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C R Gallistel
Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Lenka Gahurova, Shin-Ichi Tomizawa, Sébastien A Smallwood, Kathleen R Stewart-Morgan, Heba Saadeh, Jeesun Kim, Simon R Andrews, Taiping Chen, Gavin Kelsey
BACKGROUND: Gametogenesis in mammals entails profound re-patterning of the epigenome. In the female germline, DNA methylation is acquired late in oogenesis from an essentially unmethylated baseline and is established largely as a consequence of transcription events. Molecular and functional studies have shown that imprinted genes become methylated at different times during oocyte growth; however, little is known about the kinetics of methylation gain genome wide and the reasons for asynchrony in methylation at imprinted loci...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Stephen J Mayor, Robert P Guralnick, Morgan W Tingley, Javier Otegui, John C Withey, Sarah C Elmendorf, Margaret E Andrew, Stefan Leyk, Ian S Pearse, David C Schneider
Consistent with a warming climate, birds are shifting the timing of their migrations, but it remains unclear to what extent these shifts have kept pace with the changing environment. Because bird migration is primarily cued by annually consistent physiological responses to photoperiod, but conditions at their breeding grounds depend on annually variable climate, bird arrival and climate-driven spring events would diverge. We combined satellite and citizen science data to estimate rates of change in phenological interval between spring green-up and migratory arrival for 48 breeding passerine species across North America...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Michael Vesia, Michael Barnett-Cowan, Behzad Elahi, Gaayathiri Jegatheeswaran, Reina Isayama, Jason L Neva, Marco Davare, W Richard Staines, Jody C Culham, Robert Chen
According to one influential view, two specialized parieto-frontal circuits control prehension: a dorsomedial stream for hand transport during reaching and a dorsolateral stream for preshaping the fingers during grasping. However, recent evidence argues that an area within the dorsomedial stream-macaque area V6A and, its putative human homolog, superior parietal occipital cortex (SPOC) - encodes both hand transport and grip formation. We tested whether planning varied hand actions modulates functional connectivity between left SPOC and ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) using a dual-site, paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm with two coils (dsTMS)...
April 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Zhiyuan Ma, Huiying Liu, Zhaorong Mi, Zhenhua Zhang, Yonghui Wang, Wei Xu, Lin Jiang, Jin-Sheng He
Anthropogenic climate change has emerged as a critical environmental problem, prompting frequent investigations into its consequences for various ecological systems. Few studies, however, have explored the effect of climate change on ecological stability and the underlying mechanisms. We conduct a field experiment to assess the influence of warming and altered precipitation on the temporal stability of plant community biomass in an alpine grassland located on the Tibetan Plateau. We find that whereas precipitation alteration does not influence biomass temporal stability, warming lowers stability through reducing the degree of species asynchrony...
May 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Karsten Steinhauer, Phaedra Royle, John E Drury, Lauren A Fromont
Which cognitive processes are reflected by the N400 in ERPs is still controversial. Various recent articles (Lau et al., 2008; Brouwer et al., 2012) have revived the idea that only lexical pre-activation processes (such as automatic spreading activation, ASA) are strongly supported, while post-lexical integrative processes are not. Challenging this view, the present ERP study replicates a behavioral study by McKoon and Ratcliff (1995) who demonstrated that a prime-target pair such as finger - hand shows stronger priming when a majority of other pairs in the list share the analogous semantic relationship (here: part-whole), even at short stimulus onset asynchronies (250ms)...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Boukje Habets, Patrick Bruns, Brigitte Röder
Bayesian models propose that multisensory integration depends on both sensory evidence (the likelihood) and priors indicating whether or not two inputs belong to the same event. The present study manipulated the prior for dynamic auditory and visual stimuli to co-occur and tested the predicted enhancement of multisensory binding as assessed with a simultaneity judgment task. In an initial learning phase participants were exposed to a subset of auditory-visual combinations. In the test phase the previously encountered audio-visual stimuli were presented together with new combinations of the auditory and visual stimuli from the learning phase, audio-visual stimuli containing one learned and one new sensory component, and audio-visual stimuli containing completely new auditory and visual material...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Devin Heinze Kehoe, Mazyar Fallah
Saccades curved towards a distractor are accompanied by a burst of neuronal activation at the distractor locus in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (SCi) ~30 ms prior to the initiation of a saccade (McPeek et al., 2003; Port and Wurtz, 2003). Although saccades curve away from inactivated SCi loci (Aizawa and Wurtz, 1998), whether inhibition is restricted to a similar critical epoch for saccades curved away from a distractor remains unclear (White et al., 2012). We examined this possibility by modeling human saccade curvature as a function of the time between onset of a task irrelevant luminance- or color-modulated distractor and initiation of an impending saccade, referred to as saccade distractor onset asynchrony (SDOA)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Abbas H Rizvi, Pablo G Camara, Elena K Kandror, Thomas J Roberts, Ira Schieren, Tom Maniatis, Raul Rabadan
Transcriptional programs control cellular lineage commitment and differentiation during development. Understanding of cell fate has been advanced by studying single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) but is limited by the assumptions of current analytic methods regarding the structure of data. We present single-cell topological data analysis (scTDA), an algorithm for topology-based computational analyses to study temporal, unbiased transcriptional regulation. Unlike other methods, scTDA is a nonlinear, model-independent, unsupervised statistical framework that can characterize transient cellular states...
May 1, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
Rebekah C White, Anne M Aimola Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Junfeng Wang, Johannes M H Knops, Chad E Brassil, Chunsheng Mu
Adding nutrients to nutrient-limited ecosystems typically lowers plant diversity and decreases species asynchrony. Both, in turn, decrease the stability of productivity in the response to negative climate fluctuations such as droughts. However, most classic studies examining stability have been done in relatively wet grasslands dominated by perennial grasses. We examined how nutrient additions influence the stability of productivity to rainfall variability in an arid grassland with a mix of perennial and annual species...
April 27, 2017: Ecology
Roberto Cecere, Joachim Gross, Ashleigh Willis, Gregor Thut
In multisensory integration, processing in one sensory modality is enhanced by complementary information from other modalities. Inter-sensory timing is crucial in this process as only inputs reaching the brain within a restricted temporal window are perceptually bound. Previous research in the audiovisual field has investigated various features of the temporal binding window (TBW), revealing asymmetries in its size and plasticity depending on the leading input (auditory-visual, AV; visual-auditory, VA). We here tested whether separate neuronal mechanisms underlie this AV-VA dichotomy in humans...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bettina Pollok, Katharina Stephan, Ariane Keitel, Vanessa Krause, Nora K Schaal
The synchronization task is a well-established paradigm for the investigation of motor timing with respect to an external pacing signal. It requires subjects to synchronize their finger taps in synchrony with a regular metronome. A specific significance of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for superior synchronization in professional drummers has been suggested. In non-musicians, modulation of the excitability of the left PPC by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates synchronization performance of the right hand...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Annalisa Giovannini, Anca Macovei, Matteo Caser, Andrea Mansuino, Gian Guido Ghione, Marco Savona, Daniela Carbonera, Valentina Scariot, Alma Balestrazzi
In the cut flower market, traditional breeding is still the best way to achieve new rose cultivars. The geographical delocalization of cultivar constitution (generally made in Europe and North America) and plant cultivation (large areas in Africa and South America) represents a limit point for crossing and selection. Rose breeders often need to overcome geographical distances, resulting in asynchrony in flowering among crossing parents, by storing and sending pollen. Hence, a key aspect in breeding programs is linked to pollen availability and conservation, jointly with the identification of parameters related to pollen fertility...
April 24, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Daipayan Guha, Naif M Alotaibi, Nhu Nguyen, Shaurya Gupta, Christopher McFaul, Victor X D Yang
Augmented reality (AR) superimposes computer-generated virtual objects onto the user's view of the real world. Among medical disciplines, neurosurgery has long been at the forefront of image-guided surgery, and it continues to push the frontiers of AR technology in the operating room. In this systematic review, we explore the history of AR in neurosurgery and examine the literature on current neurosurgical applications of AR. Significant challenges to surgical AR exist, including compounded sources of registration error, impaired depth perception, visual and tactile temporal asynchrony, and operator inattentional blindness...
April 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Alberta Ipser, Vlera Agolli, Anisa Bajraktari, Fatimah Al-Alawi, Nurfitriani Djaafara, Elliot D Freeman
Are sight and sound out of synch? Signs that they are have been dismissed for over two centuries as an artefact of attentional and response bias, to which traditional subjective methods are prone. To avoid such biases, we measured performance on objective tasks that depend implicitly on achieving good lip-synch. We measured the McGurk effect (in which incongruent lip-voice pairs evoke illusory phonemes), and also identification of degraded speech, while manipulating audiovisual asynchrony. Peak performance was found at an average auditory lag of ~100 ms, but this varied widely between individuals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jean-Paul Noel, LeAnne Kurela, Sarah H Baum, Hong Yu, Joseph S Neimat, Martin J Gallagher, Mark Wallace
Cognitive and perceptual comorbidities frequently accompany epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic events (PNEE). However, and despite the fact that perceptual function is built upon a multisensory foundation, little knowledge exists concerning multisensory function in these populations. Here, we characterized facets of multisensory processing abilities in patients with epilepsy and PNEE, and probed the relationship between individual resting-state EEG complexity and these psychophysical measures in each patient...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Elena Pavlidis, Rhodri O Lloyd, Geraldine B Boylan
This review focuses on the role of electroencephalography (EEG) in monitoring abnormalities of preterm brain function. EEG features of the most common developmental brain injuries in preterm infants, including intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and perinatal asphyxia, are described. We outline the most common EEG biomarkers associated with these injuries, namely seizures, positive rolandic sharp waves, EEG suppression/increased interburst intervals, mechanical delta brush activity, and other deformed EEG waveforms, asymmetries, and asynchronies...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
Tsukasa Kimura, Jun'ichi Katayama
The present study investigated whether visual stimuli approaching the body influence temporal expectations about subsequent somatosensory stimuli. To examine this question, we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during a simple reaction time task using somatosensory stimuli. Fourteen participants were asked to place their arms on a desk, and three light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were placed at equal distances between their arms. Each trial was composed of three visual stimuli (i.e., LEDs), and one subsequent electrical stimulus (i...
April 4, 2017: Brain Research
Markus Janczyk
Successful completion of any cognitive task requires selecting a particular action and the object the action is applied to. Oberauer (2009) suggested a working memory (WM) model comprising a declarative and a procedural part with analogous structures. One important assumption of this model is that both parts work independently of each other, and previous work has indeed reported evidence for the independent selection of memory lists and tasks, for example. The present study focused on the selection of single items in declarative and single responses in procedural WM...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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