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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733049/the-time-course-of-attention-modulation-elicited-by-spatial-uncertainty
#1
Dan Huang, Huilou Liang, Linyan Xue, Meijian Wang, Qiyi Hu, Yao Chen
Uncertainty regarding the target location is an influential factor for spatial attention. Modulation in spatial uncertainty can lead to adjustments in attention scope and variations in attention effects. Hence, investigating spatial uncertainty modulation is important for understanding the underlying mechanism of spatial attention. However, the temporal dynamics of this modulation remains unclear. To evaluate the time course of spatial uncertainty modulation, we adopted a Posner-like attention orienting paradigm with central or peripheral cues...
July 18, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725398/phenological-asynchrony-between-host-plant-and-gypsy-moth-reduces-insect-gut-microbiota-and-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis
#2
Vyacheslav V Martemyanov, Irina A Belousova, Sergey V Pavlushin, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Nikita I Ershov, Tatyana Y Alikina, Marsel R Kabilov, Victor V Glupov
The phenological synchrony between the emergence of overwintering herbivorous insects and the budding of host plants is considered a crucial factor in the population dynamics of herbivores. However, the mechanisms driving the interactions between the host plant, herbivores, and their pathogens are often obscure. In the current study, an artificially induced phenological asynchrony was used to investigate how the asynchrony between silver birch Betula pendula and gypsy moth Lymantria dispar affects the immunity of the insect to bacteria, its susceptibility to the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, and the diversity in its midgut microbiota...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718970/activation-of-semantic-information-at-the-sublexical-level-during-handwriting-production-evidence-from-inhibition-effects-of-chinese-semantic-radicals-in-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#3
Xuqian Chen, Yuanlan Liao, Xianzhe Chen
Using a non-alphabetic language (e.g., Chinese), the present study tested a novel view that semantic information at the sublexical level should be activated during handwriting production. Over 80% of Chinese characters are phonograms, in which semantic radicals represent category information (e.g., 'chair,' 'peach,' 'orange' are related to plants) while phonetic radicals represent phonetic information (e.g., 'wolf,' 'brightness,' 'male,' are all pronounced /lang/). Under different semantic category conditions at the lexical level (semantically related in Experiment 1; semantically unrelated in Experiment 2), the orthographic relatedness and semantic relatedness of semantic radicals in the picture name and its distractor were manipulated under different SOAs (i...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718747/the-role-of-temporal-disparity-on-audiovisual-integration-in-low-vision-individuals
#4
Stefano Targher, Rocco Micciolo, Valeria Occelli, Massimiliano Zampini
Recent findings have shown that sounds improve visual detection in low vision individuals when the audiovisual stimuli pairs of stimuli are presented simultaneously and from the same spatial position. The present study purports to investigate the temporal aspects of the audiovisual enhancement effect previously reported. Low vision participants were asked to detect the presence of a visual stimulus (yes/no task) presented either alone or together with an auditory stimulus at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715546/sensitivity-to-audiovisual-temporal-asynchrony-in-children-with-a-history-of-specific-language-impairment-and-their-peers-with-typical-development-a-replication-and-follow-up-study
#5
Natalya Kaganovich
Purpose: Earlier, my colleagues and I showed that children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI) are significantly less able to detect audiovisual asynchrony compared with children with typical development (TD; Kaganovich & Schumaker, 2014). Here, I first replicate this finding in a new group of children with H-SLI and TD and then examine a relationship among audiovisual function, attention skills, and language in a combined pool of children. Method: The stimuli were a pure tone and an explosion-shaped figure...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701566/chronotype-variation-drives-night-time-sentinel-like-behaviour-in-hunter-gatherers
#6
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla, Charles L Nunn
Sleep is essential for survival, yet it also represents a time of extreme vulnerability to predation, hostile conspecifics and environmental dangers. To reduce the risks of sleeping, the sentinel hypothesis proposes that group-living animals share the task of vigilance during sleep, with some individuals sleeping while others are awake. To investigate sentinel-like behaviour in sleeping humans, we investigated activity patterns at night among Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Using actigraphy, we discovered that all subjects were simultaneously scored as asleep for only 18 min in total over 20 days of observation, with a median of eight individuals awake throughout the night-time period; thus, one or more individuals was awake (or in light stages of sleep) during 99...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683763/new-setting-of-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-for-noninvasive-ventilation-by-facial-mask-a-physiologic-study
#7
Federico Longhini, Chun Pan, Jianfeng Xie, Gianmaria Cammarota, Andrea Bruni, Eugenio Garofalo, Yi Yang, Paolo Navalesi, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is generally delivered using pneumatically-triggered and cycled-off pressure support (PSP) through a mask. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is the only ventilatory mode that uses a non-pneumatic signal, i.e., diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), to trigger and drive ventilator assistance. A specific setting to generate neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) was recently proposed for delivering NIV by helmet. We compared PSN with PSP and NAVA during NIV using a facial mask, with respect to patient comfort, gas exchange, and patient-ventilator interaction and synchrony...
July 7, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682193/developmental-changes-in-early-comprehension-and-production-of-drawings-evidence-from-two-socioeconomic-backgrounds
#8
Analía M Salsa, Romina Vivaldi
Two studies examined young children's comprehension and production of representational drawings across and within 2 socioeconomic strata (SES). Participants were 130 middle-SES (MSES) and low-SES (LSES) Argentine children, from 30 to 60 months old, given a task with 2 phases, production and comprehension. The production phase assessed free drawing and drawings from simple 3-dimensional objects (model drawing); the comprehension phase assessed children's understanding of an adult's line drawings of the objects...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673877/remifentanil-effects-on-respiratory-drive-and-timing-during-pressure-support-ventilation-and-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist
#9
Roberta Costa, Paolo Navalesi, Gianmaria Cammarota, Federico Longhini, Giorgia Spinazzola, Flora Cipriani, Giuliano Ferrone, Olimpia Festa, Massimo Antonelli, Giorgio Conti
We assessed the effects of varying doses of remifentanil on respiratory drive and timing in patients receiving Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV) and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA). Four incrementing remifentanil doses were randomly administered to thirteen intubated patients (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.1μg·Kg(-1)·min(-)1) during both PSV and NAVA. We measured the patient's (Ti/Ttotneu) and ventilator (Ti/Ttotmec) duty cycle, the Electrical Activity of the Diaphragm (EAdi), the inspiratory (Delaytrinsp) and expiratory (Delaytrexp) trigger delays and the Asynchrony Index (AI)...
July 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663196/the-triple-flash-illusion-reveals-a-driving-role-of-alpha-band-reverberations-in-visual-perception
#10
Rasa Gulbinaite, Barkın İlhan, Rufin VanRullen
The modulatory role of spontaneous brain oscillations on perception of threshold-level stimuli is well established. Here, we provide evidence that alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations not only modulate perception of threshold-level sensory inputs, but also can drive perception and generate percepts without a physical stimulus being present. We used the "triple-flash" illusion: Occasional perception of three flashes when only two spatially-coincident veridical ones, separated by ∼100 ms, are presented. The illusion was proposed to result from superposition of two hypothetical oscillatory impulse response functions (IRF) generated in response to each flash: When the delay between flashes matches the period of the oscillation, the superposition enhances a later part of the oscillation that is normally damped; when this enhancement crosses perceptual threshold, a third flash is erroneously perceived (Bowen, 1989)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646010/patient-ventilator-asynchrony-and-standard-waveforms-looks-can-be-deceiving-reply
#11
Ivan I Ramirez, Daniel H Arellano, Rodrigo S Adasme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645081/loudness-and-time-dependence-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-is-blunted-by-the-nmda-channel-blocker-mk-801
#12
Tobias Teichert
Amplitudes of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) increase with the intensity/loudness of sounds (loudness-dependence of AEP, LDAEP), and the time between adjacent sounds (time-dependence of AEP, TDAEP). Both, blunted LDAEP and blunted TDAEP are markers of altered auditory function in schizophrenia (SZ). However, while blunted LDAEP has been attributed to altered serotonergic function, blunted TDAEP has been linked to altered NMDA receptor function. Despite phenomenological similarities of the two effects, no common pharmacological underpinnings have been identified...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639170/bistability-and-asynchrony-in-a-boolean-model-of-the-l-arabinose-operon-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Andy Jenkins, Matthew Macauley
The lactose operon in Escherichia coli was the first known gene regulatory network, and it is frequently used as a prototype for new modeling paradigms. Historically, many of these modeling frameworks use differential equations. More recently, Stigler and Veliz-Cuba proposed a Boolean model that captures the bistability of the system and all of the biological steady states. In this paper, we model the well-known arabinose operon in E. coli with a Boolean network. This has several complex features not found in the lac operon, such as a protein that is both an activator and repressor, a DNA looping mechanism for gene repression, and the lack of inducer exclusion by glucose...
June 21, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636231/orchestration-at-the-beginning-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryo
#14
Giselle A Abruzzese, Nae Tanpradit, Renata S Tavares
Development of multicellular organisms is driven by a series of mitotic divisions after fertilization. Total cytoplasmic volume does not increase during this process, resulting in an increasing number of smaller daughter cells. Cell divisions are initially synchronous in an early embryo, but this ends at the 16-cell stage in the sea urchin. Orchesterated mitosis does, however, continue in subpopulations via the coordination of two different processes: karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Part of this asynchrony is due to the differentiation of lineages...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#15
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624991/a-new-global-and-comprehensive-model-for-icu-ventilator-performances-evaluation
#16
Nicolas S Marjanovic, Agathe De Simone, Guillaume Jegou, Erwan L'Her
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide a new global and comprehensive evaluation of recent ICU ventilators taking into account both technical performances and ergonomics. METHODS: Six recent ICU ventilators were evaluated. Technical performances were assessed under two FIO2 levels (100%, 50%), three respiratory mechanics combinations (Normal: compliance [C] = 70 mL cmH2O(-1)/resistance [R] = 5 cmH2O L(-1) s(-1); Restrictive: C = 30/R = 10; Obstructive: C = 120/R = 20), four exponential levels of leaks (from 0 to 12...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615120/corrigendum-to-asynchrony-of-senescence-among-phenotypic-traits-in-a-wild-mammal-population-exp-gerontol-71-2015-56-68
#17
Adam D Hayward, Jacob Moorad, Charlotte E Regan, Camillo Berenos, Jill G Pilkington, Josephine M Pemberton, Daniel H Nussey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614095/the-value-of-dynamic-preload-variables-during-spontaneous-ventilation
#18
Azriel Perel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the physiological significance and clinical value of dynamic preload variables in spontaneously breathing patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Dynamic preload variables reflect the response of the cardiac output to a modification of preload and can therefore be used to assess fluid responsiveness. Continuous dynamic parameters that are calculated from the variations in the arterial and plethysmographic waveforms following a mechanical breath have been shown to predict fluid responsiveness much better than static preload parameters...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609460/the-role-of-attention-in-subliminal-semantic-processing-a-mouse-tracking-study
#19
Kunchen Xiao, Takashi Yamauchi
Recent evidence suggests that top-down attention facilitates unconscious semantic processing. To clarify the role of attention in unconscious semantic processing, we traced trajectories of the computer mouse in a semantic priming task and scrutinized the extent to which top-down attention enhances unconscious semantic processing in four different stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA: 50, 200, 500, or 1000ms) conditions. Participants judged whether a target digit (e.g., "6") was larger or smaller than five, preceded by a masked priming digit (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600716/dissociating-the-time-courses-of-the-cross-modal-semantic-priming-effects-elicited-by-naturalistic-sounds-and-spoken-words
#20
Yi-Chuan Chen, Charles Spence
The present study compared the time courses of the cross-modal semantic priming effects elicited by naturalistic sounds and spoken words on visual picture processing. Following an auditory prime, a picture (or blank frame) was briefly presented and then immediately masked. The participants had to judge whether or not a picture had been presented. Naturalistic sounds consistently elicited a cross-modal semantic priming effect on visual sensitivity (d') for pictures (higher d' in the congruent than in the incongruent condition) at the 350-ms rather than at the 1,000-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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