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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645081/loudness-and-time-dependence-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-is-blunted-by-the-nmda-channel-blocker-mk-801
#1
Tobias Teichert
Amplitudes of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) increase with the intensity/loudness of sounds (loudness-dependence of AEP, LDAEP), and the time between adjacent sounds (time-dependence of AEP, TDAEP). Both, blunted LDAEP and blunted TDAEP are markers of altered auditory function in schizophrenia (SZ). However, while blunted LDAEP has been attributed to altered serotonergic function, blunted TDAEP has been linked to altered NMDA receptor function. Despite phenomenological similarities of the two effects, no common pharmacological underpinnings have been identified...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639170/bistability-and-asynchrony-in-a-boolean-model-of-the-l-arabinose-operon-in-escherichia-coli
#2
Andy Jenkins, Matthew Macauley
The lactose operon in Escherichia coli was the first known gene regulatory network, and it is frequently used as a prototype for new modeling paradigms. Historically, many of these modeling frameworks use differential equations. More recently, Stigler and Veliz-Cuba proposed a Boolean model that captures the bistability of the system and all of the biological steady states. In this paper, we model the well-known arabinose operon in E. coli with a Boolean network. This has several complex features not found in the lac operon, such as a protein that is both an activator and repressor, a DNA looping mechanism for gene repression, and the lack of inducer exclusion by glucose...
June 21, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636231/orchestration-at-the-beginning-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryo
#3
Giselle A Abruzzese, Nae Tanpradit, Renata S Tavares
Development of multicellular organisms is driven by a series of mitotic divisions after fertilization. Total cytoplasmic volume does not increase during this process, resulting in an increasing number of smaller daughter cells. Cell divisions are initially synchronous in an early embryo, but this ends at the 16-cell stage in the sea urchin. Orchesterated mitosis does, however, continue in subpopulations via the coordination of two different processes: karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Part of this asynchrony is due to the differentiation of lineages...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#4
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624991/a-new-global-and-comprehensive-model-for-icu-ventilator-performances-evaluation
#5
Nicolas S Marjanovic, Agathe De Simone, Guillaume Jegou, Erwan L'Her
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide a new global and comprehensive evaluation of recent ICU ventilators taking into account both technical performances and ergonomics. METHODS: Six recent ICU ventilators were evaluated. Technical performances were assessed under two FIO2 levels (100%, 50%), three respiratory mechanics combinations (Normal: compliance [C] = 70 mL cmH2O(-1)/resistance [R] = 5 cmH2O L(-1) s(-1); Restrictive: C = 30/R = 10; Obstructive: C = 120/R = 20), four exponential levels of leaks (from 0 to 12...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615120/corrigendum-to-asynchrony-of-senescence-among-phenotypic-traits-in-a-wild-mammal-population-exp-gerontol-71-2015-56-68
#6
Adam D Hayward, Jacob Moorad, Charlotte E Regan, Camillo Berenos, Jill G Pilkington, Josephine M Pemberton, Daniel H Nussey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614095/the-value-of-dynamic-preload-variables-during-spontaneous-ventilation
#7
Azriel Perel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the physiological significance and clinical value of dynamic preload variables in spontaneously breathing patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Dynamic preload variables reflect the response of the cardiac output to a modification of preload and can therefore be used to assess fluid responsiveness. Continuous dynamic parameters that are calculated from the variations in the arterial and plethysmographic waveforms following a mechanical breath have been shown to predict fluid responsiveness much better than static preload parameters...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609460/the-role-of-attention-in-subliminal-semantic-processing-a-mouse-tracking-study
#8
Kunchen Xiao, Takashi Yamauchi
Recent evidence suggests that top-down attention facilitates unconscious semantic processing. To clarify the role of attention in unconscious semantic processing, we traced trajectories of the computer mouse in a semantic priming task and scrutinized the extent to which top-down attention enhances unconscious semantic processing in four different stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA: 50, 200, 500, or 1000ms) conditions. Participants judged whether a target digit (e.g., "6") was larger or smaller than five, preceded by a masked priming digit (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600716/dissociating-the-time-courses-of-the-cross-modal-semantic-priming-effects-elicited-by-naturalistic-sounds-and-spoken-words
#9
Yi-Chuan Chen, Charles Spence
The present study compared the time courses of the cross-modal semantic priming effects elicited by naturalistic sounds and spoken words on visual picture processing. Following an auditory prime, a picture (or blank frame) was briefly presented and then immediately masked. The participants had to judge whether or not a picture had been presented. Naturalistic sounds consistently elicited a cross-modal semantic priming effect on visual sensitivity (d') for pictures (higher d' in the congruent than in the incongruent condition) at the 350-ms rather than at the 1,000-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598996/alterations-in-audiovisual-simultaneity-perception-in-amblyopia
#10
Michael D Richards, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Amblyopia is a developmental visual impairment that is increasingly recognized to affect higher-level perceptual and multisensory processes. To further investigate the audiovisual (AV) perceptual impairments associated with this condition, we characterized the temporal interval in which asynchronous auditory and visual stimuli are perceived as simultaneous 50% of the time (i.e., the AV simultaneity window). Adults with unilateral amblyopia (n = 17) and visually normal controls (n = 17) judged the simultaneity of a flash and a click presented with both eyes viewing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596606/yolk-removal-generates-hatching-asynchrony-in-snake-eggs
#11
Fabien Aubret, Florent Bignon, Alix Bouffet-Halle, Gaëlle Blanvillain, Philippe J R Kok, Jérémie Souchet
Hatching synchrony is wide-spread amongst egg-laying species and is thought to enhance offspring survival, notably by diluting predation risks. Turtle and snake eggs were shown to achieve synchronous hatching by altering development rates (where less advanced eggs may accelerate development) or by hatching prematurely (where underdeveloped embryos hatch concurrently with full-term embryos). In Natricine snakes, smaller eggs tend to slow down metabolism throughout incubation in order to hatch synchronously with larger eggs...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592029/-effects-of-noninvasive-proportional-assist-vs-pressure-support-ventilation-on-respiratory-work-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-with-hypercapnia
#12
J H Zhang, Q Luo, H J Zhang, R C Chen
Objective: To investigate the effect of noninvasive proportional assist ventilation (PAV) on respiratory work in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) patients, in comparison to noninvasive pressure support ventilation(PSV). Methods: Ten severe COPD patients with hypercapnia during acute exacerbation were examined. The baseline inspiratory pressure of PSV (PS) and the assistance level of PAV(PA) were titrated by patients' tolerance. In addition to the baseline PS and PA, an additional decrease by 25% (PS-=75% PS, PA-=75% PA) or increase by 25% (PS+ =125% PS, PA+ =125% PA) of the assist level were applied to the patients...
June 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588459/the-different-inhibition-of-return-ior-effects-of-emergency-managerial-experts-and-novices-an-event-related-potentials-study
#13
Rong Cao, Lü Wu, Shuzhen Wang
Inhibition of return (IOR) is an important effect of attention. However, the IOR of emergency managerial experts is unknown. By employing emergency and natural scene pictures in expert-novice paradigm, the present study explored the neural activity underlying the IOR effects for emergency managerial experts and novices. In behavioral results, there were no differences of IOR effects between novices and emergency managerial experts, while the event-related potentials (ERPs) results were different between novices and experts...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585056/time-course-of-syllabic-and-sub-syllabic-processing-in-mandarin-word-production-evidence-from-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#14
Jie Wang, Andus Wing-Kuen Wong, Hsuan-Chih Chen
The time course of phonological encoding in Mandarin monosyllabic word production was investigated by using the picture-word interference paradigm. Participants were asked to name pictures in Mandarin while visual distractor words were presented before, at, or after picture onset (i.e., stimulus-onset asynchrony/SOA = -100, 0, or +100 ms, respectively). Compared with the unrelated control, the distractors sharing atonal syllables with the picture names significantly facilitated the naming responses at -100- and 0-ms SOAs...
June 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582535/perceived-synchrony-of-frog-multimodal-signal-components-is%C3%A2-influenced-by-content-and-order
#15
Ryan C Taylor, Rachel A Page, Barrett A Klein, Michael J Ryan, Kimberly L Hunter
Multimodal signaling is common in communication systems. Depending on the species, individual signal components may be produced synchronously as a result of physiological constraint (fixed) or each component may be produced independently (fluid) in time. For animals that rely on fixed signals, a basic prediction is that asynchrony between the components should degrade the perception of signal salience, reducing receiver response. Male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, produce a fixed multisensory courtship signal by vocalizing with two call components (whines and chucks) and inflating a vocal sac (visual component)...
June 5, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579782/effect-of-aripiprazole-on-non-24-hour-sleep-wake-rhythm-disorder-comorbid-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-case-report
#16
Kentaro Matsui, Yoshikazu Takaesu, Takeshi Inoue, Ken Inada, Katsuji Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Patients with non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD) exhibit a sleep pattern that is asynchronous with the external light-dark cycle, typically involving a cycling, relapsing-remitting pattern of sleep disturbances, including nighttime insomnia and daytime sleepiness. Here, we report the case of a patient with N24SWD comorbid with major depressive disorder, who was successfully treated with a low dose of aripiprazole. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old female presented with an 8-year complaint of difficulty falling asleep and waking up in the morning...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544843/a-new-sign-of-severe-aortic-regurgitation-detected-through-airflow-analysis-in-mechanical-ventilation
#17
Juan C Garcia-Rubira, Maria J Cristo-Ropero, Manuel Almendro-Delia, Rafael Hidalgo-Urbano
A 72-year-old female with a previous history of aortic valve replacement by biological prosthesis was admitted with progressive heart failure. The clinical course was unfavorable, requiring inotropic support and invasive mechanical ventilation. Auto-triggering of the ventilator from cardiac origin has been previously described, and explained as a consequence of hyperdynamic circulation. In our case, the oscillatory movements due to the aortic regurgitation are transmitted to the airway. Early recognition of this condition can facilitate not only the correction this asynchrony in mechanical ventilation but also should raise the suspicion of aortic regurgitation...
January 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544577/hatching-asynchrony-impacts-cognition-in-male-zebra-finches
#18
Simone A Campbell, Michelle L Beck, Kendra B Sewall
Conditions experienced early in life can shape brain development and later cognition. Altricial songbirds are particularly vulnerable to early environmental perturbations. Research on "Developmental Stress" in songbirds has addressed how early-life conditions may impair song learning and has been extended to consider other components of adult phenotype. Early-life challenges ranging from ectoparasites to competition with siblings have been shown to compromise song learning and other measures of cognition, as well as behavioral strategy...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522379/the-coding-question
#19
REVIEW
C R Gallistel
Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507606/transcription-and-chromatin-determinants-of-de-novo-dna-methylation-timing-in-oocytes
#20
Lenka Gahurova, Shin-Ichi Tomizawa, Sébastien A Smallwood, Kathleen R Stewart-Morgan, Heba Saadeh, Jeesun Kim, Simon R Andrews, Taiping Chen, Gavin Kelsey
BACKGROUND: Gametogenesis in mammals entails profound re-patterning of the epigenome. In the female germline, DNA methylation is acquired late in oogenesis from an essentially unmethylated baseline and is established largely as a consequence of transcription events. Molecular and functional studies have shown that imprinted genes become methylated at different times during oocyte growth; however, little is known about the kinetics of methylation gain genome wide and the reasons for asynchrony in methylation at imprinted loci...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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