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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143125/rapid-temporal-recalibration-to-visuo-tactile-stimuli
#1
Joachim Lange, Katharina Kapala, Holger Krause, Thomas J Baumgarten, Alfons Schnitzler
For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation...
November 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139132/light-and-temperature-cues-multitasking-receptors-and-transcriptional-integrators
#2
REVIEW
Jorge J Casal, Julia I Qüesta
The combined information provided by light and temperature cues helps to optimise plant body architecture and physiology. Plants possess elaborate systems to sense and respond to these stimuli. Simultaneous perception of light and temperature by dual receptors such as phytochrome B and phototropin leads to immediate signalling convergence. Conversely, cue asynchronies initiate separate pathways and the information of the earliest cue is stored, awaiting the arrival of the later cue to control transcription...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134137/pattern-electroretinography-and-visual-evoked-potentials-provide-clinical-evidence-of-cns-modulation-of-high-and-low-contrast-vep-latency-in-glaucoma
#3
William E Sponsel, Susan L Johnson, Rick Trevino, Alberto Gonzalez, Sylvia L Groth, Carolyn Majcher, Diane C Fulton, Matthew A Reilly
Purpose: Both pattern electroretinography (PERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) can be performed using low- (15%; Lc) and high- (85%; Hc) contrast gratings that may preferentially stimulate the magno- and parvocellular pathways. We observed that among glaucomatous patients showing only one VEP latency deficit per eye, there appeared to be a very strong tendency for an Hc delay in one eye and an Lc delay in the other. Methods: Diopsys NOVA-LX system was used to measure VEP Hc and Lc latency among a clinical glaucoma population to find all individuals with either a single Hc or Lc latency abnormality in each eye (group 1), or with greater than 0 and less than 4 Hc or Lc VEP latency abnormalities in the two eyes (group 2) to determine whether a significant inverse correlation existed for these values in either group...
2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134087/do-glucocorticoids-predict-fitness-linking-environmental-conditions-corticosterone-and-reproductive-success-in-the-blue-tit-cyanistes-caeruleus
#4
L J Henderson, N P Evans, B J Heidinger, K A Herborn, K E Arnold
Glucocorticoids, including corticosterone (CORT), have been suggested to provide a physiological link between ecological conditions and fitness. Specifically, CORT, which is elevated in response to harsh conditions, is predicted to be correlated with reduced fitness. Yet, empirical studies show that CORT can be non-significantly, positively and negatively linked with fitness. Divergent environmental conditions between years or study systems may influence whether CORT is linked to fitness. To test this, we monitored free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) during breeding over 3 years...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131743/integration-and-temporal-processing-of-asynchronous-audiovisual-speech
#5
David M Simon, Mark T Wallace
Multisensory integration of visual mouth movements with auditory speech is known to offer substantial perceptual benefits, particularly under challenging (i.e., noisy) acoustic conditions. Previous work characterizing this process has found that ERPs to auditory speech are of shorter latency and smaller magnitude in the presence of visual speech. We sought to determine the dependency of these effects on the temporal relationship between the auditory and visual speech streams using EEG. We found that reductions in ERP latency and suppression of ERP amplitude are maximal when the visual signal precedes the auditory signal by a small interval and that increasing amounts of asynchrony reduce these effects in a continuous manner...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127793/pest-management-under-climate-change-the-importance-of-understanding-tritrophic-relations
#6
REVIEW
V Castex, M Beniston, P Calanca, D Fleury, J Moreau
Plants and insects depend on climatic factors (temperature, solar radiation, precipitations, relative humidity and CO2) for their development. Current knowledge suggests that climate change can alter plants and insects development and affect their interactions. Shifts in tritrophic relations are of particular concern for Integrated Pest Management (IPM), because responses at the highest trophic level (natural enemies) are highly sensitive to warmer temperature. It is expected that natural enemies could benefit from better conditions for their development in northern latitudes and IPM could be facilitated by a longer period of overlap...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124674/the-cognitive-loci-of-the-display-and-task-relevant-set-size-effects-on-distractor-interference-evidence-from-a-dual-task-paradigm
#7
Bo Youn Park, Sujin Kim, Yang Seok Cho
The congruency effect of a task-irrelevant distractor has been found to be modulated by task-relevant set size and display set size. The present study used a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm to examine the cognitive loci of the display set size effect (dilution effect) and the task-relevant set size effect (perceptual load effect) on distractor interference. A tone discrimination task (Task 1), in which a response was made to the pitch of the target tone, was followed by a letter discrimination task (Task 2) in which different types of visual target display were used...
November 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115949/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-nava-or-pressure-support-ventilation-psv-during-spontaneous-breathing-trials-in-critically-ill-patients-a-crossover-trial
#8
Juliana C Ferreira, Fabia Diniz-Silva, Henrique T Moriya, Adriano M Alencar, Marcelo B P Amato, Carlos R R Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) is a proportional ventilatory mode that uses the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) to offer ventilatory assistance in proportion to patient effort. NAVA has been increasingly used for critically ill patients, but it has not been evaluated during spontaneous breathing trials (SBT). We designed a pilot trial to assess the feasibility of using NAVA during SBTs, and to compare the breathing pattern and patient-ventilator asynchrony of NAVA with Pressure Support (PSV) during SBTs...
November 7, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101346/development-and-validation-of-a-multi-algorithm-analytic-platform-to-detect-off-target-mechanical-ventilation
#9
Jason Y Adams, Monica K Lieng, Brooks T Kuhn, Greg B Rehm, Edward C Guo, Sandra L Taylor, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Nicholas R Anderson
Healthcare-specific analytic software is needed to process the large volumes of streaming physiologic waveform data increasingly available from life support devices such as mechanical ventilators. Detection of clinically relevant events from these data streams will advance understanding of critical illness, enable real-time clinical decision support, and improve both clinical outcomes and patient experience. We used mechanical ventilation waveform data (VWD) as a use case to address broader issues of data access and analysis including discrimination between true events and waveform artifacts...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094985/boosting-maintenance-in-working-memory-with-temporal-regularities
#10
Gaën Plancher, Yohana Lévêque, Lison Fanuel, Gaëlle Piquandet, Barbara Tillmann
Music cognition research has provided evidence for the benefit of temporally regular structures guiding attention over time. The present study investigated whether maintenance in working memory can benefit from an isochronous rhythm. Participants were asked to remember series of 6 letters for serial recall. In the rhythm condition of Experiment 1A, a wood block sound was presented 6 times with a regular stimulus-onset-asynchrony during the delay between encoding and recall. In the silent condition, no sound was presented...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093615/less-common-etiologies-of-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency
#11
REVIEW
Vikesh K Singh, Mark E Haupt, David E Geller, Jerry A Hall, Pedro M Quintana Diez
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), an important cause of maldigestion and malabsorption, results from primary pancreatic diseases or secondarily impaired exocrine pancreatic function. Besides cystic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis, the most common etiologies of EPI, other causes of EPI include unresectable pancreatic cancer, metabolic diseases (diabetes); impaired hormonal stimulation of exocrine pancreatic secretion by cholecystokinin (CCK); celiac or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to loss of intestinal brush border proteins; and gastrointestinal surgery (asynchrony between motor and secretory functions, impaired enteropancreatic feedback, and inadequate mixing of pancreatic secretions with food)...
October 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093486/cardio-audio-synchronization-drives-neural-surprise-response
#12
Christian Pfeiffer, Marzia De Lucia
Successful prediction of future events depends on the brain's capacity to extract temporal regularities from sensory inputs. Neuroimaging studies mainly investigated regularity processing for exteroceptive sensory inputs (i.e. from outside the body). Here we investigated whether interoceptive signals (i.e. from inside the body) can mediate auditory regularity processing. Human participants passively listened to sound sequences presented in synchrony or asynchrony to their heartbeat while concomitant electroencephalography was recorded...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077984/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-compared-to-other-forms-of-triggered-ventilation-for-neonatal-respiratory-support
#13
REVIEW
Thomas E Rossor, Katie A Hunt, Sandeep Shetty, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA), respiratory support is initiated upon detection of an electrical signal from the diaphragm muscle, and pressure is provided in proportion to and synchronous with electrical activity of the diaphragm (EADi)...
October 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075992/temporal-ambiguity-of-onsets-in-a-cueing-task-prevents-facilitation-but-not-inhibition-of-return
#14
Tatiana Malevich, Liubov Ardasheva, Hannah M Krüger, W Joseph MacInnes
Cueing effects, i.e., early facilitation of reaction time and inhibition of return (IOR), are well-established and robust phenomena characterizing exogenous orienting and are widely observed in experiments with a traditional Posner cueing paradigm. Krüger, MacInnes, and Hunt (2014) proposed that facilitatory effects of peripheral cues are the result of a cue-target perceptual merging due to re-entrant visual processing. To test the role and timing of these feedback mechanisms in peripheral cueing effects, we modified the traditional cueing task in Experiments 1-3 by interleaving pre- and post-cue trials at the valid and invalid location and random cue-target onset asynchrony (CTOA) ranging from -300 to +1,000 ms...
October 26, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075186/age-related-changes-in-sensorimotor-temporal-binding
#15
Tiziana Vercillo, Carlos Carrasco, Fang Jiang
The causal relationship between a voluntary movement and a sensory event is crucial for experiencing agency. Sensory events must occur within a certain delay from a voluntary movement to be perceived as self-generated. Therefore, temporal sensitivity, i.e., the ability to discriminate temporal asynchronies between motor and sensory events, is important for sensorimotor binding. Moreover, differences in the physical propagation of external stimuli can sometimes challenge sensorimotor binding, generating illusory asynchrony...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060034/spatial-constraints-of-binocularly-matched-information-on-perceived-depth-resulted-from-temporal-interocular-asynchrony
#16
Fanya Bi, Rui Ni, Yao Chen
Quantitative depth of a subjective occluding surface could only be perceived when binocularly matched information is presented along with temporal interocular unmatched (IOUM) information [1]. However, it is still unclear whether the horizontal separation that binocularly matched information is presented from the occluding surface edge would affect the quantitative depth perception. In the present study we aim to answer this question by manipulating the distance between binocularly matched and IOUM information in spatial domains...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054613/the-impact-of-nitrogen-enrichment-on-grassland-ecosystem-stability-depends-on-nitrogen-addition-level
#17
Decao Niu, Xiaobo Yuan, Arianne J Cease, Haiyan Wen, Chunping Zhang, Hua Fu, James J Elser
Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition may affect plant biodiversity, subsequently altering ecosystem stability. While a few studies have explored how simulated N deposition affects community stability and its underlying mechanisms, the experimental levels of N addition used are usually higher than current and future N deposition rates. Thus, their results could produce highly uncertain predictions of ecosystem function, especially if the responses to N deposition are nonlinear. We conducted a manipulative experiment that simulated elevated atmospheric N deposition with several N addition levels to evaluate the effect of N deposition on ecosystem stability and its underlying mechanisms in a semiarid grassland in northern China...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053977/suicidal-ideation-declines-with-improvement-in-the-subjective-symptoms-of-major-depression
#18
John G Keilp, Steven P Ellis, Marianne Gorlyn, Ainsley K Burke, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Michael F Grunebaum
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation appears to be more strongly associated with subjective rather than neurovegetative symptoms of depression. Effective treatment, then, should produce reductions in suicidal ideation to the degree that these subjective symptoms are alleviated relative to treatment effects on other symptoms. METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion for treatment of depression in patients with either suicidal ideation or past attempt, depression severity and suicidal ideation were assessed weekly during the 8-week study...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047031/the-effect-of-phasic-alertness-on-temporal-precision
#19
Qingqing Li, Peiduo Liu, Shunhang Huang, Xiting Huang
Many previous studies have found that there is a close relationship between attention and temporal precision. As a mechanism that regulates the intensity of attention, alertness has beneficial influences on perceptual processing. However, little is known regarding whether and how phasic alertness affects temporal precision. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 used visual and auditory warning cues in a visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task and a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task to investigate the phasic alerting effect on temporal precision...
October 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046551/population-extinctions-can-increase-metapopulation-persistence
#20
Jeremy W Fox, David Vasseur, Morgan Cotroneo, Lilian Guan, Franz Simon
Metapopulations persist when local populations are rapidly recolonized following local extinctions. Such persistence requires asynchrony; simultaneous crashes of all populations would leave no source of recolonization. We show theoretically and experimentally that catastrophic population extinctions themselves can promote metapopulation persistence, by preventing spatial synchrony and thus enhancing recolonization. We refer to this behaviour as the 'spatial hydra effect': as with the mythical hydra that grows two new heads when one is removed, extinctions can increase recolonization...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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