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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032453/deviating-from-the-norm-peculiarities-of-aplysia-cf-californica-early-cleavage-compared-to-traditional-spiralian-models
#1
Yolanda E Chávez-Viteri, Federico D Brown, Oscar D Pérez
Spiralia represents one of the main clades of bilaterally symmetrical metazoans (Bilateria). This group is of particular interest due to the remarkable conservation of its early developmental pattern despite of the high diversity of larval and adult body plans. Variations during embryogenesis are considered powerful tools to determine ancestral and derived characters under a phylogenetic framework. By direct observation of embryos cultured in vitro, we analyzed the early cleavage of the euopisthobranchs Aplysia cf...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030631/impact-of-audio-visual-asynchrony-on-lip-reading-effects-neuromagnetic-and-psychophysical-study
#2
Tetsuaki Kawase, Izumi Yahata, Akitake Kanno, Shuichi Sakamoto, Yoshitaka Takanashi, Shiho Takata, Nobukazu Nakasato, Ryuta Kawashima, Yukio Katori
The effects of asynchrony between audio and visual (A/V) stimuli on the N100m responses of magnetoencephalography in the left hemisphere were compared with those on the psychophysical responses in 11 participants. The latency and amplitude of N100m were significantly shortened and reduced in the left hemisphere by the presentation of visual speech as long as the temporal asynchrony between A/V stimuli was within 100 ms, but were not significantly affected with audio lags of -500 and +500 ms. However, some small effects were still preserved on average with audio lags of 500 ms, suggesting similar asymmetry of the temporal window to that observed in psychophysical measurements, which tended to be more robust (wider) for audio lags; i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018189/auditory-somatosensory-temporal-sensitivity-improves-when-the-somatosensory-event-is-caused-by-voluntary-body-movement
#3
Norimichi Kitagawa, Masaharu Kato, Makio Kashino
When we actively interact with the environment, it is crucial that we perceive a precise temporal relationship between our own actions and sensory effects to guide our body movements. Thus, we hypothesized that voluntary movements improve perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between auditory and movement-related somatosensory events compared to when they are delivered passively to sensory receptors. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tapped a button, and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017779/electroencephalographic-frontal-synchrony-and-caudal-asynchrony-during-painful-hand-immersion-in-cold-water
#4
Joshua Levitt, Hyunwoo J Choo, Kelsey A Smith, Brian W LeBlanc, Carl Y Saab
Recent studies in our laboratory showed that cortical theta oscillations correlate with pain in rodent models. In this study, we sought to validate our pre-clinical data using EEG recordings in humans during immersion of the hand in ice cold water, a moderately noxious stimulus. Power spectral analysis shows that an increase in pain score is associated with an increase in power amplitude within a frequency range of 6-7Hz at the frontal (Fz) electrode. These results are consistent with our previous pre-clinical animal studies and the clinical literature...
December 22, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013296/thoracoabdominal-asynchrony-is-not-associated-with-oxyhemoglobin-saturation-in-recovering-premature-infants
#5
Colleen Brennan, Lara Ulm, Samuel Julian, Aaron Hamvas, Thomas Ferkol, Julie Hoffman, Laura Linneman, James Kemp
BACKGROUND: Recovering premature infants are at risk for hypoxemia and lack of synchrony between their rib cage and abdomen due to airflow obstruction and poor respiratory compliance. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) is a useful marker of resistive and elastic lung properties. Whether TAA predicts oxygenation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2%) and TAA (phase angle, φ) in preterm infants with/without high-humidity nasal cannula (HHNC)...
December 24, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000204/early-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-what-s-going-on-part-i-pathophysiology
#6
Fabrice Petitjeans, Cyrille Pichot, Marco Ghignone, Luc Quintin
Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, PaO₂/FiO₂ < 100 on PEEP ≥ 5 cm H₂O) is treated using controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), recently combined with muscle relaxation for 48 h and prone positioning. While the amplitude of tidal volume appears set < 6 mL kg⁻¹, the level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) remains controversial. This overview summarizes several salient points, namely: a) ARDS is an oxygenation defect: consolidation/ difuse alveolar damage is reversed by PEEP and/or prone positioning, at least during the early phase of ARDS b) ARDS is a dynamic disease and partially iatrogenic...
2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986817/the-slow-growing-embryo-and-premature-progesterone-elevation-compounding-factors-for-embryo-endometrial-asynchrony
#7
Mae Wu Healy, Meghan Yamasaki, George Patounakis, Kevin S Richter, Kate Devine, Alan H DeCherney, Micah J Hill
STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association of progesterone (P4) on the day of trigger with live birth in autologous ART transfer cycles on day 5 versus day 6? SUMMARY ANSWER: P4 had a greater negative effect on live birth in day 6 fresh transfers compared to day 5 fresh transfers. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Premature P4 elevation is associated with lower live birth rates in fresh autologous ART cycles, likely due to worsened endometrial-embryo asynchrony...
December 16, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982045/a-dissociation-between-consolidated-perceptual-learning-and-sensory-adaptation-in-vision
#8
Nitzan Censor, Hila Harris, Dov Sagi
Perceptual learning refers to improvement in perception thresholds with practice, however, extended training sessions show reduced performance during training, interfering with learning. These effects were taken to indicate a tight link between sensory adaptation and learning. Here we show a dissociation between adaptation and consolidated learning. Participants trained with a texture discrimination task, in which visual processing time is limited by a temporal target-to-mask window defined as the Stimulus-Onset-Asynchrony (SOA)...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979642/severe-carisoprodol-withdrawal-after-a-14-year-addiction-and-acute-overdose
#9
Kathy T Vo, Howard Horng, Craig G Smollin, Neal L Benowitz
BACKGROUND: Carisoprodol, a centrally acting muscle relaxant with a high abuse potential, has barbiturate-like properties at the GABA-A receptor, leading to central nervous system depression and desired effects. Its tolerance and dependence has been previously demonstrated in an animal model, and withdrawal has been described in several recent case reports. Many cases can be effectively managed with a short course of benzodiazepines or antipsychotic agents. However, abrupt cessation in a patient with a history of long-term and high-dose carisoprodol abuse may result in symptoms that are more difficult for providers to treat...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941478/asynchrony-between-ventilator-flow-and-pressure-waveforms-and-the-capnograph-on-dr%C3%A3-ger-anesthesia-workstations
#10
Mukesh Tripathi, Nilay Tripathi, Mamta Pandey
Modern anesthesia workstations display capnography, flow-time, and pressure-time waveforms in real time. We observed that at certain ventilator settings (10 breaths/min) on Dräger workstations, the expiratory phase of the capnograph overlaps both the inspiratory and the expiratory phases of ventilation. This discrepancy disappears at respiratory rates of 16 breaths/min. This synchronous respiratory monitoring display at respiratory rates 16 breaths/min is not physiologically correct, because it implies a synchronization of waveforms that is not actually present...
December 9, 2016: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936837/using-the-locus-of-slack-logic-to-determine-whether-inhibition-of-return-in-a-cue-target-paradigm-is-delaying-early-or-late-stages-of-processing
#11
Maryam Kavyani, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Raymond M Klein
Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon characterized by slower responses to targets at cued locations relative to those at uncued locations. Based on the results of previous research, it has been suggested that IOR affects a process at the input end of the processing continuum when it is generated while the reflexive oculomotor system is suppressed (cf. Satel, Hilchey, Wang, Story, & Klein, 2013). To test this theory, we employed a modified psychological refractory period paradigm designed to elicit input IOR with visual stimuli, allowing us to use the locus-of-slack logic to determine whether an early or late stage of processing was inhibited by IOR...
December 12, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930658/inactivation-of-individual-seqa-binding-sites-of-the-e-coli-origin-reveals-robustness-of-replication-initiation-synchrony
#12
Jyoti K Jha, Dhruba K Chattoraj
The Escherichia coli origin of replication, oriC, comprises mostly binding sites of two proteins: DnaA, a positive regulator, and SeqA, a negative regulator. SeqA, although not essential, is required for timely initiation, and during rapid growth, synchronous initiation from multiple origins. Unlike DnaA, details of SeqA binding to oriC are limited. Here we have determined that SeqA binds to all its sites tested (9/11) and with variable efficiency. Titration of DnaA alters SeqA binding to two sites, both of which have overlapping DnaA sites...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928549/switching-the-rate-and-pattern-of-cell-division-for-neural-tube-closure
#13
Yosuke Ogura, Yasunori Sasakura
The morphogenetic movement associated with neural tube closure (NTC) requires both positive and negative regulations of cell proliferation. The dual requirement of cell division control during NTC underscores the importance of the developmental control of cell division. In the chordate ascidian, midline fusions of the neural ectoderm and surface ectoderm (SE) proceed in the posterior-to-anterior direction, followed by a single wave of asynchronous and patterned cell division in SE. Before NTC, SE exhibits synchronous mitoses; disruption of the synchrony causes a failure of NTC...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899713/when-do-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-show-superiority-in-visual-search
#14
Aya Shirama, Nobumasa Kato, Makio Kashino
Although superior visual search skills have been repeatedly reported for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. To specify the locus where individuals with autism spectrum disorder excel in visual search, we compared the performance of autism spectrum disorder adults and healthy controls in briefly presented search tasks, where the search display was replaced by a noise mask at a stimulus-mask asynchrony of 160 ms to interfere with a serial search process while bottom-up visual processing remains intact...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896708/asymmetric-interference-in-concurrent-time-to-contact-estimation-cousin-or-twin-of-the-psychological-refractory-period-effect
#15
Robin Baurès, Patricia R DeLucia, Megan Olson, Daniel Oberfeld
In a reaction time (RT) task requiring fast responses to two stimuli presented close in time, human observers show a delayed RT to the second stimulus. This phenomenon has been attributed to a psychological refractory period (PRP). A similar asymmetric interference is found when performing multiple concurrent visual time-to-contact (TTC) estimations for moving objects, despite important differences between the tasks. In the present study, we studied the properties of the asymmetric interference found in the TTC task and compared them to the classical PRP effect...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895820/sleep-circadian-dysrhythmia-obesity-and-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Gumpeny Ramachandra Sridhar, Narasimhadevara Santhi Nirmala Sanjana
Synchrony of biological processes with environmental cues developed over millennia to match growth, reproduction and senescence. This entails a complex interplay of genetic, metabolic, chemical, light, hormonal and hedonistic factors across life forms. Sleep is one of the most prominent rhythms where such a match is established. Over the past 100 years or so, it has been possible to disturb the synchrony between sleep-wake cycle and environmental cues. Development of electric lights, shift work and continual accessibility of the internet has disrupted this match...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892941/hatching-asynchrony-vs-foraging-efficiency-the-response-to-food-availability-in-specialist-vs-generalist-tit-species
#17
R Barrientos, J Bueno-Enciso, J J Sanz
Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879380/performance-of-leak-compensation-in-all-age-icu-ventilators-during-volume-targeted-neonatal-ventilation-a-lung-model-study
#18
Taiga Itagaki, Desmond J Bennett, Christopher T Chenelle, Daniel F Fisher, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: Volume-targeted ventilation is increasingly used in low birthweight infants because of the potential for reducing volutrauma and avoiding hypocapnea. However, it is not known what level of air leak is acceptable during neonatal volume-targeted ventilation when leak compensation is activated concurrently. METHODS: Four ICU ventilators (Servo-i, PB980, V500, and Avea) were compared in available invasive volume-targeted ventilation modes (pressure control continuous spontaneous ventilation [PC-CSV] and pressure control continuous mandatory ventilation [PC-CMV])...
January 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873186/is-nevtral-neutral-visual-similarity-effects-in-the-early-phases-of-written-word-recognition
#19
Ana Marcet, Manuel Perea
For simplicity, contemporary models of written-word recognition and reading have unspecified feature/letter levels-they predict that the visually similar substituted-letter nonword PEQPLE is as effective at activating the word PEOPLE as the visually dissimilar substituted-letter nonword PEYPLE. Previous empirical evidence on the effects of visual similarly across letters during written-word recognition is scarce and nonconclusive. To examine whether visual similarity across letters plays a role early in word processing, we conducted two masked priming lexical decision experiments (stimulus-onset asynchrony = 50 ms)...
November 21, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872958/multisensory-integration-is-independent-of-perceived-simultaneity
#20
Vanessa Harrar, Laurence R Harris, Charles Spence
The importance of multisensory integration for perception and action has long been recognised. Integrating information from individual senses increases the chance of survival by reducing the variability in the incoming signals, thus allowing us to respond more rapidly. Reaction times (RTs) are fastest when the components of the multisensory signals are simultaneous. This response facilitation is traditionally attributed to multisensory integration. However, it is unclear if facilitation of RTs occurs when stimuli are perceived as synchronous or are actually physically synchronous...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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