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Claire C Homan, Stephen Pederson, Thu-Hien To, Chuan Tan, Sandra Piltz, Mark Corbett, Ernst Wolvetang, Paul Thomas, Lachlan A Jolly, Jozef Gecz
PCDH19-Girls Clustering Epilepsy (PCDH19-GCE) is a childhood epileptic encephalopathy characterised by a spectrum of neurodevelopmental problems. PCDH19-GCE is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the X-chromosome gene, Protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) encoding a cell-cell adhesion molecule. Intriguingly, hemizygous males are generally unaffected. As PCDH19 is subjected to random X-inactivation, heterozygous females are comprised of a mosaic of cells expressing either the normal or mutant allele, which is thought to drive pathology...
May 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Reza Masaeli, Kavosh Zandsalimi, Lobat Tayebi
Regarding the widespread and ever-increasing applications of biomaterials in different medical fields, their accurate assessment is of great importance. Hence the safety and efficacy of biomaterials is confirmed only through the evaluation process, the way it is done has direct effects on public health. Although every biomaterial undergoes rigorous premarket evaluation, the regulatory agencies receive a considerable number of complications and adverse event reports annually. The main factors that challenge the process of biomaterials evaluation are dissimilar regulations, asynchrony of biomaterials evaluation and biomaterials development, inherent biases of postmarketing data, and cost and timing issues...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Hana Locihová, Katarína Žiaková
Aim: To examine the effects of mechanical ventilation on the quality of sleep in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) using recent and relevant literature. Methods: To verify the examined objective, the results of the analysis of available original scientific works have been used including defined inclusion/exclusion criteria and search strategy. Appropriate works found were analysed further. The applied methodology was in line with the general principles of Evidence-Based Medicine...
April 2018: Romanian journal of anaesthesia and intensive care
Jian Huang, HongFei Hao
Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Christoforos Pappas, Ashley M Matheny, Jennifer L Baltzer, Alan G Barr, T Andrew Black, Gil Bohrer, Matteo Detto, Jason Maillet, Alexandre Roy, Oliver Sonnentag, Jilmarie Stephens
Water stress has been identified as a key mechanism of the contemporary increase in tree mortality rates in northwestern North America. However, a detailed analysis of boreal tree hydrodynamics and their interspecific differences is still lacking. Here we examine the hydraulic behaviour of co-occurring larch (Larix laricina) and black spruce (Picea mariana), two characteristic boreal tree species, near the southern limit of the boreal ecozone in central Canada. Sap flux density (Js), concurrently recorded stem radius fluctuations and meteorological conditions are used to quantify tree hydraulic functioning and to scrutinize tree water-use strategies...
May 8, 2018: Tree Physiology
Juan Carlos Rivera-Mulia, Andrew Dimond, Daniel Vera, Claudia Trevilla-Garcia, Takayo Sasaki, Jared Zimmerman, Catherine Dupont, Joost Gribnau, Peter Fraser, David M Gilbert
DNA replication occurs in a defined temporal order known as the replication-timing (RT) program. RT is regulated during development in discrete chromosomal units, coordinated with transcriptional activity and 3D genome organization. Here, we derived distinct cell types from F1 hybrid musculus X castaneus mouse crosses and exploited the high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density to characterize allelic differences in RT (Repli-seq), genome organization (Hi-C and promoter-capture Hi-C), gene expression (total nuclear RNA-seq) and chromatin accessibility (ATAC-seq)...
May 7, 2018: Genome Research
Alberta Ipser, Maayan Karlinski, Elliot D Freeman
Sight and sound are out of synch in different people by different amounts for different tasks. But surprisingly, different concurrent measures of perceptual asynchrony correlate negatively (Freeman et al., 2013). Thus, if vision subjectively leads audition in one individual, the same individual might show a visual lag in other measures of audiovisual integration (e.g., McGurk illusion, Stream-Bounce illusion). This curious negative correlation was first observed between explicit temporal order judgments and implicit phoneme identification tasks, performed concurrently as a dual task, using incongruent McGurk stimuli...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Jian-Bing Ma, Qi Jia, Chun-Hua Xu, Jing-Hua Li, Xing-Yuan Huang, Dong-Fei Ma, Ming Li, Xu-Guang Xi, Ying Lu
Helicases harness the energy of nucleotide triphosphate hydrolysis to unwind double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in discrete steps. In spite of intensive studies, the mechanism of stepping is still poorly understood. Here we applied single-molecule fluorescent resonant energy transfer (FRET) to characterize the stepping of two non-ring helicases, E. coli RecQ and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 (ScPif1). Our data showed that, when forked dsDNA with free overhangs are used as substrates, both E. coli RecQ and ScPif1 unwind the dsDNA in non-uniform steps that distribute over broad ranges...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Behnood Gholami, Timothy S Phan, Wassim M Haddad, Andrew Cason, Jerry Mullis, Levi Price, James M Bailey
BACKGROUND: - Acute respiratory failure is one of the most common problems encountered in intensive care units (ICU) and mechanical ventilation is the mainstay of supportive therapy for such patients. A mismatch between ventilator delivery and patient demand is referred to as patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA). An important hurdle in addressing PVA is the lack of a reliable framework for continuously and automatically monitoring the patient and detecting various types of PVA. METHODS: - The problem of replicating human expertise of waveform analysis for detecting cycling asynchrony (i...
April 23, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yunhai Zhang, Nianpeng He, Michel Loreau, Qingmin Pan, Xingguo Han
A positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability has been reported in many ecosystems; however, it has yet to be determined whether and how spatial scale affects this relationship. Here, for the first time, we assessed the effects of alpha, beta and gamma diversity on ecosystem stability and the scale dependence of the slope of the diversity-stability relationship.By employing a long-term (33 years) dataset from a temperate grassland, northern China, we calculated the all possible spatial scales with the complete combination from the basic 1-m2 plots...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
Yi-Chuan Chen, Charles Spence
We examined the time-courses and categorical specificity of the crossmodal semantic congruency effects elicited by naturalistic sounds and spoken words on the processing of visual pictures (Experiment 1) and printed words (Experiment 2). Auditory cues were presented at 7 different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) with respect to the visual targets, and participants made speeded categorization judgments (living vs. nonliving). Three common effects were observed across 2 experiments: Both naturalistic sounds and spoken words induced a slowly emerging congruency effect when leading by 250 ms or more in the congruent compared with the incongruent condition, and a rapidly emerging inhibitory effect when leading by 250 ms or less in the incongruent condition as opposed to the noise condition...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Jean-Paul Noel, Kahan Modi, Mark T Wallace, Nathan Van der Stoep
The integration of information across sensory modalities is dependent on the spatiotemporal characteristics of the stimuli that are paired. Despite large variation in the distance over which events occur in our environment, relatively little is known regarding how stimulus-observer distance affects multisensory integration. Prior work has suggested that exteroceptive stimuli are integrated over larger temporal intervals in near relative to far space, and that larger multisensory facilitations are evident in far relative to near space...
April 26, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Grégoire Python, Raphaël Fargier, Marina Laganaro
Background : Producing a word in referential naming requires to select the right word in our mental lexicon among co-activated semantically related words. The mechanisms underlying semantic context effects during speech planning are still controversial, particularly for semantic facilitation which investigation remains under-represented in contrast to the plethora of studies dealing with interference. Our aim is to study the time-course of semantic facilitation in picture naming, using a picture-word "interference" paradigm and event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Karolina Kupczynska, Blazej W Michalski, Dawid Miskowiec, Jaroslaw D Kasprzak, Ewa Szymczyk, Paulina Wejner Mik, Piotr Lipiec
PURPOSE: To assess the potential ability of two-dimensional speckle tracking analysis (STE) during atrial fibrillation (AF) to identify patients with LA appendage thrombi (LAAT). METHODS: This study involved 93 patients with AF (39% female, 67.1 ± 9.5 years) who were referred for a clinical indication for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). TEE revealed LAAT in 39 (42%) patients. We analyzed standard parameters of the left ventricle (LV) and LA in transthoracic echocardiography...
April 24, 2018: Echocardiography
Lisa N Jefferies, Joseph B Witt
Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets...
April 24, 2018: Psychological Research
William B Holliday, Kate Gurnsey, Robert A Sweet, Tobias Teichert
BACKGROUND: The amplitude of the auditory evoked N1 component that can be derived from noninvasive electroencephalographic recordings increases as a function of time between subsequent tones. N1 amplitudes in individuals with schizophrenia saturate at a lower asymptote, thus giving rise to a reduced dynamic range. Reduced N1 dynamic range is a putative electrophysiological biomarker of altered sensory memory function in individuals with the disease. To date, it is not clear what determines N1 dynamic range and what causes reduced N1 dynamic range in individuals with schizophrenia...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Crescent Jicol, Michael J Proulx, Frank E Pollick, Karin Petrini
To overcome differences in physical transmission time and neural processing, the brain adaptively recalibrates the point of simultaneity between auditory and visual signals by adapting to audiovisual asynchronies. Here, we examine whether the prolonged recalibration process of passively sensed visual and auditory signals is affected by naturally occurring multisensory training known to enhance audiovisual perceptual accuracy. Hence, we asked a group of drummers, of non-drummer musicians and of non-musicians to judge the audiovisual simultaneity of musical and non-musical audiovisual events, before and after adaptation with two fixed audiovisual asynchronies...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Malcolm D Burgess, Ken W Smith, Karl L Evans, Dave Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Claire J Branston, Kevin Briggs, John R Clark, Chris R du Feu, Kate Lewthwaite, Ruedi G Nager, Ben C Sheldon, Jeremy A Smith, Robin C Whytock, Stephen G Willis, Albert B Phillimore
Increasing temperatures associated with climate change may generate phenological mismatches that disrupt previously synchronous trophic interactions. Most work on mismatch has focused on temporal trends, whereas spatial variation in the degree of trophic synchrony has largely been neglected, even though the degree to which mismatch varies in space has implications for meso-scale population dynamics and evolution. Here we quantify latitudinal trends in phenological mismatch, using phenological data on an oak-caterpillar-bird system from across the UK...
April 23, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund, Bruce Reed
The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is widely used to evaluate processing speed and executive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. In the PASAT, subjects listen to sequences of digits while continuously reporting the sum of the last two digits presented. Four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) are usually tested, with difficulty increasing as SOAs are reduced. Ceiling effects are common at long SOAs, while the digit delivery rate often exceeds the subject's processing capacity at short SOAs, causing some subjects to stop performing altogether...
2018: PloS One
Ol'ha O Brovarets', Dmytro M Hovorun
In this Review we have summarized and generalized the results of the investigation of the microstructural mechanisms of the tautomerisation by the counter movement of the protons along the neighboring intermolecular H-bonds in 22 biologically important pairs of nucleotide bases in the framework of the original method, which allows to trace the evolution of the physico-chemical parameters, that characterize these processes along the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC). It was demonstrated the performance of the introduction of the conception of the key points (KPs) (from nine to five, depending on the symmetry and nature of system), which exhaustively characterize the flow of the tautomerisation processes...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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