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Marija D Ivanovic, Jovana Petrovic, Andrej Savic, Goran Gligoric, Marjan Miletic, Miodrag Vukcevic, Bosko Bojovic, Ljupco Hadzievski, Tom D P Allsop, David J Webb
The ventilators involved in non-invasive mechanical ventilation commonly provide ventilator support via a facemask. The interface of the mask with a patient promotes air leaks that cause errors in the feedback information provided by a pneumatic sensor and hence patient-ventilator asynchrony with multiple negative consequences. Our objective is to test the possibility of using chest-wall motion measured by an optical fibre-grating sensor as a more accurate non-invasive ventilator triggering mechanism.
 Approach: The basic premise of our approach is that the measurement accuracy can be improved by using a triggering signal that precedes pneumatic triggering in the neuro-ventilatory coupling sequence...
March 19, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Andre Roelke, Nicole Franke, Chris Biemann, Ralph Radach, Arthur M Jacobs, Markus J Hofmann
The theoretical "difficulty in separating association strength from [semantic] feature overlap" has resulted in inconsistent findings of either the presence or absence of "pure" associative priming in recent literature (Hutchison, 2003, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(4), p. 787). The present study used co-occurrence statistics of words in sentences to provide a full factorial manipulation of direct association (strong/no) and the number of common associates (many/no) of the prime and target words...
March 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Robert T Keys, Anina N Rich, Regine Zopf
Tracking one's own body is essential for environmental interaction, and involves integrating multisensory cues with stored information about the body's typical features. Exactly how multisensory information is integrated in own-body perception is still unclear. For example, Ide and Hidaka (Exp Brain Res 228:43-50, 2013) found that participants made less precise visuo-tactile temporal order judgments (TOJ) when viewing hands in a plausible orientation (upright; typical for one's own hand) compared to an implausible orientation (rotated 180°)...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Miho Sugi, Yutaka Hagimoto, Isao Nambu, Alejandro Gonzalez, Yoshinori Takei, Shohei Yano, Haruhide Hokari, Yasuhiro Wada
Recently, a brain-computer interface (BCI) using virtual sound sources has been proposed for estimating user intention via electroencephalogram (EEG) in an oddball task. However, its performance is still insufficient for practical use. In this study, we examine the impact that shortening the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) has on this auditory BCI. While very short SOA might improve its performance, sound perception and task performance become difficult, and event-related potentials (ERPs) may not be induced if the SOA is too short...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Qing-Wei Wang, Lin Qi, Wangming Zhou, Cheng-Gang Liu, Dapao Yu, Limin Dai
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) and carbon limitation hypothesis (CLH) are two dominant explanations for treeline formation. The GLH proposes that low temperature drives the treeline through constraining C sinks more than C sources, and it predicts that non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels are static or increase with elevation. Although the GLH has received strong support globally for evergreen treelines, there is still no consensus for deciduous treelines, which experience great asynchrony between supply and demand throughout the year...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
V Botan, S Fan, H Critchley, J Ward
The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) paradigm has been widely used to investigate the sense of body ownership. People who report experiencing the pain of others are hypothesised to have differences in computing body ownership and, hence, we predicted that they would perform atypically on the RHI. The Vicarious Pain Questionnaire (VPQ), was used to divide participants into three groups: (1) non-responders (people who report no pain when seeing someone else experiencing physical pain), (2) sensory-localised responders (report sensory qualities and a localised feeling of pain) and (3) affective-general responders (report a generalised and emotional feeling of pain)...
March 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
M Polačik, M Reichard, M Vrtílek
Extreme asynchrony in embryo development, a typical feature of annual killifish living in temporary pools, represents a bet-hedging strategy to cope with unpredictable rainfall. African annual killifish are distributed across a large precipitation gradient, raising the potential for local adaptation in the degree of developmental asynchrony (e.g. higher in arid areas, lower in humid areas). Eight populations of two sister species, Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius kadleci, from sites along the rainfall gradient were tested and compared for asynchrony and duration of embryo development...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Victor Mittelstädt, Jeff Miller, Andrea Kiesel
In the present study, we introduce a novel, self-organized task-switching paradigm that can be used to study more directly the determinants of switching. Instead of instructing participants to randomly switch between tasks, as in the classic voluntary task-switching paradigm (Arrington & Logan, 2004), we instructed participants to optimize their task performance in a voluntary task-switching environment in which the stimulus associated with the previously selected task appeared in each trial after a delay...
March 9, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Scinob Kuroki, Shin'ya Nishida
When we touch an object, the skin copies its surface shape/texture, and this deformation pattern shifts according to the objects movement. This shift pattern directly encodes spatio-temporal "motion" information of the event, and has been detected in other modalities (e.g., inter-aural time differences for audition and first-order motion for vision). Since previous studies suggested that mechanoreceptor-afferent channels with small receptive field and slow temporal characteristics contribute to tactile motion perception, we tried to tap the spatio-temporal processor using low-frequency sine-waves as primitive probes in our previous study...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alfred Lim, Vivian Eng, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an increase in reaction times to targets that appeared at a previously cued location relative to an uncued location, often investigated using a spatial cueing paradigm. Despite numerous studies that have examined many aspects of IOR, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying IOR are still in dispute. The objective of the current research is to investigate the plausible mechanisms by manipulating the cue and target types between central and peripheral stimuli in a traditional cue-target paradigm with saccadic responses to targets...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ryu Uemura, Hideaki Motoyama, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Jean Jouzel, Kenji Kawamura, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Shuji Fujita, Takayuki Kuramoto, Motohiro Hirabayashi, Takayuki Miyake, Hiroshi Ohno, Koji Fujita, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Yoshinori Iizuka, Shinichiro Horikawa, Makoto Igarashi, Keisuke Suzuki, Toshitaka Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Fujii
The δD temperature proxy in Antarctic ice cores varies in parallel with CO2 through glacial cycles. However, these variables display a puzzling asynchrony. Well-dated records of Southern Ocean temperature will provide crucial information because the Southern Ocean is likely key in regulating CO2 variations. Here, we perform multiple isotopic analyses on an Antarctic ice core and estimate temperature variations at this site and in the oceanic moisture source over the past 720,000 years, which extend the longest records by 300,000 years...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Kelly McCormick, Simon Lacey, Randall Stilla, Lynne C Nygaard, K Sathian
Crossmodal correspondences refer to associations between otherwise unrelated stimulus features in different sensory modalities. For example, high and low auditory pitches are associated with high and low visuospatial elevation, respectively. The neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences are currently unknown. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of the pitch-elevation correspondence. Pitch-elevation congruency effects were observed bilaterally in the inferior frontal and insular cortex, the right frontal eye field and right inferior parietal cortex...
March 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Lucía I Llinares-Insa, Pilar González-Navarro, Ana I Córdoba-Iñesta, Juan J Zacarés-González
We examined motivation and behaviors in women's active job search in Spain and the gender gap in this process. The current crisis in Spain and the increase in the number of unemployed people have revealed new inequalities that particularly affect women's employability, especially the most vulnerable women. This paper addresses two exploratory studies: the first study analyzes gender differences in the active job search using a sample of 236 Spanish participants; the second study explores the heterogeneity and diversity of unemployed women in a sample of 235 Spanish women...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Carles Subirà, Candelaria de Haro, Rudys Magrans, Rafael Fernández, Lluís Blanch
Patient-ventilator asynchrony exists when the phases of breath delivered by the ventilator do not match those of the patient. Asynchronies occur throughout mechanical ventilation and negatively affect patient comfort, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stays, and mortality. Identifying asynchronies requires careful attention to patients and their ventilator waveforms. This review discusses the different types of asynchronies, how they are generated, and their impact on patient comfort and outcome...
February 27, 2018: Respiratory Care
Kaisa Tiippana, Viljami R Salmela
Some classical studies on temporal order judgments (TOJ) suggested a single central process comparing stimulus onsets across modalities. The prevalent current view suggests that there is modality-specific timing estimation followed by a cross-modal stage. If the latter view is correct, TOJ's may vary depending on stimulus modality. Further, if TOJ is based only on onsets, stimulus duration should be irrelevant. To address these issues, we used both unisensory and multisensory stimuli to test whether unisensory duration processing influences cross-modal TOJ's...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ahmed S Beela, Serkan Ünlü, Jürgen Duchenne, Agnieszka Ciarka, Ana Maria Daraban, Martin Kotrc, Marit Aarones, Mariola Szulik, Stefan Winter, Martin Penicka, Aleksandar N Neskovic, Tomasz Kukulski, Svend Aakhus, Rik Willems, Wolfgang Fehske, Lothar Faber, Ivan Stankovic, Jens-Uwe Voigt
Aim: To determine if incorporation of assessment of mechanical dyssynchrony could improve the prognostic value of patient selection based on current guidelines. Methods and results: Echocardiography was performed in 1060 patients before and 12 ± 6 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantation. Mechanical dyssynchrony, defined as the presence of apical rocking or septal flash was visually assessed at the baseline examination. Response was defined as ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume at follow-up...
February 22, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Yu-Kai Wang, Tzyy-Ping Jung, Chin-Teng Lin
Performing multiple tasks simultaneously usually affects the behavioral performance as compared with executing the single task. Moreover, processing multiple tasks simultaneously often involve more cognitive demands. Two visual tasks, lane-keeping task and mental calculation, were utilized to assess the brain dynamics through 32-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded from 14 participants. A 400-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) factor was used to induce distinct levels of attentional requirements. In the dual-task conditions, the deteriorated behavior reflected the divided attention and the overlapping brain resources used...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yeong Shiong Chiew, Chee Pin Tan, J Geoffrey Chase, Yeong Woei Chiew, Thomas Desaive, Azrina Md Ralib, Mohd Basri Mat Nor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory mechanics estimation can be used to guide mechanical ventilation (MV) but is severely compromised when asynchronous breathing occurs. In addition, asynchrony during MV is often not monitored and little is known about the impact or magnitude of asynchronous breathing towards recovery. Thus, it is important to monitor and quantify asynchronous breathing over every breath in an automated fashion, enabling the ability to overcome the limitations of model-based respiratory mechanics estimation during asynchronous breathing ventilation...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Lisette J M E van der Does, Paul Knops, Christophe P Teuwen, Corina Serban, Roeliene Starreveld, Eva A H Lanters, Elisabeth M J P Mouws, Charles Kik, Ad J J C Bogers, Natasja M S de Groot
BACKGROUND: Endo-epicardial asynchrony (EEA) and the interplay between these layers could be important in the pathophysiology of atrial arrhythmias. The morphological differences between epicardial and endocardial atrial electrograms have not been described so far and electrogram morphology may hold information about the presence of EEA. OBJECTIVE: This study directly compared epicardial to endocardial unipolar electrogram morphology during sinus rhythm (SR) and evaluated whether EEA contributes to electrogram fractionation by correlating fractionation to spatial activation patterns...
February 21, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tang, Xianyou He, Shuxian Lai
Substantial evidence suggests that beauty is associated with the survival and reproduction of organisms. Landscape architecture is composed of a series of natural elements that have significant evolutionary implications. The present study used one pilot material ratings and three experiments to examine the mechanisms of aesthetic appraisals of landscape architecture. The results confirmed that landscape architecture elicited a sense of beauty and captured visual attention more easily than other types of architecture during explicit aesthetic rating task (Experiment 1) and implicit aesthetic perception task (dot-probe paradigm, Experiment 2)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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