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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457308/single-carbon-fibers-with-a-macroscopic-thickness-3d-highly-porous-carbon-nanotube-coating
#1
Mingchu Zou, Wenqi Zhao, Huaisheng Wu, Hui Zhang, Wenjing Xu, Liusi Yang, Shiting Wu, Yunsong Wang, Yijun Chen, Lu Xu, Anyuan Cao
Carbon fiber (CF) grafted with a layer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) plays an important role in composite materials and other fields; to date, the applications of CNTs@CF multiscale fibers are severely hindered by the limited amount of CNTs grafted on individual CFs and the weak interfacial binding force. Here, monolithic CNTs@CF fibers consisting of a 3D highly porous CNT sponge layer with macroscopic-thickness (up to several millimeters), which is directly grown on a single CF, are fabricated. Mechanical tests reveal high sponge-CF interfacial strength owing to the presence of a thin transitional layer, which completely inhibits the CF slippage from the matrix upon fracture in CNTs@CF fiber-epoxy composites...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420990/potential-roles-of-vitamin-e-in-age-related-changes-in-skeletal-muscle-health
#2
REVIEW
Eunhee Chung, Huanbiao Mo, Shu Wang, Yujiao Zu, Manal Elfakhani, Steven R Rios, Ming-Chien Chyu, Rong-Sen Yang, Chwan-Li Shen
Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neuromuscular innervation, transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity, all attributable to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current literature suggests that vitamin E molecules (α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities may mitigate age-associated skeletal dysfunction and enhance muscle regeneration, thus attenuating sarcopenia...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344054/the-carnitine-status-does-not-affect-the-contractile-and-metabolic-phenotype-of-skeletal-muscle-in-pigs
#3
Daniel Kaup, Janine Keller, Erika Most, Joachim Geyer, Klaus Eder, Robert Ringseis
Background: Recently, supplementation of L-carnitine to obese rats was found to improve the carnitine status and to counteract an obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from type I to type II. However, it has not been resolved if the change of muscle fiber distribution induced in obese rats and the restoration of the "normal" muscle fiber distribution, which is found in lean rats, in obese rats by supplemental L-carnitine is causally linked with the carnitine status. In the present study we hypothesized that fiber type distribution in skeletal muscle is dependent on carnitine status...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330036/regulation-of-fibrotic-changes-by-the-synergistic-effects-of-cytokines-dimensionality-and-matrix-towards-the-development-of-an-in-vitro-human-dermal-hypertrophic-scar-model
#4
Shikha Chawla, Sourabh Ghosh
Current therapeutic strategies to reduce scarring in full thickness skin defect offer limited success due to poor understanding of scar tissue formation and the underlying signaling pathways. There is an urgent need to develop human cell based in vitro scar tissue models as animal testing is associated with ethical and logistic complications and inter-species variations. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play critical role in regulating scar development through complex interplay and interaction with the ECM and corresponding signaling pathways...
January 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290941/eucalyptol-ameliorates-snail1-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-diabetic-disjunction-of-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#5
Dong Yeon Kim, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Eun-Jung Lee, Yun-Ho Kim, Hyeongjoo Oh, Yean-Jung Choi, Young-Hee Kang
Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important event in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Under pathologic conditions, renal tubular epithelial cells undergo transition characterized by loss of cell-cell adhesion and increased cell migration. This study investigated that eucalyptol inhibited tubular epithelial cell disjunction and tubulointerstitial fibrosis stimulated by glucose. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated for up to 72 h in media containing 27.5 mM mannitol as osmotic controls or 33 mM glucose in the presence of 1-20 μM eucalyptol...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284755/lamost-telescope-reveals-that-neptunian-cousins-of-hot-jupiters-are-mostly-single-offspring-of-stars-that-are-rich-in-heavy-elements
#6
Subo Dong, Ji-Wei Xie, Ji-Lin Zhou, Zheng Zheng, Ali Luo
We discover a population of short-period, Neptune-size planets sharing key similarities with hot Jupiters: both populations are preferentially hosted by metal-rich stars, and both are preferentially found in Kepler systems with single-transiting planets. We use accurate Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Data Release 4 (DR4) stellar parameters for main-sequence stars to study the distributions of short-period [Formula: see text] Kepler planets as a function of host star metallicity...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231715/nanoscale-structure-property-relationships-of-polyacrylonitrile-cnt-composites-as-a-function-of-polymer-crystallinity-and-cnt-diameter
#7
Jacob R Gissinger, Chandrani Pramanik, Bradley Newcomb, Satish Kumar, Hendrik Heinz
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are used as a precursor for ultrastrong and lightweight carbon fibers. However, the mechanisms of formation and relationships of the nanoscale structure to mechanical and thermal properties have remained uncertain. This study reports on the impact of different degrees of PAN pre-orientation and CNT diameter on the composite properties using molecular dynamics simulation with accurate potentials and comparisons to experimental data. Relationships between the atomically resolved structure, thermal, and mechanical properties are derived...
December 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153519/invited-review-practical-feeding-management-recommendations-to-mitigate-the-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-cattle
#8
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146687/exercise-induces-muscle-fiber-type-switching-via-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-dependent-ca-2-signaling
#9
Seo-Ho Lee, Byung-Ju Kim, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a role in muscle fiber type transition during exercise. Mice were trained at a speed of 12 m/min at a slope of 0 ° for 60 min 5 consecutive d/wk for 4-wk. Exhaustion tests were performed on the treadmill (the speed was set at 6 m/min at a slope of 0° and increased at a rate of 1 m/min every 6 min). Isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from TRPM2 knockout (KO) mice showed lower amplitudes of electrical stimuli (ES)-induced Ca(2+) signals when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, due to a defect in Ca(2+) influx...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131593/formulation-and-composition-effects-in-phase-transitions-of-emulsions-co-stabilized-by-cellulose-nanofibrils-and-an-ionic-surfactant
#10
Siqi Huan, Shingo Yokota, Long Bai, Mariko Ago, Maryam Borghei, Tetsuo Kondo, Orlando J Rojas
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) offer great prospects as a natural stabilizer of colloidal dispersions and complex fluids for application in food, pharma, and cosmetics. In this study, an ionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) was used as emulsifier of oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions that were further co-stabilized by addition of CNF. The adsorption properties of SDS in both, CNF dispersions and emulsions, as well as the influence of composition (CNF and SDS concentration) and formulation (ionic strength, oil and CNF types) on the phase behavior were elucidated and described in the framework of Windsor systems...
November 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120853/ultrastructural-characteristics-of-the-respective-forms-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-as-an-example-of-high-fibroblastic-cell-plasticity-the-first-assessment-in-children
#11
Joanna Maria Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska, Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn
PURPOSE: Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), mainly responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis, is assumed to be central event in the process of liver fibrogenesis. The major objective of the research was to analyze the ultrastructural profile of activated HSCs in children with chronic hepatitis B (chB), with respect to fibrosis intensity. MATERIALS/METHODS: Ultrastructural investigations of HSCs were conducted on liver bioptates from 70 children with clinicopathologically diagnosed chB before antiviral treatment...
November 6, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081731/human-fetal-brain-connectome-structural-network-development-from-middle-fetal-stage-to-birth
#12
Limei Song, Virendra Mishra, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Michelle Slinger, Shuwei Liu, Hao Huang
Complicated molecular and cellular processes take place in a spatiotemporally heterogeneous and precisely regulated pattern in the human fetal brain, yielding not only dramatic morphological and microstructural changes, but also macroscale connectomic transitions. As the underlying substrate of the fetal brain structural network, both dynamic neuronal migration pathways and rapid developing fetal white matter (WM) fibers could fundamentally reshape early fetal brain connectome. Quantifying structural connectome development can not only shed light on the brain reconfiguration in this critical yet rarely studied developmental period, but also reveal alterations of the connectome under neuropathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072444/a-free-energy-barrier-caused-by-the-refolding-of-an-oligomeric-intermediate-controls-the-lag-time-of-amyloid-formation-by-hiapp
#13
Arnaldo L Serrano, Justin P Lomont, Ling-Hsien Tu, Daniel P Raleigh, Martin T Zanni
Transiently populated oligomers formed en route to amyloid fibrils may constitute the most toxic aggregates associated with many amyloid-associated diseases. Most nucleation theories used to describe amyloid aggregation predict low oligomer concentrations and do not take into account free energy costs that may be associated with structural rearrangements between the oligomer and fiber states. We have used isotope labeling and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to spectrally resolve an oligomeric intermediate during the aggregation of the human islet amyloid protein (hIAPP or amylin), the protein associated with type II diabetes...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047498/mode-instability-dynamics-in-high-power-low-numerical-aperture-step-index-fiber-amplifier
#14
Liangjin Huang, Tianfu Yao, Jinyong Leng, Shaofeng Guo, Rumao Tao, Pu Zhou, Xiang'ai Cheng
The study on mode instability (MI) in the large-mode-area fiber is generating great interest regarding the high-power applications of fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, we have investigated for the first time the dynamics of the output beam from a kilowatt-level all-fiber amplifier based on the low-numerical-aperture (<0.04) step-index (SI) fiber before and after the onset of the MI, including the temporal dynamics and mode evolution. The temporal power fluctuations indicate three evolution stages apart from the onset threshold of the MI, defined as stable, transition, and chaotic regions...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045881/confocal-rheology-probes-the-structure-and-mechanics-of-collagen-through-the-sol-gel-transition
#15
Khanh-Hoa Tran-Ba, Daniel J Lee, Jieling Zhu, Keewook Paeng, Laura J Kaufman
Fibrillar type I collagen-based hydrogels are commonly used in tissue engineering and as matrices for biophysical studies. Mechanical and structural properties of these gels are known to be governed by the conditions under which fibrillogenesis occurs, exhibiting variation as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Deeper understanding of how macroscopic structure affects viscoelastic properties of collagen gels over the course of fibrillogenesis provides fundamental insight into biopolymer gel properties and promises enhanced control over the properties of such gels...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032335/identification-of-the-optimal-dose-and-calpain-system-regulation-of-tetramethylpyrazine-on-the-prevention-of-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-hindlimb-unloading-rats
#16
Jie Zhang, Yang Li, Guangyue Li, Xiufeng Ma, Huiping Wang, Nandu Goswami, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Hui Chang, Yunfang Gao
Previous studies in our lab have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) could effectively attenuate disuse induced muscle atrophy. In order to screening out the optimal dose of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) for protection against disuse induced muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloading (HLU) rats, in this study, we compared effects of 4 TMP doses on muscle wet weight (MWW), the ratios of muscle wet weight/body weight (MWW/BW) and muscle wet weight/dry weight (MWW/DW), fiber type composition, as well as cross-sectional area (CSA) in soleus (SOL) muscle...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944436/correlation-between-production-performance-and-feeding-behavior-of-steers-on-pasture-during-the-rainy-dry-transition-period
#17
Rita K C Brandão, Gleidson G P de Carvalho, Robério R Silva, Daniel L S Dias, Fabrício B L Mendes, Túlio O J D'A Lins, Maria M S Pereira, Joanderson O Guimarães, Manuela S L Tosto, Luana M de A Rufino, Maria L G M L de Araujo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between production performance and feeding behavior of steers reared on pasture during the rainy-dry transition period. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu crossbred steers at an average age of 10 months and with an average initial body weight of 234.5 ± 16.0 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with two types of supplementation and eleven replications. Pearson's linear correlation analysis was performed between behavioral variables and weight gain and feed conversion...
September 24, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942365/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-participates-in-mouse-hair-cycle-control-and-plays-distinct-roles-in-the-various-pelage-hair-follicle-types
#18
Karsten Krieger, Sarah E Millar, Nadine Mikuda, Inge Krahn, Jennifer E Kloepper, Marta Bertolini, Claus Scheidereit, Ralf Paus, Ruth Schmidt-Ullrich
The transcription factor NF-κB controls key features of hair follicle (HF) development, but the role of NF-κB in adult HF cycle regulation remains obscure. Using NF-κB reporter mouse models, strong NF-κB activity was detected in the secondary hair germ (SHG) of late telogen and early anagen HFs, suggesting a potential role for NF-κB in HF stem/progenitor cell activation during anagen induction. At mid-anagen, NF-κB activity was observed in the inner root sheath (IRS) and unilaterally clustered in the HF matrix, which indicates that NF-κB activity is also involved in hair fiber morphogenesis during HF cycling...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924224/analytic-model-for-the-complex-effective-index-of-the-leaky-modes-of-tube-type-anti-resonant-hollow-core-fibers
#19
Matthias Zeisberger, Markus A Schmidt
Due to their promising applications, hollow-core fibers, in particular, their anti-resonant versions, have recently attracted the attention of the photonics community. Here, we introduce a model that approximates, using the reflection of a wave on a single planar film, modal guidance in tube-type anti-resonant waveguides whose core diameters are large compared to the wavelength. The model yields analytic expressions for the real and imaginary parts of the complex effective index of the leaky modes supported, and is valid in all practically relevant situations, excellently matching all the important dispersion and loss parameters...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894262/role-of-sonication-pre-treatment-and-cation-valence-in-the-sol-gel-transition-of-nano-cellulose-suspensions
#20
C A Maestri, M Abrami, S Hazan, E Chistè, Y Golan, J Rohrer, A Bernkop-Schnürch, M Grassi, M Scarpa, P Bettotti
Sol-gel transition of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals has been investigated using rheology, SAXS, NMR and optical spectroscopies to unveil the distinctive roles of ultrasound treatments and addition of various cations. Besides cellulose fiber fragmentation, sonication treatment induces fast gelling of the solution. The gelation is independent of the addition of cations, while the final rheological properties are highly influenced by the type, concentration and sequence of the operations since the cations must be added prior to sonication to produce stiff gels...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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