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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944753/asymmetry-of-movements-in-cftr-s-two-atp-sites-during-pore-opening-serves-their-distinct-functions
#1
Ben Sorum, Beáta Töröcsik, László Csanády
CFTR, the chloride channel mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is opened by ATP binding to two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), but pore-domain mutations may also impair gating. ATP-bound NBDs dimerize occluding two nucleotides at interfacial binding sites; one site hydrolyzes ATP, the other is inactive. The pore opens upon tightening, and closes upon disengagement, of the catalytic site following ATP hydrolysis. Extent, timing, and role of non-catalytic-site movements are unknown. Here we exploit equilibrium gating of a hydrolysis-deficient mutant and apply F value analysis to compare timing of opening-associated movements at multiple locations, from the cytoplasmic ATP sites to the extracellular surface...
September 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937256/evaluation-of-left-and-right-ventricular-systolic-and-diastolic-electromechanical-synchrony-in-older-people-a-population-based-observational-study
#2
R Laszlo, H Konz, K Kunz, D Dallmeier, J Klenk, M Denkinger, W Koenig, D Rothenbacher, J M Steinacker
It is unknown whether physiological ageing also goes along with electromechanical asynchrony of contraction. Aim of the study was to evaluate synchrony of contraction in older people with ("non-healthy") or without ("healthy") evidence for structural cardiac disease. In 547 persons (age 76.7+/-5.5 years, 306 male, 241 female) recruited from a population-based cohort of the ActiFE-Um study including a random sample of people >/= 65 years old living in the region of Ulm, Germany, various PW- and TDI-Doppler based markers for asynchrony were obtained by echocardiography...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917014/more-insight-into-the-interplay-of-response-selection-and-visual-attention-in-dual-tasks-masked-visual-search-and-response-selection-are-performed-in-parallel
#3
Christina B Reimer, Torsten Schubert
Both response selection and visual attention are limited in capacity. According to the central bottleneck model, the response selection processes of two tasks in a dual-task situation are performed sequentially. In conjunction search, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind their features (e.g., color and form), which results in a serial search process. Search time increases as items are added to the search display (i.e., set size effect). When the search display is masked, visual attention deployment is restricted to a brief period of time and target detection decreases as a function of set size...
September 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915879/the-effect-of-sedation-and-or-analgesia-as-rescue-treatment-during-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation-in-the-patients-with-interface-intolerance-after-extubation
#4
Yue-Nan Ni, Ting Wang, He Yu, Bin-Miao Liang, Zong-An Liang
BACKGROUND: Sedation and/or analgesia can relieve the patient-ventilator asynchrony. However, whether sedation and/or analgesia can benefit the clinical outcome of the patients with interface intolerance is still unclear. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on patients with interface intolerance who received noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) after extubation in seven intensive care units (ICU) of West China Hospital, Sichuan University. The primary outcome was rate of NIPPV failure (defined as need for reintubation and mechanical ventilation); Secondary outcomes were hospital mortality rate and length of ICU stay after extubation...
September 15, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915513/the-influence-of-executive-functions-on-phonemic-processing-in-children-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#5
Jayanthi Sasisekaran, Shriya Basu
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate dual-task performance in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not to investigate if the groups differed in the ability to attend and allocate cognitive resources effectively during task performance. Method: Participants were 24 children (12 CWS) in both groups matched for age and sex. For the primary task, participants performed a phoneme monitoring in a picture-written word interference task. For the secondary task, participants made pitch judgments on tones presented at varying (short, long) stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) from the onset of the picture...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914623/prevalence-and-prognosis-impact-of-patient-ventilator-asynchrony-in-early-phase-of-weaning-according-to-two-detection-methods
#6
Camille Rolland-Debord, Côme Bureau, Tymothee Poitou, Lisa Belin, Marc Clavel, Sébastien Perbet, Nicolas Terzi, Achille Kouatchet, Thomas Similowski, Alexandre Demoule
BACKGROUND: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is associated with a poorer outcome. The prevalence and severity of asynchrony during the early phase of weaning has never been specifically described. The authors' first aim was to evaluate the prognosis impact and the factors associated with asynchrony. Their second aim was to compare the prevalence of asynchrony according to two methods of detection: a visual inspection of signals and a computerized method integrating electromyographic activity of the diaphragm...
September 14, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912205/epicardial-breakthrough-waves-during-sinus-rhythm-depiction-of-the-arrhythmogenic-substrate
#7
Elisabeth M J P Mouws, Eva A H Lanters, Christophe P Teuwen, Lisette J M E van der Does, Charles Kik, Paul Knops, Jos A Bekkers, Ad J J C Bogers, Natasja M S de Groot
BACKGROUND: Epicardial breakthrough waves (EBW) during atrial fibrillation are important elements of the arrhythmogenic substrate and result from endo-epicardial asynchrony, which also occurs to some degree during sinus rhythm (SR). We examined the incidence and characteristics of EBW during SR and its possible value in the detection of the arrhythmogenic substrate associated with atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intraoperative epicardial mapping (interelectrode distances 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle, the left atrioventricular groove, and the pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 381 patients (289 male, 67±10 years) with ischemic or valvular heart disease...
September 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891517/selective-attention-and-the-asynchrony-theory-in-native-hebrew-speaking-adult-dyslexics-behavioral-and-erps-measures
#8
Shay Menashe
The main aim of the present study was to determine whether adult dyslexic readers demonstrate the "Asynchrony Theory" (Breznitz [Reading Fluency: Synchronization of Processes, Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006]) when selective attention is studied. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral parameters were collected from nonimpaired readers group and dyslexic readers group performing alphabetic and nonalphabetic tasks. The dyslexic readers group was found to demonstrate asynchrony between the auditory and the visual modalities when it came to processing alphabetic stimuli...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878848/quantification-of-contraction-synchronicity-and-contraction-work-in-coronary-artery-disease
#9
Takanaga Niimi, Mamoru Nanasato, Hisatoshi Maeda
PURPOSE: This study quantified the contraction synchronicity (CS; with 100% representing full synchrony and -100% dyssynchrony) and contraction work (CW, millijoules per centimeter squared; representing myocardial area) in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: CS, CW and LVEF in 104 subjects (54 CAD patients and 50 control subjects without CAD) were measured using rest electrocardiography-gated single-photon emission computed tomography (ECG SPECT)...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878066/cytological-analysis-of-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-induced-by-cardinium-suggests-convergent-evolution-with-its-distant-cousin-wolbachia
#10
Marco Gebiola, Massimo Giorgini, Suzanne E Kelly, Matthew R Doremus, Patrick M Ferree, Martha S Hunter
Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a conditional sterility in numerous arthropods that is caused by inherited, intracellular bacteria such as Wolbachia Matings between males carrying CI-inducing Wolbachia and uninfected females, or between males and females infected with different Wolbachia strains, result in progeny that die during very early embryogenesis. Multiple studies in diploid (Drosophila) and haplodiploid (Nasonia) insects have shown that CI-Wolbachia cause a failure of the paternally derived chromatin from resolving into distinct chromosomes...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875335/facilitation-of-fast-backward-priming-after-left-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation
#11
Louise S T Allen-Walker, R Martyn Bracewell, Guillaume Thierry, Paloma Mari-Beffa
Traditional theories of backward priming account only for the priming effects found at long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Here, we suggest that the presence of backward priming at short SOAs may be related to the integrative role of the cerebellum. Previous research has shown that the right cerebellum is involved in forward associative priming. Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals some activation of the left cerebellar hemisphere during backward priming; but what this activation represents is unclear...
September 5, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870331/atypical-non-verbal-sensorimotor-synchronization-in-adults-who-stutter-may-be-modulated-by-auditory-feedback
#12
Robert van de Vorst, Vincent L Gracco
PURPOSE: To investigate if non-verbal sensorimotor synchronization abilities in adult individuals who stutter (IWS) differ from non-stuttering controls (NS) under various performance conditions (tempo, auditory feedback, use of hands [single/both] and rhythm). METHODS: Participants were 11 IWS (5 males, 6 females, Mean age=25.8, SD=8.7) and 11 age- and gender-matched controls (Mean age=24.4, SD=8.4). During the experiment, participants were asked to prepare three melodies and subsequently perform them with a metronome at different rates and auditory feedback modalities (non-altered and suppressed)...
September 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867865/mowing-exacerbates-the-loss-of-ecosystem-stability-under-nitrogen-enrichment-in-a-temperate-grassland
#13
Yunhai Zhang, Michel Loreau, Nianpeng He, Guangming Zhang, Xingguo Han
1. Global reactive nitrogen (N) is projected to further increase in the coming years. Previous studies have demonstrated that N enrichment weakens the temporal stability of the ecosystem and the primary productivity through decreased biodiversity and species asynchrony. Mowing is a globally common practise in grasslands; and infrequent mowing can maintain or increase plant diversity under N enrichment conditions. However, it is unclear how infrequent mowing affects ecosystem stability in the face of N enrichment...
August 4, 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864009/negative-uterine-asynchrony-retards-early-equine-conceptus-development-and-upregulation-of-placental-imprinted-genes
#14
Charlotte Gibson, Marta de Ruijter-Villani, Tom A E Stout
INTRODUCTION: Placental imprinted genes appear to be sensitive indicators of an inappropriate pre-implantation environment. This study examined the effects of negative uterine asynchrony after embryo transfer (ET) on early horse embryo development, and yolk-sac membrane expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and equine specific placental imprinted genes. METHODS: Day 8 embryos were transferred to recipient mares on day 8 (synchronous) or day 3 (asynchronous) after ovulation, and conceptuses were recovered 6 or 11 days later (day 14 or 19 of development)...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859970/aging-does-not-affect-integration-times-for-the-perception-of-depth-from-motion-parallax
#15
Jessica Holmin, Mark Nawrot
To successfully navigate throughout the world, observers must rapidly recover depth information. One depth cue that is especially important for a moving observer is motion parallax. To perceive unambiguous depth from motion parallax, the visual system must integrate information from two different proximal signals, retinal image motion and a pursuit eye movement. Previous research has shown that aging affects both of these necessary components for motion parallax depth perception, but no research has yet investigated how aging affects the mechanism for integrating motion and pursuit information to recover depth from motion parallax...
September 5, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842961/high-nymphal-host-density-and-mortality-negatively-impact-parasitoid-complex-during-an-insect-herbivore-outbreak
#16
Aidan A G Hall, Scott N Johnson, James M Cook, Markus Riegler
Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitisation, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitisation patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged...
August 26, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842864/mean-size-estimation-yields-left-side-bias-role-of-attention-on-perceptual-averaging
#17
Kuei-An Li, Su-Ling Yeh
The human visual system can estimate mean size of a set of items effectively; however, little is known about whether information on each visual field contributes equally to the mean size estimation. In this study, we examined whether a left-side bias (LSB)-perceptual judgment tends to depend more heavily on left visual field's inputs-affects mean size estimation. Participants were instructed to estimate the mean size of 16 spots. In half of the trials, the mean size of the spots on the left side was larger than that on the right side (the left-larger condition) and vice versa (the right-larger condition)...
August 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842647/spatially-destabilising-effect-of-woody-plant-diversity-on-forest-productivity-in-a-subtropical-mountain-forest
#18
Yonglin Zhong, Yudan Sun, Mingfeng Xu, Yi Zhang, Yongqiang Wang, Zhiyao Su
We used geographically weighted regression to investigate the relationship between biodiversity and the spatial stability of forest productivity (SSFP) in a subtropical mountain forest. We examined the effect of elevation on this relationship and on its spatial non-stationarity. We found that higher woody plant diversity reduced SSPF. Higher woody plant diversity strengthened the asynchrony of species responses to spatial heterogeneity of forest habitats, which contributed to SSFP, but reduced two factors that enhanced SSFP: species dominance and the spatial stability of the dominant species...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836887/sequential-stereotype-priming-a-meta-analysis
#19
Ciara K Kidder, Katherine R White, Michelle R Hinojos, Mayra Sandoval, Stephen L Crites
Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type...
August 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833071/emerging-mechanisms-regulating-mitotic-synchrony-during-animal-embryogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Yosuke Ogura, Yasunori Sasakura
The basic mechanisms controlling mitosis are highly conserved in animals regardless of cell types and developmental stages. However, an exceptional aspect of mitosis is seen during early animal embryogenesis in which a large fertilized egg is quickly divided into smaller blastomeres according to the reproducible spatiotemporal pattern that does not rely on the cell-cycle arrest or growth. This mitosis, referred to as cleavage, overlaps in the timeframe with the specification of cell fate. The precise spatiotemporal regulation of cleavages is therefore essential to the creation of the appropriate cell number and to the morphology of an embryo...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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