We have previously shown that CeO2 induced pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the modification of fibroblast function and the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CeO2-induced fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO2 (0.15 to 7mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation and sacrificed at various times post-exposure...
May 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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