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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936457/genetic-disruption-of-nrf2-promotes-the-development-of-necroinflammation-and-liver-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-hfe-hereditary-hemochromatosis
#1
Tiago L Duarte, Carolina Caldas, Ana G Santos, Sandro Silva-Gomes, Andreia Santos-Gonçalves, Maria João Martins, Graça Porto, José Manuel Lopes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In hereditary hemochromatosis, iron deposition in the liver parenchyma may lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Most cases are ascribed to a common mutation in the HFE gene, but the extent of clinical expression is greatly influenced by the combined action of yet unidentified genetic and/or environmental modifying factors. In mice, transcription factor NRF2 is a critical determinant of hepatocyte viability during exposure to acute dietary iron overload...
December 1, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#2
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#3
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877870/luminescence-of-delafossite-type-cualo2-fibers-with-eu-substitution-for-al-cations
#4
Yin Liu, Yuxuan Gong, Nathan P Mellott, Bu Wang, Haitao Ye, Yiquan Wu
CuAlO2 has been examined as a potential luminescent material by substituting Eu for Al cations in the delafossite structure. CuAlO2:Eu(3+) nanofibers have been prepared via electrospinning for the ease of mitigating synthesis requirements and for future optoelectronics and emerging applications. Single-phase CuAlO2 fibers could be obtained at a temperature of 1100 °C in air. The Eu was successfully doped in the delafossite structure and two strong emission bands at ~405 and 610 nm were observed in the photoluminescence spectra...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820862/fast-to-slow-transition-of-skeletal-muscle-contractile-function-and-corresponding-changes-in-myosin-heavy-and-light-chain-formation-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#5
Tanja Hering, Peter Braubach, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Katrin S Lindenberg, Werner Melzer
Huntington´s disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease resulting from an expanded polyglutamine sequence (poly-Q) in the protein huntingtin (HTT). Various studies report atrophy and metabolic pathology of skeletal muscle in HD and suggest as part of the process a fast-to-slow fiber type transition that may be caused by the pathological changes in central motor control or/and by mutant HTT in the muscle tissue itself. To investigate muscle pathology in HD, we used R6/2 mice, a common animal model for a rapidly progressing variant of the disease expressing exon 1 of the mutant human gene...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819128/human-pancreatic-stellate-cells-modulate-3d-collagen-alignment-to-promote-the-migration-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-cells
#6
Cole R Drifka, Agnes G Loeffler, Corinne R Esquibel, Sharon M Weber, Kevin W Eliceiri, W John Kao
A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the ability for cancer cells to aggressively infiltrate and navigate through a dense stroma during the metastatic process. Key features of the PDAC stroma include an abundant population of activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and highly aligned collagen fibers; however, important questions remain regarding how collagen becomes aligned and what the biological manifestations are. To better understand how PSCs, aligned collagen, and PDAC cells might cooperate during the transition to invasion, we utilized a microchannel-based in vitro tumor model and advanced imaging technologies to recreate and examine in vivo-like heterotypic interactions...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814384/a-one-step-immunostaining-method-to-visualize-rodent-muscle-fiber-type-within-a-single-specimen
#7
Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Wataru Mizunoya
In this study, we present a quadruple immunostaining method for rapid muscle fiber typing of mice and rats using antibodies specific to the adult myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B, which are common marker proteins of distinct muscle fiber types. We developed rat monoclonal antibodies specific to each MyHC isoform and conjugated these four antibodies to fluorophores with distinct excitation and emission wavelengths. By mixing the four types of conjugated antibodies, MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B could be distinguished within a single specimen allowing for facile delineation of skeletal muscle fiber types...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667169/aeg-1-promotes-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-activation-of-rho-gtpases-in-human-glioblastoma-cells
#8
Sang-Yoon Park, Minji Choi, Dain Park, Minho Jeong, Kwang Seok Ahn, Junhee Lee, Paul B Fisher, Miyong Yun, Seok-Geun Lee
Despite growing evidence indicating that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays pivotal roles in tumor progression in various types of human cancers including brain tumors; to date, its role in the regulation of mesenchymal transition is not clear in glioblastoma. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of AEG-1 to stress fiber formation and then the acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics of glioblastoma cells. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in normal immortalized primary human fetal astrocytes (IM-PHFAs) and glioblastoma cells revealed that overexpression of AEG-1 increased expression of mesenchymal markers including N-cadherin and two mesenchymal transition‑inducing transcription factors ZEB1 and Slug but decreased epithelial markers E-cadherin and ZO-1...
September 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660288/soluble-dietary-fiber-ameliorates-radiation-induced-intestinal-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-fibrosis
#9
Jianbo Yang, Chao Ding, Xujie Dai, Tengfei Lv, Tingbing Xie, Tenghui Zhang, Wen Gao, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a late complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soluble dietary fiber on radiation-induced intestinal EMT and fibrosis in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apple pectin (4% wt/wt in drinking water) was administered to wild-type and pVillin-Cre-EGFP transgenic mice with intestinal fibrosis induced by a single dose of abdominal irradiation of 10 Gy...
September 22, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612711/compressive-failure-modes-and-parameter-optimization-of-the-trabecular-structure-of-biomimetic-fully-integrated-honeycomb-plates
#10
Jinxiang Chen, Wanyong Tuo, Xiaoming Zhang, Chenglin He, Juan Xie, Chang Liu
To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602243/effects-of-aging-on-the-architecture-of-the-ileocecal-junction-in-rats
#11
Maria Cícera de Brito, Renato Paulo Chopard, Diego Pulzatto Cury, Ii Sei Watanabe, Cristina Eusébio Mendes, Patricia Castelucci
AIM: To evaluate the structural organization of the elastic and collagen fibers in the region of the ileocecal transition in 30 young and old male Wistar rats. METHODS: Histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed in this study. The results demonstrated that there was a demarcation of the ileocecal region between the ileum and the cecum in both groups. RESULTS: The connective tissue fibers had different distribution patterns in the two groups...
August 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579157/high-fat-diet-induced-skeletal-muscle-wasting-is-decreased-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-administration-implications-on-oxidative-stress-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway-activation-and-myonuclear-apoptosis
#12
Johanna Abrigo, Juan Carlos Rivera, Javier Aravena, Daniel Cabrera, Felipe Simon, Fernando Ezquer, Marcelo Ezquer, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575950/solvent-induced-morphological-evolution-of-cholesterol-based-glucose-tailored-amphiphiles-transformation-from-vesicles-to-nanoribbons
#13
Deep Mandal, Soumik Dinda, Pritam Choudhury, Prasanta Kumar Das
Supramolecular self-assembly of low molecular mass amphiphiles is of topical interest with the urge to achieve precise control over the formation of various self-aggregated structures. Particularly, fabrication of multifarious nanostructures from single molecular backbone would be highly advantageous for task specific applications of the self-aggregates. To this end, the present study reports the solvent triggered evolution of hierarchical self-assembled structures of cholesterol based glucose appended amphiphiles and the pathway of structural transition...
September 27, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561543/inferring-the-skeletal-muscle-developmental-changes-of-grazing-and-barn-fed-goats-from-gene-expression-data
#14
Jinyu Huang, Jinzhen Jiao, Zhi-Liang Tan, Zhixiong He, Karen A Beauchemin, Robert Forster, Xue-Feng Han, Shao-Xun Tang, Jinghe Kang, Chuanshe Zhou
Thirty-six Xiangdong black goats were used to investigate age-related mRNA and protein expression levels of some genes related to skeletal muscle structural proteins, MRFs and MEF2 family, and skeletal muscle fiber type and composition during skeletal muscle growth under grazing (G) and barn-fed (BF) feeding systems. Goats were slaughtered at six time points selected to reflect developmental changes of skeletal muscle during nonrumination (days 0, 7, and 14), transition (day 42), and rumination phases (days 56 and 70)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539495/contractile-properties-of-motor-units-and-expression-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-in-rat-fast-type-muscle-after-volitional-weight-lifting-training
#15
Dawid Łochyński, Dominik Kaczmarek, Włodzimierz Mrówczyński, Wojciech Warchoł, Joanna Majerczak, Janusz Karasiński, Michał Korostyński, Jerzy A Zoladz, Jan Celichowski
Dynamic resistance training increases the force and speed of muscle contraction, but little is known about modifications to the contractile properties of the main physiological types of motor units (MUs) that contribute to these muscle adaptations. Although the contractile profile of MU muscle fibers is tightly coupled to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression, it is not well understood if MyHC transition is a prerequisite for modifications to the contractile characteristics of MUs. In this study, we examined MU contractile properties, the mRNA expression of MyHC, parvalbumin, and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump isoforms, as well as the MyHC protein content after 5 wk of volitional progressive weight-lifting training in the medial gastrocnemius muscle in rats...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536959/differential-collective-and-single-cell-behaviors-on-silicon-micropillar-arrays
#16
Zeinab Jahed, Ramin Zareian, Yeung Yeung Chau, Brandon B Seo, Mary West, Ting Y Tsui, Weijia Wen, Mohammad R K Mofrad
Three-dimensional vertically aligned nano- and micropillars have emerged as promising tools for a variety of biological applications. Despite their increasing usage, the interaction mechanisms of cells with these rigid structures and their effect on single- and collective-cell behaviors are not well understood for different cell types. In the present study, we examine the response of glioma cells to micropillar arrays using a new microfabricated platform consisting of rigid silicon micropillar arrays of various shapes, sizes, and configurations fabricated on a single platform...
September 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515590/cessation-of-biomechanical-stretch-model-of-c2c12-cells-models-myocyte-atrophy-and-anaplerotic-changes-in-metabolism-using-non-targeted-metabolomics-analysis
#17
Amro Ilaiwy, Megan T Quintana, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, David I Brown, William E Stansfield, Monte S Willis
Studies of skeletal muscle disuse, either in patients on bed rest or experimentally in animals (immobilization), have demonstrated that decreased protein synthesis is common, with transient parallel increases in protein degradation. Muscle disuse atrophy involves a process of transition from slow to fast myosin fiber types. A shift toward glycolysis, decreased capacity for fat oxidation, and substrate accumulation in atrophied muscles have been reported, as has accommodation of the liver with an increased gluconeogenic capacity...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513165/tubing-electrospinning-a-one-step-process-for-fabricating-fibrous-matrices-with-spatial-chemical-and-mechanical-gradients
#18
Jung-Suk Kim, Byung Gee Im, Gyuhyung Jin, Jae-Hyung Jang
Guiding newly generated tissues in a gradient pattern, thereby precisely mimicking inherent tissue morphology and subsequently arranging the intimate networks between adjacent tissues, is essential to raise the technical levels of tissue engineering and facilitate its transition into the clinic. In this study, a straightforward electrospinning method (the tubing-electrospinning technique) was developed to create fibrous matrices readily with diverse gradient patterns and to induce patterned cellular responses...
August 31, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506764/coupling-of-mitochondrial-function-and-skeletal-muscle-fiber-type-by-a-mir-499-fnip1-ampk-circuit
#19
Jing Liu, Xijun Liang, Danxia Zhou, Ling Lai, Liwei Xiao, Lin Liu, Tingting Fu, Yan Kong, Qian Zhou, Rick B Vega, Min-Sheng Zhu, Daniel P Kelly, Xiang Gao, Zhenji Gan
Upon adaption of skeletal muscle to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, muscle fiber type and mitochondrial function are coordinately regulated. Recent studies have identified pathways involved in control of contractile proteins of oxidative-type fibers. However, the mechanism for coupling of mitochondrial function to the muscle contractile machinery during fiber type transition remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression of the genes encoding type I myosins, Myh7/Myh7b and their intronic miR-208b/miR-499, parallels mitochondrial function during fiber type transitions...
October 4, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501784/dietary-fats-and-oils-in-india
#20
Seema Gulati, Anoop Misra, Meenu Sharma
Background India is undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increase in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). From a healthy traditional home-cooked high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, there is a shift towards increasing consumption of packaged, ready-to-eat foods which are calorie-dense and contain refined carbohydrates, high fat, salt and sugar and less fiber. Although fats and oils have been an integral part of our diets, there is a change in the pattern of consumption, in terms of both quality and quantity...
August 11, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
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