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fiber type transition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732069/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-ibs
#1
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Gloria Sarasin, Valentina Caputi, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Cecilia Giron, Giorgio Palù, Ignazio Castagliuolo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure. METHODS: Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU) or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG) route (108 PFU). Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712912/multixplore-visual-exploration-platform-for-multimodal-neuroimaging-data
#2
Saeed M Bakhshmand, Ali R Khan, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, Roy Eagleson
BACKGROUND: Construction of brain functional and structural networks by neuroimaging methods facilitates inter-modal studies. These type of studies often demand exploration tools to carry out functional-structural discoveries and answer questions regarding the anatomical basis of brain networks. NEW METHOD: This paper describes the design and development of a software module for interactive visualization and exploration of dual-modal brain networks. Our objective was to equip the user with a research tool to investigate brain connectivity matrices while visualizing relevant anatomical landmarks within a 3D volumetric view...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704886/tensiomyographic-assessment-of-muscle-contractile-properties-in-9-to-14-year-old-children
#3
Bostjan Simunic, Hans Degens, Jernej Zavrsnik, Katja Koren, Tadeja Volmut, Rado Pisot
While there are numerous data on the skeletal muscle fiber type composition in adults, little is known about the changes in fiber type composition and contractile properties during maturational growth in children. Using noninvasive tensiomyography, we measured contraction time (Tc), an indirect estimate of the myosin heavy chain I (MHC-I) proportion, to assess the longitudinal changes of the biceps brachii (BB), biceps femois (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), and erector spinae (ES) muscles in 53 boys and 54 girls...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698144/inhibiting-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-to-promote-epithelial-transition-of-human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Melina Setiawan, Xiao-Wei Tan, Tze-Wei Goh, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Jodhbir S Mehta
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigate the epithelial differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. METHODS AND RESULTS: STEMPRO human ADSCs at passage 2 were treated with CHIR99021 (GSK3 inhibitor), E-616452 (TGFβ1 receptor kinase inhibitor), A-83-01 (TGFβ type 1 receptor inhibitor), valproic acid (histone deacetylase inhibitor), tranylcypromine (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) and all-trans retinoic acid for 72 h...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604909/a-supramolecular-assembly-based-on-an-engineered-hemoprotein-exhibiting-a-thermal-stimulus-driven-conversion-to-a-new-distinct-supramolecular-structure
#5
Koji Oohora, Yoshitaka Onuma, Yuta Tanaka, Akira Onoda, Takashi Hayashi
Supramolecular assembly of an engineered hemoprotein with an externally-attached heme moiety via an azobenzene or stilbene linker demonstrates drastic structural transitions between two distinct forms: the thermodynamically stable fiber-type assembly and the kinetically trapped metastable micelle-type assembly induced by transient thermal stimulus.
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592414/effects-of-sarcolipin-deletion-on-skeletal-muscle-adaptive-responses-to-functional-overload-and-unload
#6
Val A Fajardo, Bradley A Rietze, Paige J Chambers, Catherine Bellissimo, Eric Bombardier, Joe Quadrilatero, A Russell Tupling
Overexpression of sarcolipin (SLN), a regulator of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs), stimulates calcineurin signaling to enhance skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Some studies have shown that calcineurin may also control skeletal muscle mass and remodeling in response to functional overload and unload stimuli by increasing myofiber size and the proportion of slow fibers. To examine whether SLN might mediate these adaptive responses we performed soleus and gastrocnemius tenotomy in wild-type (WT) and Sln¬-null (Sln(-/-)) mice and examined the overloaded plantaris and unloaded/tenotomized soleus muscles...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586162/chain-length-dependent-effects-of-inulin-type-fructan-dietary-fiber-on-human-systemic-immune-responses-against-hepatitis-b
#7
Leonie M Vogt, Marlies E Elderman, Theo Borghuis, Bart J de Haan, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: In vivo studies demonstrating that only specific dietary-fibers contribute to immunity are still inconclusive, as measuring immune effects in healthy humans remains difficult. We applied a relatively inefficacious vaccination-challenge to study chain length-dependent effects of inulin-type fructan (ITF) dietary fibers on human immunity. METHODS AND RESULTS: ITFs with two different 'degree of polymerization-' (DP)-profiles were tested in vitro for effects on PBMC-cytokines and TLR2 activation...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585281/the-deep-fascia-and-retinacula-of-the-equine-forelimb-structure-and-innervation
#8
Aleksandra Skalec, Monika Egerbacher
Recent advances in human fascia research have shed new light on the role of the fascial network in movement perception and coordination, transmission of muscle force, and integrative function in body biomechanics. Evolutionary adaptations of equine musculoskeletal apparatus that assure effective terrestrial locomotion are employed in equestrianism, resulting in the wide variety of movements in performing horses, from sophisticated dressage to jumping and high-speed racing. The high importance of horse motion efficiency in the present-day equine industry indicates the significance of scientific knowledge of the structure and physiology of equine fasciae...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525556/transcriptome-of-the-gsh-depleted-lens-reveals-changes-in-detoxification-and-emt-signaling-genes-transport-systems-and-lipid-homeostasis
#9
Jeremy A Whitson, Xiang Zhang, Mario Medvedovic, Jenny Chen, Zongbo Wei, Vincent M Monnier, Xingjun Fan
Purpose: To understand the effects of glutathione (GSH)-deficiency on genetic processes that regulate lens homeostasis and prevent cataractogenesis. Methods: The transcriptome of lens epithelia and fiber cells was obtained from C57BL/6 LEGSKO (lens GSH-synthesis knockout) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)-treated LEGSKO mice and compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice using RNA-Seq. Transcriptomic data were confirmed by qPCR and Western blot/ELISA on a subset of genes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522766/ontogeny-of-myosin-isoform-expression-and-prehensile-function-in-the-tail-of-the-gray-short-tailed-opossum-monodelphis-domestica
#10
Dylan R Thomas, Brad A Chadwell, Gary R Walker, Julio E Budde, John L VandeBerg, Michael T Butcher
Terrestrial opossums use their semi-prehensile tail for grasping nesting materials as opposed to arboreal maneuvering. We relate the development of this adaptive behavior with ontogenetic changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression from 21 days to adulthood. Monodelphis domestica is expected to demonstrate a progressive ability to flex the distal tail up to age 7 months, when it should exhibit routine nest construction. We hypothesize that juvenile stages (3-7 months) will be characterized by retention of the neonatal isoform (MHC-Neo), along with predominant expression of fast MHC-2X and 2B, which will transition into greater MHC-1β and 2A isoform content as development progresses...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513985/self-assembled-nanofiber-coatings-for-controlling-cell-responses
#11
Raquel C Barros, Edith Gelens, Erna Bulten, Annemarie Tuin, Menno R de Jong, Roel Kuijer, Theo G van Kooten
Nanofibers are thought to enhance cell adhesion, growth, and function. We demonstrate that the choice of building blocks in self-assembling nanofiber systems can be used to control cell behavior. The use of 2 D-coated, self-assembled nanofibers in controlling lens epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells was investigated, focusing on gene and protein expression related to the fibrotic response. To this end, three nanofibers with different characteristics (morphology, topography, and wettability) were compared with two standard materials frequently used in culturing cells, TCPS, and a collagen type I coating...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#12
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
July 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315692/role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-fibroblast-function-in-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-induced-lung-fibrosis
#13
Jane Ma, Bridget Bishoff, R R Mercer, Mark Barger, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Vincent Castranova
The emission of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2) from diesel engines, using cerium compounds as a catalyst to lower the diesel exhaust particles, is a health concern. We have previously shown that CeO2 induced pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the modification of fibroblast function and the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CeO2-induced fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO2 (0.15 to 7mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation and sacrificed at various times post-exposure...
May 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253314/mangiferin-protects-against-adverse-skeletal-muscle-changes-and-enhances-muscle-oxidative-capacity-in-obese-rats
#14
Luz M Acevedo, Ana I Raya, Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, José-Luis L Rivero
Obesity-related skeletal muscle changes include muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity. These changes relate with increased risk of insulin resistance. Mangiferin, the major component of the plant Mangifera indica, is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antihyperlipidemic agent. This study tested the hypothesis that mangiferin treatment counteracts obesity-induced fiber atrophy and slow-to-fast fiber transition, and favors an oxidative phenotype in skeletal muscle of obese rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248225/age-and-activity-related-differences-in-the-abundance-of-myosin-essential-and-regulatory-light-chains-in-human-muscle
#15
James N Cobley, Zulezwan Ab Malik, James P Morton, Graeme L Close, Ben J Edwards, Jatin G Burniston
Traditional methods for phenotyping skeletal muscle (e.g., immunohistochemistry) are labor-intensive and ill-suited to multixplex analysis, i.e., assays must be performed in a series. Addressing these concerns represents a largely unmet research need but more comprehensive parallel analysis of myofibrillar proteins could advance knowledge regarding age- and activity-dependent changes in human muscle. We report a label-free, semi-automated and time efficient LC-MS proteomic workflow for phenotyping the myofibrillar proteome...
April 8, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202757/the-viral-gene-orf79-encodes-a-repressor-regulating-induction-of-the-lytic-life-cycle-in-the-haloalkaliphilic-virus-%C3%AF-ch1
#16
Regina Selb, Christian Derntl, Reinhard Klein, Beatrix Alte, Christoph Hofbauer, Martin Kaufmann, Judith Beraha, Léa Schöner, Angela Witte
In this study, we describe the construction of the first genetically modified mutant of a halovirus infecting haloalkaliphilic Archaea By random choice, we targeted ORF79, a currently uncharacterized viral gene of the haloalkaliphilic virus ϕCh1. We used a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation method to deliver a disruption cassette into a lysogenic strain of the haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natrialba magadii bearing ϕCh1 as a provirus. This approach yielded mutant virus particles carrying a disrupted version of ORF79...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177909/fibulin-4-is-associated-with-prognosis-of-endometrial-cancer-patients-and-inhibits-cancer-cell-invasion-and-metastasis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#17
Tiantian Wang, Mei Wang, Shuang Fang, Qiang Wang, Rui Fang, Jie Chen
Fibulin-4, an extracellular glycoprotein, which plays significant roles in elastic fiber assembly, is correlated to the progression of some cancers. However, the role of fibulin-4 in endometrial cancer cell invasion and metastasis remains unexplored. In our study, fibulin-4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in normal endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma tissues. Using single cell cloning, strongly, and weakly, invasive subclones were derived from KLE and Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cell lines...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150274/site-dependent-acellularization-effects-explain-altered-tissue-mechanics-ultrastructural-insights
#18
Niels Hammer
Acellular scaffolds are used for the surgical repair of soft tissue injury forming a biological basis for cell remodeling. Previously tissue-dependent effects sodium-dodecyl-sulfate (SDS) have been determined on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of different tissue types. This short report aims at extending these findings onto a tissue-layer level with focus on the ECM. Porcine ureters, esophagi and skin underwent acellularization using SDS, whereas control samples remained in a native condition. The samples were investigated histologically and ultrastructurally electron microscopy...
February 2, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056339/asbestos-induced-mesothelial-to-fibroblastic-transition-is-modulated-by-the-inflammasome
#19
Joyce K Thompson, Maximilian B MacPherson, Stacie L Beuschel, Arti Shukla
Despite the causal relationship established between malignant mesothelioma (MM) and asbestos exposure, the exact mechanism by which asbestos induces this neoplasm and other asbestos-related diseases is still not well understood. MM is characterized by chronic inflammation, which is believed to play an intrinsic role in the origin of this disease. We recently found that asbestos activates the nod-like receptor family member containing a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in a protracted manner, leading to an up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-18 production in human mesothelial cells...
March 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008303/regenerated-sciatic-nerve-axons-stimulated-through-a-chronically-implanted-macro-sieve-electrode
#20
Matthew R MacEwan, Erik R Zellmer, Jesse J Wheeler, Harold Burton, Daniel W Moran
Sieve electrodes provide a chronic interface for stimulating peripheral nerve axons. Yet, successful utilization requires robust axonal regeneration through the implanted electrode. The present study determined the effect of large transit zones in enhancing axonal regeneration and revealed an intimate neural interface with an implanted sieve electrode. Fabrication of the polyimide sieve electrodes employed sacrificial photolithography. The manufactured macro-sieve electrode (MSE) contained nine large transit zones with areas of ~0...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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