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Giovanna Chidini, Daniele De Luca, Giorgio Conti, Paolo Pelosi, Stefano Nava, Edoardo Calderini
OBJECTIVE: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist has been shown to improve patient-ventilator interaction in children with acute respiratory failure. Objective of this study was to compare the effect of noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus noninvasive flow-triggered pressure support on patient-ventilator interaction in children with acute respiratory failure, when delivered as a first-line respiratory support. DESIGN: Prospective randomized crossover physiologic study...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Jesús Villar, Javier Belda, Jesús Blanco, Fernando Suarez-Sipmann, José Manuel Añón, Lina Pérez-Méndez, Carlos Ferrando, Dácil Parrilla, Raquel Montiel, Ruth Corpas, Elena González-Higueras, David Pestaña, Domingo Martínez, Lorena Fernández, Marina Soro, Miguel Angel García-Bello, Rosa Lidia Fernández, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a common problem in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. It is assumed that asynchronies worsen lung function and prolong the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) is a novel approach to MV based on neural respiratory center output that is able to trigger, cycle, and regulate the ventilatory cycle. We hypothesized that the use of NAVA compared to conventional lung-protective MV will result in a reduction of the duration of MV...
October 13, 2016: Trials
Christina B Reimer, Tilo Strobach, Torsten Schubert
Both visual attention and response selection are limited in capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether visual attention requires the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in a dual-task of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm. The dual-task consisted of an auditory two-choice discrimination Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2, which were presented at variable temporal intervals (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA). In the conjunction search task, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind the item features resulting in a serial search process...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Judy A Kipping, Ta Ahn Tuan, Marielle V Fortier, Anqi Qiu
Evidence from clinical studies shows that early cerebellar injury can cause abnormal development of the cerebral cortex in children. Characterization of normative development of the cerebellar and cerebello-cortical organization in early life is of great clinical importance. Here, we analyzed cerebellar, cerebello-cortical, and cortico-cortical functional networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of healthy infants (6 months, n = 21), children (4-10 years, n = 68), and adults (23-38 years, n = 25)...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Kerstin Jost, Mike Wendt, Aquiles Luna-Rodriguez, Andreas Löw, Thomas Jacobsen
In choice reaction time (RT) tasks, performance is often influenced by the presence of nominally irrelevant stimuli, referred to as distractors. Recent research provided evidence that distractor processing can be adjusted to the utility of the distractors: Distractors predictive of the upcoming target/response were more attended to and also elicited stronger motor responses. In an event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated whether not only the extent of distractor processing (as suggested by these previous results), but also the timing of distractor-based response activation is subject to strategic control...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Zhenghua Hou, Yuxiu Sui, Xiaopeng Song, Yonggui Yuan
The intuitive association between cognitive impairment and aberrant functional activity in the brain network has prompted interest in exploring the role of functional connectivity in late-onset depression (LOD). The relationship of altered voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and cognitive dysfunction in LOD is not yet well understood. This study was designed to examine the implicit relationship between the disruption of interhemispheric functional coordination and cognitive impairment in LOD. LOD patients (N = 31) and matched healthy controls (HCs; N = 37) underwent neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Adam E Rosenblatt, Oswald J Schmitz
Climate change ecology has focused on climate effects on trophic interactions through the lenses of temperature effects on organismal physiology and phenological asynchronies. Trophic interactions are also affected by the nutrient content of resources, but this topic has received less attention. Using concepts from nutritional ecology, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding how climate affects food webs through top-down and bottom-up processes impacted by co-occurring environmental drivers. The framework integrates climate effects on consumer physiology and feeding behavior with effects on resource nutrient content...
October 7, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Richard S McBride, Rosalia Ferreri, Emilee K Towle, Jason M Boucher, Gualtiero Basilone
Reports of American shad fecundity identify two important themes regarding egg production in fishes. First, geographic variation occurs and is biologically meaningful. Shad annual fecundity decreases with increasing latitude, but predicted lifetime fecundity does not, because of a counter-gradient of survival probability, all of which can explain the adaptive significance of natal homing. Second, the appropriate method of measuring fecundity depends on the pattern of oocyte development. Historically, the relatively simple determinate-fecundity method was used; however, a recent study in a Virginia river indicates that this method may be biased, requiring the more complicated indeterminate method...
2016: PloS One
Ya-Chen Chen, Tzu-Chien Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Thoracoabdominal asynchrony is often adopted to discriminate respiratory diseases in clinics. Conventionally, Lissajous figure analysis is the most frequently used estimation of the phase difference in thoracoabdominal asynchrony. However, the temporal resolution of the produced results is low and the estimation error increases when the signals are not sinusoidal. Other previous studies have reported time-domain procedures with the use of band-pass filters for phase-angle estimation...
October 6, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Maximilian Bruchmann, Catharina Korsukewitz, Julia Krämer, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth
Optic neuritis (ON) has detrimental effects on the transmission of neuronal signals generated at the earliest stages of visual information processing. The amount, as well as the speed of transmitted visual signals is impaired. Measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP) are often implemented in clinical routine. However, the specificity of VEPs is limited because multiple cortical areas are involved in the generation of P1 potentials, including feedback signals from higher cortical areas. Here, we show that dichoptic metacontrast masking can be used to estimate the temporal delay caused by ON...
2016: PloS One
Marco Steinhauser, Benjamin Ernst, Kevin W Ibald
Posterror slowing (PES) refers to an increased response time following errors. While PES has traditionally been attributed to control adjustments, recent evidence suggested that PES reflects interference. The present study investigated the hypothesis that control and interference represent 2 components of PES that differ with respect to their time course and task-specificity. To this end, we investigated PES in a dual-task paradigm in which participants had to classify colors and tones that were separated by a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Emmanuele Tidoni, Michele Scandola, Veronica Orvalho, Matteo Candidi
Apparent biological motion is the perception of plausible movements when two alternating images depicting the initial and final phase of an action are presented at specific stimulus onset asynchronies. Here, we show lower subjective apparent biological motion perception when actions are observed from a first relative to a third visual perspective. These findings are discussed within the context of sensorimotor contributions to body ownership.
September 2016: I-Perception
Kali Woodruff Carr, Ahren B Fitzroy, Adam Tierney, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Speech communication involves integration and coordination of sensory perception and motor production, requiring precise temporal coupling. Beat synchronization, the coordination of movement with a pacing sound, can be used as an index of this sensorimotor timing. We assessed adolescents' synchronization and capacity to correct asynchronies when given online visual feedback. Variability of synchronization while receiving feedback predicted phonological memory and reading sub-skills, as well as maturation of cortical auditory processing; less variable synchronization during the presence of feedback tracked with maturation of cortical processing of sound onsets and resting gamma activity...
October 1, 2016: Brain and Language
Yuki Murai, Ikuya Murakami
Visual motion distorts the perceived position of a stimulus. In the flash-drag effect (FDE), the perceived position of a flash appears to be shifted in the direction of nearby motion. In the flash-lag effect (FLE), a flash adjacent to a moving stimulus appears to lag behind. The FLE has been explained by several models, including the differential latency hypothesis, that a moving stimulus has a shorter processing latency than a flash does. The FDE even occurs when the flash is presented earlier than the moving stimulus, and it has been discussed whether this temporal property can be explained by the differential latency model...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
A Demoule, M Clavel, C Rolland-Debord, S Perbet, N Terzi, A Kouatchet, F Wallet, H Roze, F Vargas, C Guerin, J Dellamonica, S Jaber, L Brochard, T Similowski
PURPOSE: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a ventilatory mode that tailors the level of assistance delivered by the ventilator to the electromyographic activity of the diaphragm. The objective of this study was to compare NAVA and pressure support ventilation (PSV) in the early phase of weaning from mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A multicentre randomized controlled trial of 128 intubated adults recovering from acute respiratory failure was conducted in 11 intensive care units...
September 30, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Paul Reddish, Eddie M W Tong, Jonathan Jong, Jonathan A Lanman, Harvey Whitehouse
Previous research has found that behavioural synchrony between people leads to greater prosocial tendencies towards co-performers. In this study, we investigated the scope of this prosocial effect: does it extend beyond the performance group to an extended ingroup (extended parochial prosociality) or even to other people in general (generalized prosociality)? Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement either in time (synchrony condition) or out of time (asynchrony condition) with each other. Before and during the rhythmic movement, participants were exposed to a prime that made salient an extended ingroup identity...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Xiaoxu Fan, Lan Wang, Hanyu Shao, Daniel Kersten, Sheng He
Recent studies have shown that information from peripherally presented images is present in the human foveal retinotopic cortex, presumably because of feedback signals. We investigated this potential feedback signal by presenting noise in fovea at different object-noise stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), whereas subjects performed a discrimination task on peripheral objects. Results revealed a selective impairment of performance when foveal noise was presented at 250-ms SOA, but only for tasks that required comparing objects' spatial details, suggesting a task- and stimulus-dependent foveal processing mechanism...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Taiga Itagaki, Christopher T Chenelle, Desmond J Bennett, Daniel F Fisher, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: During both nasal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive ventilation of neonates, the presence of air leaks causes triggering and cycling asynchrony. METHODS: Five ICU ventilators (PB840, PB980, Servo-i, V500, and Avea) were compared in available invasive ventilation and NIV ventilator modes (pressure control continuous spontaneous ventilation [PC-CSV] and pressure control continuous mandatory ventilation [PC-CMV]). The V500 and Avea do not provide PC-CSV and PC-CMV in NIV...
September 20, 2016: Respiratory Care
Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Simeon-Pierre Choukem, Regina Ndasi Langmia, Esther Barla, Paul Koki-Ndombo
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal respiratory distress (NRD) is a main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Early detection of its risk factors and early treatment of its etiologies are major challenges. However, few studies in developing countries have provided data needed to tackle it. We aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors, etiologies and outcome of NRD in a tertiary health care centre of Cameroon. METHODS: We analyzed the hospital files of all newborns admitted to the Neonatal unit of Douala General Hospital from 1(st) January 2011 to 28(th) February 2013...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Kathrin Müsch, Markus Siegel, Andreas K Engel, Till R Schneider
Facial expressions attract attention due to their motivational significance. Previous work focused on attentional biases towards threat-related, fearful faces, although healthy participants tend to avoid mild threat. Growing evidence suggests that neuronal gamma (>30Hz) and alpha-band activity (8-12Hz) play an important role in attentional selection, but it is unknown if such oscillatory activity is involved in the guidance of attention through facial expressions. Thus, in this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study we investigated whether attention is shifted towards or away from fearful faces and characterized the underlying neuronal activity in these frequency ranges in forty-four healthy volunteers...
September 13, 2016: NeuroImage
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