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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347467/increased-persistence-via-asynchrony-in-oscillating-ecological-populations-with-long-range-interaction
#1
Anubhav Gupta, Tanmoy Banerjee, Partha Sharathi Dutta
Understanding the influence of the structure of a dispersal network on the species persistence and modeling a realistic species dispersal in nature are two central issues in spatial ecology. A realistic dispersal structure which favors the persistence of interacting ecological systems was studied [M. D. Holland and A. Hastings, Nature (London) 456, 792 (2008)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature07395], where it was shown that a randomization of the structure of a dispersal network in a metapopulation model of prey and predator increases the species persistence via clustering, prolonged transient dynamics, and amplitudes of population fluctuations...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347456/survivability-of-a-metapopulation-under-local-extinctions
#2
Srilena Kundu, Soumen Majhi, Sourav Kumar Sasmal, Dibakar Ghosh, Biswambhar Rakshit
A metapopulation structure in landscape ecology comprises a group of interacting spatially separated subpopulations or patches of the same species that may experience several local extinctions. This makes the investigation of survivability (in the form of global oscillation) of a metapopulation on top of diverse dispersal topologies extremely crucial. However, among various dispersal topologies in ecological networks, which one can provide higher metapopulation survivability under local extinction is still not well explored...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346930/proxy-equation-paradigm-a-strategy-for-massively-parallel-asynchronous-computations
#3
Ankita Mittal, Sharath Girimaji
Massively parallel simulations of transport equation systems call for a paradigm change in algorithm development to achieve efficient scalability. Traditional approaches require time synchronization of processing elements (PEs), which severely restricts scalability. Relaxing synchronization requirement introduces error and slows down convergence. In this paper, we propose and develop a novel "proxy equation" concept for a general transport equation that (i) tolerates asynchrony with minimal added error, (ii) preserves convergence order and thus, (iii) expected to scale efficiently on massively parallel machines...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344909/flash-induced-forward-and-reverse-illusory-line-motion-in-offset-bars
#4
Sihang Han, Jeff P Hamm
Illusory line motion (ILM) refers to perception of motion in a bar that onsets or offsets all at once. When the bar onsets or offsets between two boxes after one of the boxes flashes, the bar appears to shoot out of the flashed box (flashILM). If the bar offsets during the flash, it appears to contract into the flashed box (reverse ILM; rILM). Onset bars do not show rILM. Moreover, rILM and flashILM are not correlated, indicating they are two different illusions. To date, rILM has only been studied using a 50-ms flash where the bar offsets 16...
January 17, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341785/total-sleep-deprivation-does-not-significantly-degrade-semantic-encoding
#5
K A Honn, D A Grant, J M Hinson, P Whitney, Hpa Van Dongen
Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or matching well-rested control. After sleep deprivation, the 20% slowest response times (RTs) were significantly increased. However, the semantic encoding time component of the RTs remained at baseline level...
January 17, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339768/the-characterization-of-the-circadian-clock-in-the-olive-fly-bactrocera-oleae-diptera-tephritidae-reveals-a-drosophila-like-organization
#6
Enrico Bertolini, Christa Kistenpfennig, Pamela Menegazzi, Alexander Keller, Martha Koukidou, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the single most important pest for the majority of olive plantations. Oxitec's self-limiting olive fly technology (OX3097D-Bol) offers an alternative management approach to this insect pest. Because of previously reported asynchrony in the mating time of wild and laboratory strains, we have characterized the olive fly circadian clock applying molecular, evolutionary, anatomical and behavioural approaches. Here we demonstrate that the olive fly clock relies on a Drosophila melanogaster-like organization and that OX3097D-Bol carries a functional clock similar to wild-type strains, confirming its suitability for operational use...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339183/evolution-of-the-growth-hormone-prolactin-prolactin-2-and-somatolactin-family
#7
Daniel Ocampo Daza, Dan Larhammar
Growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), prolactin 2 (PRL2) and somatolactin (SL) belong to the same hormone family and have a wide repertoire of effects including development, osmoregulation, metabolism and stimulation of growth. Both the hormone and the receptor family have been proposed to have expanded by gene duplications in early vertebrate evolution. A key question is how hormone-receptor preferences have arisen among the duplicates. The first step to address this is to determine the time window for these duplications...
January 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331093/sensitivity-to-audio-visual-synchrony-and-its-relation-to-language-abilities-in-children-with-and-without-asd
#8
Giulia Righi, Elena J Tenenbaum, Carolyn McCormick, Megan Blossom, Dima Amso, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency...
January 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324073/rapid-improvement-on-a-temporal-attention-task-within-a-single-session-of-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#9
Sarah C Tyler, Federica Contò, Lorella Battelli
This study explored the modulatory effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on visual sensitivity during a temporal attention task. We measured sensitivity to different onset asynchronies during a temporal order judgment task as a function of active stimulation relative to sham. While completing the task, participants were stimulated bilaterally for 20 min over either the TPJ or the human middle temporal area. We hypothesized that tRNS over the TPJ, which is critical to the temporal attention network, would selectively increase cortical excitability and induce cognitive training-like effects on performance, perhaps more so in the left visual field [Matthews, N...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321866/grazing-weakens-temporal-stabilizing-effects-of-diversity-in-the-eurasian-steppe
#10
Haiyan Ren, Friedhelm Taube, Claudia Stein, Yingjun Zhang, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu
Many biodiversity experiments have demonstrated that plant diversity can stabilize productivity in experimental grasslands. However, less is known about how diversity-stability relationships are mediated by grazing. Grazing is known for causing species losses, but its effects on plant functional groups (PFGs) composition and species asynchrony, which are closely correlated with ecosystem stability, remain unclear. We conducted a six-year grazing experiment in a semi-arid steppe, using seven levels of grazing intensity (0, 1...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319038/noninvasive-ventilation-neurally-adjusted-ventilator-assist-for-management-of-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
Vijay Hadda, Tajamul Hussain Shah, Karan Madan, Anant Mohan, Gopi C Khilnani, Randeep Guleria
Patient-ventilator asynchrony is common with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) used for management of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) is a mode of ventilatory support which can minimize the patient-ventilator asynchrony. Delivering NIV with NAVA (NIV-NAVA) during acute exacerbation of COPD seems a logical approach and may be useful in reducing patient-ventilator asynchrony. However, there are no published reports which describe the use of NIV-NAVA for management of acute exacerbation of COPD...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317175/premature-progesterone-rise-in-art-cycles
#12
REVIEW
B Lawrenz, L Melado, H M Fatemi
Premature rise of progesterone during the late follicular phase in stimulated IVF cycles is a frequent event and its effect on the endometrial receptivity and on the ART (Assisted Reproductive Technique) - outcome has become a matter of intense debate and research. An emerging body of evidence demonstrates that premature progesterone rise does have a negative impact on the outcome of the ART-success. Until now, the exact cause of progesterone elevation is not fully clear, however lately published studies points to the fact, that premature progesterone elevation might be caused by enhanced FSH stimulation...
January 6, 2018: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299671/reward-priming-eliminates-color-driven-affect-in-perception
#13
Kesong Hu
Brain and behavior evidence suggests that colors have distinct affective properties. Here, we investigated how reward influences color-driven affect in perception. In Experiment 1, we assessed competition between blue and red patches during a temporal-order judgment (TOJ) across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). During the value reinforcement, reward was linked to either blue (version 1) or red (version 2) in the experiment. The same stimuli then served as test ones in the following unrewarded, unspeeded TOJ task...
January 3, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289618/synchronous-and-asynchronous-perceptual-bindings-of-colour-and-motion-following-identical-stimulations
#14
Morgan E McIntyre, Derek H Arnold
When a moving surface alternates in colour and direction, perceptual couplings of colour and motion can differ from their physical correspondence. Periods of motion tend to be perceptually bound with physically delayed colours - a colour / motion perceptual asynchrony. This can be eliminated by motion transparency. Here we show that the colour / motion perceptual asynchrony is not invariably eliminated by motion transparency. Nor is it an inevitable consequence given a particular physical input. Instead, it can emerge when moving surfaces are perceived as alternating in direction, even if those surfaces seem transparent, and it is eliminated when surfaces are perceived as moving invariably...
December 28, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286395/benefits-of-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-in-an-asynchronous-heart-failure-model-induced-by-left-bundle-branch-ablation-and-rapid-pacing
#15
Jingfeng Wang, Zhenning Nie, Haiyan Chen, Xianhong Shu, Zhaohua Yang, Ruiming Yao, Yangang Su, Junbo Ge
It is now well recognized that heart failure (HF) patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) derive substantial clinical benefits from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and LBBB has become one of the important predictors for CRT response. The conventional tachypacing-induced HF model has several major limitations, including absence of stable LBBB and rapid reversal of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cessation of pacing. Hence, it is essential to establish an optimal model of chronic HF with isolated LBBB for studying CRT benefits...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282652/task-irrelevant-sounds-influence-both-temporal-order-and-apparent-motion-judgments-about-tactile-stimuli-applied-to-crossed-and-uncrossed-hands
#16
Stephanie Badde, Brigitte Röder, Patrick Bruns
It has been suggested that judgments about the temporal-spatial order of successive tactile stimuli depend on the perceived direction of apparent motion between them. Here we manipulated tactile apparent-motion percepts by presenting a brief, task-irrelevant auditory stimulus temporally in-between pairs of tactile stimuli. The tactile stimuli were applied one to each hand, with varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Participants reported the location of the first stimulus (temporal order judgments: TOJs) while adopting both crossed and uncrossed hand postures, so we could scrutinize skin-based, anatomical, and external reference frames...
December 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248668/comparison-for-younger-and-older-adults-stimulus-temporal-asynchrony-modulates-audiovisual-integration
#17
Yanna Ren, Yanling Ren, Weiping Yang, Xiaoyu Tang, Fengxia Wu, Qiong Wu, Satoshi Takahashi, Yoshimichi Ejima, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has shown that the magnitudes of responses to multisensory information are highly dependent on the stimulus structure. The temporal proximity of multiple signal inputs is a critical determinant for cross-modal integration. Here, we investigated the influence that temporal asynchrony has on audiovisual integration in both younger and older adults using event-related potentials (ERP). Our results showed that in the simultaneous audiovisual condition, except for the earliest integration (80-110ms), which occurred in the occipital region for older adults was absent for younger adults, early integration was similar for the younger and older groups...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247423/inhibition-of-return-revisited-localized-inhibition-on-top-of-a-pervasive%C3%A2-bias
#18
Benchi Wang, Chuyao Yan, Raymond M Klein, Zhiguo Wang
An inhibitory after-effect of attention, frequently referred to as inhibition of return (IOR), operates at a previously attended location to discourage perseverative orienting. Using the classic cueing task, previous work has shown that IOR is not restricted to a previously attended location, but rather spreads to adjacent visual space in a graded manner. The present study expands on this earlier work by exploring a wider visual region and a broader range of cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs) to characterize the temporal dynamics of the IOR gradient...
December 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238387/the-tight-interlocked-rhythm-section-production-and-perception-of-synchronisation-in-jazz-trio-performance
#19
Alex Hofmann, Brian C Wesolowski, Werner Goebl
This study investigates the production and perception of timing, synchronisation and dynamics in jazz trio performances. In a production experiment, six trio combinations of one saxophonist, two bassists, and three drummers were recorded while they performed three popular jazz songs. Onset timing and dynamics of each performer were extracted and analysed. Results showed that the tempo was significantly influenced by the timing of the drummers and all performers showed higher temporal precision on the backbeats...
2017: Journal of New Music Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238295/audio-visual-integration-in-a-redundant-target-paradigm-a-comparison-between-rhesus-macaque-and-man
#20
Peter Bremen, Rooholla Massoudi, Marc M Van Wanrooij, A J Van Opstal
The mechanisms underlying multi-sensory interactions are still poorly understood despite considerable progress made since the first neurophysiological recordings of multi-sensory neurons. While the majority of single-cell neurophysiology has been performed in anesthetized or passive-awake laboratory animals, the vast majority of behavioral data stems from studies with human subjects. Interpretation of neurophysiological data implicitly assumes that laboratory animals exhibit perceptual phenomena comparable or identical to those observed in human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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