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Suspended animation

Wenxiu Liu, Wei He, Jingyi Wu, Ning Qin, Qishuang He, Fuliu Xu
Residual levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in seven species of aquatic animals were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The distribution, composition, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification of PFAAs and their effect factors were studied. The results showed that: 1) Wet weight concentrations of 17 PFAAs in the aquatic animals ranged from 1.77 to 38.65 ng/g, with a mean value of 12.71 ± 9.21 ng/g. PFOS was the predominant contaminant (4.57 ± 4.57 ng/g, 6.76%-46.25%), followed by PFDA (1...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hiromi Kitazume, Mehmet Dayi, Ryusei Tanaka, Taisei Kikuchi
Oxygen is required for the completion of almost all known metazoan lifecycles, but many metazoans harbour abilities to withstand varying degrees and periods of hypoxia. Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most popular model organism is extensively used as a model for the study of hypoxia and anoxia biology and it has been found that this nematode is capable of tolerance to varying degrees of hypoxia. Considering the extremely high diversity of nematodes, the effects of low oxygen concentration and mechanisms of adaptation to oxygen depletion differ among species...
2018: PloS One
Murilo S Abreu, João P M Messias, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Svante Winberg, Marta C Soares
Social interactions are commonly found among fish as in mammals and birds. While most animals interact socially with conspecifics some however are also frequently and repeatedly observed to interact with other species (i.e. mutualistic interactions). This is the case of the (so-called) fish clients that seek to be cleaned by other fish (the cleaners). Clients face an interesting challenge: they raise enough motivation to suspend their daily activities as to selectively visit and engage in interactions with cleaners...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chengyu Tan, Fantong Meng, E Albert Reece, Zhiyong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects in infants. Maternal hyperglycemia stimulates the expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2 (NOS2), which can be regulated by transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family. Increases in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generate intracellular stress conditions, including nitrosative, oxidative, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses, and trigger programmed cell death (or apoptosis) in the neural folds, resulting in neural tube defects (NTDs) in the embryo...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Akemi Shimada, Hisashi Ideno, Yoshinori Arai, Koichiro Komatsu, Satoshi Wada, Teruhito Yamashita, Norio Amizuka, Ernst Pöschl, Bent Brachvogel, Yoshiki Nakamura, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Hiroaki Mizukami, Yoichi Ezura, Akira Nifuji
Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of enthesis formation in mature animals. Here, we report that annexin A5 (Anxa5) plays a critical role in the regulation of bone ridge outgrowth at the entheses. We found that Anxa5 is highly expressed in the entheses of postnatal and adult mice. In Anxa5-deficient (Anxa5-/- ) mice, the sizes of bone ridge outgrowths at the entheses of the tibiae and femur were increased after 7 weeks of age. Bone overgrowth was not observed at the fibrous enthesis where the fibrocartilage layer does not exist...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
When temperatures plummet below 0 °C, wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) can endure the freezing of up to ~ 65% of their body water in extracellular ice masses, displaying no measurable brain activity, no breathing, no movement, and a flat-lined heart. To aid survival, frogs retreat into a state of suspended animation characterized by global suppression of metabolic functions and reprioritization of energy usage to essential survival processes that is elicited, in part, by the regulatory controls of microRNAs...
April 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Xin Zhang, Fei Liu, Karla-Anne Knapp, Michael L Nickels, H Charles Manning, Leon M Bellan
Herein, we report the development of a simple, high-throughput and efficient microfluidic system for synthesizing radioactive [18F]fallypride, a PET imaging radiotracer widely used in medical research. The microfluidic chip contains all essential modules required for the synthesis and purification of radioactive fallypride. The radiochemical yield of the tracer is sufficient for multiple animal injections for preclinical imaging studies. To produce the on-chip concentration and purification columns, we employ a simple "trapping" mechanism by inserting rows of square pillars with predefined gaps near the outlet of microchannel...
April 16, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Xiaoyan Y Ma, Qiyuan Li, Xiaochang C Wang, Yongkun Wang, Donghong Wang, Huu Hao Ngo
As reclaimed water use is increasing, its safety attracts growing attention, particularly with respect to the health risks associated with the wide range of micropollutants found in the reclaimed water. In this study, sophisticated analysis was conducted for water samples from a water reclamation and ecological reuse system where domestic wastewater was treated using an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic unit followed by a membrane bioreactor (A2 O-MBR), and the reclaimed water was used for replenishing a landscape lake...
March 27, 2018: Water Research
Kennedy O Okeyo, Maiko Tanabe, Osamu Kurosawa, Hidehiro Oana, Masao Washizu
Cellular dynamics leading to the formation of the trophectoderm in humans remain poorly understood owing to limited accessibility to human embryos for research into early human embryogenesis. Compared to animal models, organoids formed by self-organization of stem cells in vitro may provide better insights into differentiation and complex morphogenetic processes occurring during early human embryogenesis. Here we demonstrate that modulating the cell culture microenvironment alone can trigger self-organization of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to yield trophectoderm-mimicking cysts without chemical induction...
April 2, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Meiying Li, Xianglin Mei, Shuang Lv, Zechuan Zhang, Jinying Xu, Dongjie Sun, Jiayi Xu, Xia He, Guangfan Chi, Yulin Li
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation is effective for repairing spinal cord injuries (SCIs); however, there are limitations of clinical BMSC applications. Previously, we reported that dermal papilla cells (DPCs) secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor more actively than BMSCs. To analyze the therapeutic function of DPCs in SCI, primary DPCs and BMSCs were cultured from the same green fluorescence protein-transgenic rat. The cells were suspended in rat-tail collagen I and transplanted separately into completely transected spinal cord lesion sites...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jacek A Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D Glanville, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen, Lam T Nguyen
Nearly 55,000 outbreaks of animal disease were reported to the World Animal Health Information Database between 2005 and 2016. To suppress the spread of disease, large numbers of animal mortalities often must be disposed of quickly and are frequently buried on the farm where they were raised. While this method of emergency disposal is fast and relatively inexpensive, it also can have undesirable and lasting impacts (slow decay, concerns about groundwater contamination, pathogens re-emergence, and odor). Following the 2010 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the Republic of Korea's National Institute of Animal Science funded research on selected burial alternatives or modifications believed to have potential to reduce undesirable impacts of burial...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
Qi Yao, Zijiang Yang, Hong Li, Michael D Buser, John D Wanjura, Peter M Downey, Chen Zhang, Collin Craige, Alba Torrents, Laura L McConnell, Gregory A Holt, Cathleen J Hapeman
Poultry-emitted air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and ammonia, have raised concerns due to potential negative effects on human health and the environment. However, developing and optimizing remediation technologies requires a better understanding of air pollutant concentrations, the emission plumes, and the relationships between the pollutants. Therefore, we conducted ten field experiments to characterize PM (total suspended particulate [TSP], particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter [PM10 ], and particulate matter less than 2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Josephine Bryk Rose, Sarah Davies, Kadie M Anderson, Graeme S Allan, Patricia M Dennis, Richard Malik
An approximately 4-yr-old female Bennett's wallaby ( Macropus rufogriseus) was evaluated for chronic left-sided facial swelling and nasal discharge. Computed tomography, endoscopy, biopsy, mycologic culture, and panfungal polymerase chain reaction were consistent with destructive mycotic rhinosinusitis. The patient's infection was treated with a long-term injectable antibiotic, oral antifungal therapy, and multiple intranasal infusions of voriconazole suspended in a reverse thermodynamic pluronic gel. This case represents the first documented case of mycotic rhinosinusitis in a macropod and underlines the importance of advanced cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis, monitoring, and management of nasal cavity disease in zoo animals...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Sebastiaan D Hemelrijk, Marcel C Dirkes, Marit H N van Velzen, Rick Bezemer, Thomas M van Gulik, Michal Heger
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S, 80 ppm) gas in an atmosphere of 17.5% oxygen reportedly induces suspended animation in mice; a state analogous to hibernation that entails hypothermia and hypometabolism. However, exogenous H2 S in combination with 17.5% oxygen is able to induce hypoxia, which in itself is a trigger of hypometabolism/hypothermia. Using non-invasive thermographic imaging, we demonstrated that mice exposed to hypoxia (5% oxygen) reduce their body temperature to ambient temperature. In contrast, animals exposed to 80 ppm H2 S under normoxic conditions did not exhibit a reduction in body temperature compared to normoxic controls...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julio Adrián Garfias-López, Graciela Castro-Escarpuli, Pedro E Cárdenas, María Maximina Bertha Moreno-Altamirano, Juan Padierna-Olivos, F Javier Sánchez-García
A wide array of microorganisms colonizes distinctive anatomical regions of animals, being the intestine the one that harbors the most abundant and complex microbiota. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that it is composed mainly of bacteria, and that Bacterioidetes and Firmicutes are the most represented phyla (>90% of the total eubacteria) in mice and humans. Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in host physiology, contributing to digestion, epithelial cells metabolism, stimulation of intestinal immune responses, and protection against intestinal pathogens...
April 2018: Immunology Letters
Paul Childress, Alexander Brinker, Cynthia-May S Gong, Jonathan Harris, David J Olivos, Jeffrey D Rytlewski, David C Scofield, Sungshin Y Choi, Yasaman Shirazi-Fard, Todd O McKinley, Tien-Min G Chu, Carolynn L Conley, Nabarun Chakraborty, Rasha Hammamieh, Melissa A Kacena
Segmental bone defects (SBDs) secondary to trauma invariably result in a prolonged recovery with an extended period of limited weight bearing on the affected limb. Soldiers sustaining blast injuries and civilians sustaining high energy trauma typify such a clinical scenario. These patients frequently sustain composite injuries with SBDs in concert with extensive soft tissue damage. For soft tissue injury resolution and skeletal reconstruction a patient may experience limited weight bearing for upwards of 6 months...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Patricia L Keen, Charles W Knapp, Kenneth J Hall, David W Graham
Environmental transport of contaminants that can influence the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an important concern in the management of ecological and human health risks. Agricultural regions are locales where practices linked to food crop and livestock production can introduce contaminants that could alter the selective pressures for the development of antibiotic resistance in microbiota. This is important in regions where the use of animal manure or municipal biosolids as waste and/or fertilizer could influence selection for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacterial species...
July 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ying Jin, Jed S Shumsky, Itzhak Fischer
The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of human glial restricted progenitors (hGRPs) in promoting axonal growth of different tracts. We examined the potential of hGRPs grafted into a cervical (C4) dorsal column lesion to test sensory axons, and into a C4 hemisection to test motor tracts. The hGRPs, thawed from frozen stocks, were suspended in a PureCol matrix and grafted acutely into a C4 dorsal column or hemisection lesion. Control rats received PureCol only. Five weeks after transplantation, all transplanted cells survived in rats with the dorsal column lesion but only about half of the grafts in the hemisection...
May 1, 2018: Brain Research
Takahisa Suzuki, Atsushi Otsuka, Yoshihiko Ito, Shizuo Yamada, Hideaki Miyake, Seiichiro Ozono
Isosamidin is a pharmacologically active compound extracted from Peucedanum japonicum which is used as a health food in East Asia. Our preliminary animal data suggested that isosamidin may have sufficient potency to treat patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia or overactive bladder. However, the efficacy of isosamidin in humans is unknown. Here, we examined whether isosamidin inhibits agonist-stimulated contractions in isolated human bladder and prostate tissue strips in vitro...
February 1, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Wei Yee Chan, Elizabeth E Hickey, Manouchehr Khazandi, Stephen W Page, Darren J Trott, Peter B Hill
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship are of ever-increasing importance in veterinary medicine. Re-purposing of old drugs that are not used in human medicine is one approach that addresses the emergence of multidrug resistance in canine skin and ear infections, and can reduce the use of critically important human antibiotic classes. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the antimicrobial activity of narasin, a polyether ionophore conventionally used as a rumen modifier and anticoccidial agent in production animals, against common clinical isolates of canine otitis externa (OE)...
April 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
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