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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202757/the-viral-gene-orf79-encodes-a-repressor-regulating-induction-of-the-lytic-life-cycle-in-the-haloalkaliphilic-virus-%C3%AF-ch1
#1
Regina Selb, Christian Derntl, Reinhard Klein, Beatrix Alte, Christoph Hofbauer, Martin Kaufmann, Judith Beraha, Léa Schöner, Angela Witte
In this study, we describe the construction of the first genetically modified mutant of a halovirus infecting haloalkaliphilic Archaea By random choice we targeted ORF79, a so far uncharacterized viral gene of the haloalkaliphilic virus φCh1. We used a PEG-mediated transformation method to deliver a disruption cassette into a lysogenic strain of the haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natrialba magadii bearing φCh1 as provirus. This approach yielded mutant virus particles carrying a disrupted version of the ORF79. Disruption of ORF79 did not influence morphology of the mature virions...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177909/fibulin-4-is-associated-with-prognosis-of-endometrial-cancer-patients-and-inhibits-cancer-cell-invasion-and-metastasis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#2
Tiantian Wang, Mei Wang, Shuang Fang, Qiang Wang, Rui Fang, Jie Chen
Fibulin-4, an extracellular glycoprotein, which plays significant roles in elastic fiber assembly, is correlated to the progression of some cancers. However, the role of fibulin-4 in endometrial cancer cell invasion and metastasis remains unexplored. In our study, fibulin-4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in normal endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma tissues. Using single cell cloning, strongly, and weakly, invasive subclones were derived from KLE and Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cell lines...
February 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150274/site-dependent-acellularization-effects-explain-altered-tissue-mechanics-ultrastructural-insights
#3
Niels Hammer
Acellular scaffolds are used for the surgical repair of soft tissue injury forming a biological basis for cell remodeling. Previously tissue-dependent effects sodium-dodecyl-sulfate (SDS) have been determined on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of different tissue types. This short report aims at extending these findings onto a tissue-layer level with focus on the ECM. Porcine ureters, esophagi and skin underwent acellularization using SDS, whereas control samples remained in a native condition. The samples were investigated histologically and ultrastructurally electron microscopy...
February 2, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056339/asbestos-induced-mesothelial-to-fibroblastic-transition-is-modulated-by-the-inflammasome
#4
Joyce K Thompson, Maximilian B MacPherson, Stacie L Beuschel, Arti Shukla
Despite the causal relationship established between malignant mesothelioma (MM) and asbestos exposure, the exact mechanism by which asbestos induces this neoplasm and other asbestos-related diseases is still not well understood. MM is characterized by chronic inflammation, which is believed to play an intrinsic role in the origin of this disease. We recently found that asbestos activates the nod-like receptor family member containing a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in a protracted manner, leading to an up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-18 production in human mesothelial cells...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008303/regenerated-sciatic-nerve-axons-stimulated-through-a-chronically-implanted-macro-sieve-electrode
#5
Matthew R MacEwan, Erik R Zellmer, Jesse J Wheeler, Harold Burton, Daniel W Moran
Sieve electrodes provide a chronic interface for stimulating peripheral nerve axons. Yet, successful utilization requires robust axonal regeneration through the implanted electrode. The present study determined the effect of large transit zones in enhancing axonal regeneration and revealed an intimate neural interface with an implanted sieve electrode. Fabrication of the polyimide sieve electrodes employed sacrificial photolithography. The manufactured macro-sieve electrode (MSE) contained nine large transit zones with areas of ~0...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007568/hyaluronic-acid-decreases-the-mechanical-stability-but-increases-the-lytic-resistance-of-fibrin-matrices
#6
Erzsébet Komorowicz, Nóra Balázs, Zoltán Varga, László Szabó, Attila Bóta, Krasimir Kolev
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a large, non-sulfated glucosaminoglycan abundantly present at sites where fibrin is also formed (during wound healing, in arterial restenotic lesions and eroded atherosclerotic plaques). The aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of composite fibrin-HA clots with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pressure-driven permeation and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and their viscoelastic properties with an oscillation rheometer. In addition the efficiency of fibrinolysis in these clots was investigated by kinetic turbidimetric and chromogenic assays for dissolution of fibrin and plasminogen activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)...
December 19, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989921/a-model-system-for-developing-a-tissue-engineered-meniscal-enthesis
#7
Mary Clare McCorry, Melissa M Mansfield, Xiaozhou Sha, Daniel J Coppola, Jonathan W Lee, Lawrence J Bonassar
: The meniscus acts as a stabilizer, lubricator, and load distributer in the knee joint. The mechanical stability of the meniscus depends on its connection to the underlying bone by a fibrocartilage to bone transition zone called the meniscal enthesis. Tissue engineered menisci hold great promise as a treatment alternative however lack a means of integrated fixation to the underlying bone needed in order for a tissue engineered meniscal replacement to be successful. Tissue engineering the meniscal enthesis is a difficult task given the complex gradients of cell type, mineral, and extracellular matrix molecules...
October 29, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936457/genetic-disruption-of-nrf2-promotes-the-development-of-necroinflammation-and-liver-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-hfe-hereditary-hemochromatosis
#8
Tiago L Duarte, Carolina Caldas, Ana G Santos, Sandro Silva-Gomes, Andreia Santos-Gonçalves, Maria João Martins, Graça Porto, José Manuel Lopes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In hereditary hemochromatosis, iron deposition in the liver parenchyma may lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Most cases are ascribed to a common mutation in the HFE gene, but the extent of clinical expression is greatly influenced by the combined action of yet unidentified genetic and/or environmental modifying factors. In mice, transcription factor NRF2 is a critical determinant of hepatocyte viability during exposure to acute dietary iron overload...
December 1, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#9
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#10
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877870/luminescence-of-delafossite-type-cualo2-fibers-with-eu-substitution-for-al-cations
#11
Yin Liu, Yuxuan Gong, Nathan P Mellott, Bu Wang, Haitao Ye, Yiquan Wu
CuAlO2 has been examined as a potential luminescent material by substituting Eu for Al cations in the delafossite structure. CuAlO2:Eu(3+) nanofibers have been prepared via electrospinning for the ease of mitigating synthesis requirements and for future optoelectronics and emerging applications. Single-phase CuAlO2 fibers could be obtained at a temperature of 1100 °C in air. The Eu was successfully doped in the delafossite structure and two strong emission bands at ~405 and 610 nm were observed in the photoluminescence spectra...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820862/fast-to-slow-transition-of-skeletal-muscle-contractile-function-and-corresponding-changes-in-myosin-heavy-and-light-chain-formation-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#12
Tanja Hering, Peter Braubach, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Katrin S Lindenberg, Werner Melzer
Huntington´s disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease resulting from an expanded polyglutamine sequence (poly-Q) in the protein huntingtin (HTT). Various studies report atrophy and metabolic pathology of skeletal muscle in HD and suggest as part of the process a fast-to-slow fiber type transition that may be caused by the pathological changes in central motor control or/and by mutant HTT in the muscle tissue itself. To investigate muscle pathology in HD, we used R6/2 mice, a common animal model for a rapidly progressing variant of the disease expressing exon 1 of the mutant human gene...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819128/human-pancreatic-stellate-cells-modulate-3d-collagen-alignment-to-promote-the-migration-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-cells
#13
Cole R Drifka, Agnes G Loeffler, Corinne R Esquibel, Sharon M Weber, Kevin W Eliceiri, W John Kao
A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the ability for cancer cells to aggressively infiltrate and navigate through a dense stroma during the metastatic process. Key features of the PDAC stroma include an abundant population of activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and highly aligned collagen fibers; however, important questions remain regarding how collagen becomes aligned and what the biological manifestations are. To better understand how PSCs, aligned collagen, and PDAC cells might cooperate during the transition to invasion, we utilized a microchannel-based in vitro tumor model and advanced imaging technologies to recreate and examine in vivo-like heterotypic interactions...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814384/a-one-step-immunostaining-method-to-visualize-rodent-muscle-fiber-type-within-a-single-specimen
#14
Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Wataru Mizunoya
In this study, we present a quadruple immunostaining method for rapid muscle fiber typing of mice and rats using antibodies specific to the adult myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B, which are common marker proteins of distinct muscle fiber types. We developed rat monoclonal antibodies specific to each MyHC isoform and conjugated these four antibodies to fluorophores with distinct excitation and emission wavelengths. By mixing the four types of conjugated antibodies, MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B could be distinguished within a single specimen allowing for facile delineation of skeletal muscle fiber types...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667169/aeg-1-promotes-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-activation-of-rho-gtpases-in-human-glioblastoma-cells
#15
Sang-Yoon Park, Minji Choi, Dain Park, Minho Jeong, Kwang Seok Ahn, Junhee Lee, Paul B Fisher, Miyong Yun, Seok-Geun Lee
Despite growing evidence indicating that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays pivotal roles in tumor progression in various types of human cancers including brain tumors; to date, its role in the regulation of mesenchymal transition is not clear in glioblastoma. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of AEG-1 to stress fiber formation and then the acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics of glioblastoma cells. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in normal immortalized primary human fetal astrocytes (IM-PHFAs) and glioblastoma cells revealed that overexpression of AEG-1 increased expression of mesenchymal markers including N-cadherin and two mesenchymal transition‑inducing transcription factors ZEB1 and Slug but decreased epithelial markers E-cadherin and ZO-1...
November 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660288/soluble-dietary-fiber-ameliorates-radiation-induced-intestinal-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-fibrosis
#16
Jianbo Yang, Chao Ding, Xujie Dai, Tengfei Lv, Tingbing Xie, Tenghui Zhang, Wen Gao, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a late complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soluble dietary fiber on radiation-induced intestinal EMT and fibrosis in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apple pectin (4% wt/wt in drinking water) was administered to wild-type and pVillin-Cre-EGFP transgenic mice with intestinal fibrosis induced by a single dose of abdominal irradiation of 10 Gy...
September 22, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612711/compressive-failure-modes-and-parameter-optimization-of-the-trabecular-structure-of-biomimetic-fully-integrated-honeycomb-plates
#17
Jinxiang Chen, Wanyong Tuo, Xiaoming Zhang, Chenglin He, Juan Xie, Chang Liu
To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602243/effects-of-aging-on-the-architecture-of-the-ileocecal-junction-in-rats
#18
Maria Cícera de Brito, Renato Paulo Chopard, Diego Pulzatto Cury, Ii Sei Watanabe, Cristina Eusébio Mendes, Patricia Castelucci
AIM: To evaluate the structural organization of the elastic and collagen fibers in the region of the ileocecal transition in 30 young and old male Wistar rats. METHODS: Histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed in this study. The results demonstrated that there was a demarcation of the ileocecal region between the ileum and the cecum in both groups. RESULTS: The connective tissue fibers had different distribution patterns in the two groups...
August 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579157/high-fat-diet-induced-skeletal-muscle-wasting-is-decreased-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-administration-implications-on-oxidative-stress-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway-activation-and-myonuclear-apoptosis
#19
Johanna Abrigo, Juan Carlos Rivera, Javier Aravena, Daniel Cabrera, Felipe Simon, Fernando Ezquer, Marcelo Ezquer, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575950/solvent-induced-morphological-evolution-of-cholesterol-based-glucose-tailored-amphiphiles-transformation-from-vesicles-to-nanoribbons
#20
Deep Mandal, Soumik Dinda, Pritam Choudhury, Prasanta Kumar Das
Supramolecular self-assembly of low molecular mass amphiphiles is of topical interest with the urge to achieve precise control over the formation of various self-aggregated structures. Particularly, fabrication of multifarious nanostructures from single molecular backbone would be highly advantageous for task specific applications of the self-aggregates. To this end, the present study reports the solvent triggered evolution of hierarchical self-assembled structures of cholesterol based glucose appended amphiphiles and the pathway of structural transition...
September 27, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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