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Microchimerism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898464/donor-derived-exosomes-the-trick-behind-the-semidirect-pathway-of-allorecognition
#1
Adrian E Morelli, William Bracamonte-Baran, William J Burlingham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The passenger leukocyte hypothesis predicts that after transplantation, donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from the graft present donor MHC molecules to directly alloreactive T cells in lymphoid organs. However, in certain transplantation models, recent evidence contradicts this long-standing concept. New findings demonstrate that host, instead of donor, APCs play a prominent role in allosensitization against donor MHC molecules via the semidirect pathway. A similar mechanism operates in development of T-cell split tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832434/monitoring-of-venus-transgenic-cell-migration-during-pregnancy-in-non-transgenic-rabbits
#2
N Lipták, O I Hoffmann, A Kerekes, G Iski, D Ernszt, K Kvell, L Hiripi, Z Bősze
Cell transfer between mother and fetus were demonstrated previously in several species which possess haemochorial placenta (e.g. in humans, mice, rats, etc.). Here we report the assessment of fetal and maternal microchimerism in non-transgenic (non-TG) New Zealand white rabbits which were pregnant with transgenic (TG) fetuses and in non-TG newborns of TG does. The TG construct, including the Venus fluorophore cDNA driven by a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus enhancer, chicken ß-actin promoter (CAGGS), was previously integrated into the rabbit genome by Sleeping Beauty transposon system...
November 10, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769989/statistical-methods-for-unusual-count-data-examples-from-studies-of-microchimerism
#3
Katherine A Guthrie, Hilary S Gammill, Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Anne Tjønneland, Vijayakrishna K Gadi, J Lee Nelson, Wendy Leisenring
Natural acquisition of small amounts of foreign cells or DNA, referred to as microchimerism, occurs primarily through maternal-fetal exchange during pregnancy. Microchimerism can persist long-term and has been associated with both beneficial and adverse human health outcomes. Quantitative microchimerism data present challenges for statistical analysis, including a skewed distribution, excess zero values, and occasional large values. Methods for comparing microchimerism levels across groups while controlling for covariates are not well established...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695454/induction-of-hematopoietic-microchimerism-by-gene-modified-bmt-elicits-antigen-specific-b-and-t-cell-unresponsiveness-toward-gene-therapy-products
#4
Jérémie Martinet, Gwladys Bourdenet, Amine Meliani, Laetitia Jean, Sahil Adriouch, Jose L Cohen, Federico Mingozzi, Olivier Boyer
BACKGROUND: Gene therapy is a promising treatment option for hemophilia and other protein deficiencies. However, immune responses against the transgene product represent an obstacle to safe and effective gene therapy, urging for the implementation of tolerization strategies. Induction of a hematopoietic chimerism via bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potent means for inducing immunological tolerance in solid organ transplantation. OBJECTIVES: We reasoned, here, that the same viral vector could be used, first, to transduce BM cells for inducing chimerism-associated transgene-specific immune tolerance and, second, for correcting protein deficiencies by vector-mediated systemic production of the deficient coagulation factor...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677465/no-perv-transmission-during-a-clinical-trial-of-pig-islet-cell-transplantation
#5
Vladimir A Morozov, Shaun Wynyard, Shinichi Matsumoto, Adrian Abalovich, Joachim Denner, Robert Elliott
Xenotransplantation of pig islet cells is a promising alternative for the treatment of diabetes with insulin and may help to prevent numerous late complications such as blindness and amputation. First encouraging results using porcine islets have been reported in preclinical animal models as well in the first clinical trial in New Zealand. The goal of this manuscript is to examine the biological safety of a second trial performed in Argentina, specifically in regards to the transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) using improved detection methods As in the first trial encapsulated islet cells from the well-characterised Auckland Island pigs were used...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623703/microchimerism-of-male-origin-in-a-cohort-of-danish-girls
#6
Amanda Cecilie Müller, Marianne Antonius Jakobsen, Torben Barington, Allan Arthur Vaag, Louise Groth Grunnet, Sjurdur Frodi Olsen, Mads Kamper-Jørgensen
Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells...
August 11, 2016: Chimerism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560194/adult-neurogenesis-lessons-from-crayfish-and-the-elephant-in-the-room
#7
Barbara S Beltz, Georg Brenneis, Jeanne L Benton
The 1st-generation neural precursors in the crustacean brain are functionally analogous to neural stem cells in mammals. Their slow cycling, migration of their progeny, and differentiation of their descendants into neurons over several weeks are features of the neural precursor lineage in crayfish that also characterize adult neurogenesis in mammals. However, the 1st-generation precursors in crayfish do not self-renew, contrasting with conventional wisdom that proposes the long-term self-renewal of adult neural stem cells...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520846/lack-of-detectable-fetal-microchimerism-in-psoriasis-vulgaris-lesions-and-in-non-affected-skin-in-spite-of-its-presence-in-peripheral-blood-cd34-positive-and-cd34-negative-cells
#8
W Niepiekło-Miniewska, W Baran, J C Szepietowski, B Nowakowska, P Kuśnierczyk
BACKGROUND: Microchimerism is defined as a stable presence of low numbers of cells derived from a different individual due to cell transfer between twins or between mother and fetus during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Fetal cells in the organism of the mother (FMc) are postulated to play a role in autoimmune diseases. Psoriasis is a disease which has an autoimmune component, but no study on microchimerism in this disease has been reported. METHODS: The easiest way to detect microchimerism is to look for male cells in blood or other tissues of a woman who previously delivered a son...
August 13, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477190/immunologic-challenges-of-human-reproduction-an-evolving-story
#9
REVIEW
Kassie J Hyde, Danny J Schust
Characterization of the implanting human fetus as an allograft prompted a field of research in reproductive immunology that continues to fascinate and perplex scientists. Paternal- or partner-derived alloantigens are present in the maternal host at multiple times during the reproductive process. They begin with exposure to semen, continue through implantation and placentation, and may persist for decades in the form of fetal microchimerism. Changes in maternal immune responses that allow allogenic fertilization and survival of semiallogenic concepti to delivery must be balanced with a continued need to respond appropriately to pathogenic invaders, commensals, cell or tissue damage, and any tendency toward malignant transformation...
September 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351353/maternal-cd4-microchimerism-in-hiv-exposed-newborns-after-spontaneous-vaginal-delivery-or-caesarean-section
#10
H Buxmann, A Reitter, S Bapistella, M Stürmer, C Königs, H Ackermann, F Louwen, P Bader, R L Schlößer, A M Willasch
BACKGROUND: Maternal CD4+ cell microchimerism may be greater after caesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery and could cause mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in HIV-exposed newborns. AIMS: To evaluate maternal CD4+ cell microchimerism in HIV-exposed newborns after spontaneous vaginal delivery or caesarean section. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In this prospective single-centre study, neonates whose mothers were infected with HIV and had normal MTCT risk according to the German Austrian Guidelines were considered for study enrolment...
July 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346637/biliary-atresia-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Bhanumathi Lakshminarayanan, Mark Davenport
Biliary atresia presents as an obliterative cholangiopathy with neonatal jaundice and pale stools. The disease exhibits aetiological heterogeneity with a multiplicity of potential causative factors, both developmental and environmental. A number of clinical variants making up a minority of all cases can be defined relatively precisely which match suggested aetiology better although in most it still remains speculative. These include the syndromic form (BASM), the cystic form and those associated with CMV IgM antibodies...
September 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27096329/pediatric-liver-transplantation-personal-perspectives-on-historical-achievements-and-future-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Jean-Bernard Otte
This review presents the author's personal perspective and contributions to the first steps, the development, the current status, and the remaining issues of pediatric liver transplantation (LT). Innumerable children around the world who have undergone LT have reached adulthood. The techniques have reached maturity. As shown by my own group's experience, grafts donated by living donors might provide the best short-term and longterm results. Debate persists about the optimal immunosuppression (IS), although the place of tacrolimus remains unchallenged...
September 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988284/clinical-implications-of-basic-science-discoveries-microchimerism-finds-a-major-role-in-reproductive-success-but-does-it-also-contribute-to-transplant-success
#13
W J Burlingham
Conventional wisdom argues against inbreeding, to maintain hybrid vigor and increase MHC diversity in response to pathogens. A recent report from the laboratory of Sing-Sing Way uses a mouse model to test a hypothesis put forward by Ray D. Owen more than 60 years ago: that a certain amount of inbreeding is a good thing. Owen proposed that antigens not inherited from the mother (noninherited maternal antigens), when replicated on the mate of the daughter, could protect the latter's developing child from fetal wastage due to immune attack during her pregnancy...
March 14, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962486/existence-of-microchimerism-in-pregnant-women-carrying-a-boy
#14
Arash Minai-Tehrani, Mehdi Amini, Kambiz Gilany
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891440/-the-complications-of-systemic-sclerosis-in-pregnancy-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-difficulties
#15
REVIEW
Bogna Grygiel-Górniak, Mariusz Puszczewicz
In the course of scleroderma numerous complications may occur caused by the endothelial vessel changes and organs' fibrosis. Pregnancy itself is associated with increased immunization caused by the microchimerism phenomenon. Pregnancy may be associated with increased dyspnea, hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), renal complications and mother pre-eclampsia. In turn, the most common disorders of the fetus include low birth weight, premature delivery and heart block. The occurrence of organ complications in the mother needs urgent gynecological and rheumatologic care, which often requires the consultation of pulmonologist, cardiologist, nephrologists and gastroenterologist...
January 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808509/heterogeneous-distribution-of-fetal-microchimerism-in-local-breast-cancer-environment
#16
Dragos Nemescu, Ramona Gabriela Ursu, Elena Roxana Nemescu, Lucian Negura
Fetal cells enter maternal circulation during pregnancy and persist in the woman's body for decades, achieving a form of physiological microchimerism. These cells were also evidenced in tumors. We investigated the frequency and concentration of fetal microchimerism in the local breast cancer environment. From 19 patients with confirmed breast neoplasia, after breast surgical resection, we collected three fresh specimens from the tumor core, breast tissue at tumor periphery, and adjacent normal breast tissue...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746656/novel-insights-into-the-link-between-fetal-cell-microchimerism-and-maternal-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Valentina Cirello, Laura Fugazzola
INTRODUCTION: Fetal cell microchimerism (FCM) is defined as the persistence of fetal cells in the mother for decades after pregnancy without any apparent rejection. Fetal microchimeric cells (fmcs) engraft the maternal bone marrow and are able to migrate through the circulation and to reach tissues. In malignancies, the possible role of fmcs is still controversial, several studies advising a protective and repairing function, and other postulating a beneficial role in the progression of the disease...
August 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679771/microchimerism-and-regulation-in-living-related-kidney-transplant-families
#18
W John Haynes, Ewa Jankowska-Gan, Lynn Haynes, William J Burlingham
Long-term harmful effects of immunosuppressive drugs and chronic rejection are a persistent impetus to establish methods to induce immunological tolerance to allografts. PCR-based studies have found evidence that humans and other placental mammals can have prolonged extremely low levels of maternal cells as well as other non-self cells, referred to as microchimerism. The persistence of these cells suggests a mechanism for the maintenance of the regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses frequently detected in offspring to non-inherited maternal antigens...
2014: Chimerism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679558/exosomes-the-missing-link-between-microchimerism-and-acquired-tolerance
#19
William J Burlingham
It has become increasingly clear that the immune system of viviparous mammals is much more in the business of acquiring tolerance to non-self antigens, than it is in rejecting cells that express them (for a recent review, highlighting the role of Treg cells, see ref. (1) ). It is also clear that both self-tolerance, and acquired tolerance to non-self is a dynamic process, with a natural ebb and flow. As has been often said of an effective team defense in sports, tolerance will "bend but does not break." How microchimerism, defined as the presence of extremely rare [1/10(4)-1/10(6)] cells of a genetically different individual, can induce either new immunogenetic pressures that push self-tolerance to the breaking point, or alternatively, provide relief from pre-existing immunogenetic risk, preventing development of autoimmune disease, remains a mystery...
2014: Chimerism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26659792/fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-with-concomitant-immunofluorescence-in-human-pancreas
#20
Jody Ye, Kathleen M Gillespie
The ability to identify the presence of non-host cells in human pancreas with concomitant characterization of cell phenotype is particularly important to facilitate studies of transplantation and microchimerism resulted from pregnancy. The steps involved in processing tissue for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can however remove epitopes that are crucial for immunofluorescence and antigen retrieval strategies for immunofluorescence can negatively influence FISH. We describe a robust method to analyze X/Y chromosome constitution and cell phenotype simultaneously on the same pancreatic tissue section...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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