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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903784/terrain-following-and-applications-caenorhabditis-elegans-swims-along-the-floor-using-a-bump-and-undulate-strategy
#1
Jinzhou Yuan, Hungtang Ko, David M Raizen, Haim H Bau
Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans are heavier than water. When submerged in water, they settle to the bottom surface. Observations reveal that the animals do not lie flat on the bottom surface, but remain substantially suspended above the surface through continuous collisions with the surface, while maintaining their swimming gaits. Consequently, the swimming animals follow the bottom surface topography. When the bottom surface is inclined, the animals swim up or down along the incline. As the magnitude of the gravitational force can be easily estimated, this behaviour provides a convenient means to estimate the animal's propulsive thrust...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901384/pharmacokinetics-of-zonisamide-following-rectal-administration-to-healthy-dogs
#2
Jennifer R Michaels, Amy J Hodshon, William B Thomas, Dawn M Boothe, Lindsay Williams
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of zonisamide following rectal administration of 20 or 30 mg/kg suspended in sterile water or polyethylene glycol (PEG) to healthy dogs and determine whether either dose resulted in plasma zonisamide concentrations within the recommended therapeutic target range (10 to 40 μg/mL). ANIMALS 8 healthy mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES Each dog received each of 2 doses (20 or 30 mg/kg) of zonisamide suspended in each of 2 delivery substrates (sterile water or PEG) in a randomized crossover study with a 7-day washout period between phases...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888773/the-combined-effects-of-grain-supplementation-and-tenderstretching-on-alpaca-vicugna-pacos-meat-quality
#3
M A Smith, R D Bush, R J van de Ven, D L Hopkins
This study investigated the effects of feeding a mixed grain supplement and tenderstretching (TS) alpaca carcasses on meat quality. A total of 56 castrated 24month old alpacas were divided into two treatments (pasture-only, and pasture plus supplementation). Supplemented groups were fed a mixed grain ration in addition to ad lib pasture for 10weeks. Animals were slaughtered across two kill days (n=28). One half of each carcass was suspended by the pelvis (TS) prior to chilling, and the other half was Achilles tendon hung (AH)...
November 21, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880763/inhibition-of-mtor-induces-a-paused-pluripotent-state
#4
Aydan Bulut-Karslioglu, Steffen Biechele, Hu Jin, Trisha A Macrae, Miroslav Hejna, Marina Gertsenstein, Jun S Song, Miguel Ramalho-Santos
Cultured pluripotent stem cells are a cornerstone of regenerative medicine owing to their ability to give rise to all cell types of the body. Although pluripotent stem cells can be propagated indefinitely in vitro, pluripotency is paradoxically a transient state in vivo, lasting 2-3 days around the time of blastocyst implantation. The exception to this rule is embryonic diapause, a reversible state of suspended development triggered by unfavourable conditions. Diapause is a physiological reproductive strategy widely employed across the animal kingdom, including in mammals, but its regulation remains poorly understood...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834873/biocatalytic-synthesis-of-novel-partial-esters-of-a-bioactive-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-by-rhizopus-oryzae-lipase-rol
#5
Vinod Kumar, Divya Mathur, Smriti Srivastava, Shashwat Malhotra, Neha Rana, Suraj K Singh, Brajendra K Singh, Ashok K Prasad, Anjani J Varma, Christophe Len, Ramesh C Kuhad, Rajendra K Saxena, Virinder S Parmar
Highly regioselective acylation has been observed in 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (DHMC) by the lipase from Rhizopus oryzae suspended in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at 45 °C using six different acid anhydrides as acylating agents. The acylation occurred regioselectively at one of the two hydroxy groups of the coumarin moiety resulting in the formation of 8-acyloxy-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarins, which are important bioactive molecules for studying biotansformations in animals, and are otherwise very difficult to obtain by only chemical steps...
November 9, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817200/safe-application-of-regionalization-for-trade-in-poultry-and-poultry-products-during-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-usa
#6
David E Swayne, Rick E Hill, John Clifford
The 2014-15 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out program that cost USA government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all U.S.-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the U...
November 7, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788570/regeneration-of-bovine-mammary-gland-in-immunodeficient-mice-by-transplantation-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-mixed-with-matrigel
#7
Hyun Jung Park, Won Young Lee, Ha Yeon Jeong, Hyuk Song
Background and Objectives: With the global demand for dairy protein for consumption growing annually, there has been increasing activity in the research field of dairy protein synthesis and production. From a manipulation perspective, it is more difficult to use live cattle for laboratory studies on the production of milk as well as of dairy protein such as casein, as compared with using laboratory animals like rodents. Therefore, we aimed to develop a mouse model of bovine mammary alveolar ducts for laboratory-scale studies...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788420/a-novel-apparatus-for-evaluating-contaminant-effects-on-feeding-activity-and-heart-rate-in-daphnia-spp
#8
Ebrahim Lari, Dylan Steinkey, Greg G Pyle
Cladoceran are animals of significant importance to freshwater bodies such that changes in their populations may result in drastic shifts in the food web. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of toxicants, and the effects of chemical and physical habitat changes to these animals. Most of these studies investigated more general endpoints such as mortality, reproduction, growth, and food consumption over time, and less frequently examined molecular endpoints such as enzyme activity or gene expression...
October 24, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692319/anti-helminthic-activity-of-momordica-charantia-l-against-fasciola-hepatica-eggs-after-twelve-days-of-incubation-in-vitro
#9
Cíntia A J Pereira, Laura L S Oliveira, Aytube L Coaglio, Fernanda S O Santos, Rodolfo S M Cezar, Tiago Mendes, Fernando L P Oliveira, Gustavo Conzensa, Walter S Lima
Fasciolosis, a parasitic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica underreported is expanding both in human and animal population, throughout the world. The constant use of synthetic drugs to treat this condition has led to the natural selection of resistant strains of the parasite. Hence, there is a growing focus on the potential anti-helminthic properties of medicinal plants and phytopharmaceuticals. The current study assessed the potential anti-fasciolicide action of Momordica charantia leaf extracts and fractions on the eggs of F...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688751/novel-bioceramic-urethral-bulking-agents-elicit-improved-host-tissue-responses-in-a-rat-model
#10
Travis K Mann-Gow, Benjamin J King, Ahmed El-Ghannam, Christine Knabe-Ducheyne, Masatoshi Kida, Ole M Dall, Jan Krhut, Peter Zvara
Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis...
2016: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687764/role-of-spirulina-in-mitigating-hemato-toxicity-in-swiss-albino-mice-exposed-to-aluminum-and-aluminum-fluoride
#11
Shweta Sharma, K P Sharma, Subhasini Sharma
Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685334/fluorescent-orthotopic-mouse-model-of-pancreatic-cancer
#12
Jonathan A Moreno, Antonio Sanchez, Robert M Hoffman, Saima Nur, Maria P Lambros
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the cancers for which survival has not improved substantially in the last few decades. Only 7% of diagnosed patients will survive longer than five years. In order to understand and mimic the microenvironment of pancreatic tumors, we utilized a murine orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer that allows non-invasive imaging of tumor progression in real time. Pancreatic cancer cells expressing green fluorescent protein (PANC-1 GFP) were suspended in basement membrane matrix, high concentration, (e...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651860/neural-growth-factor-stimulates-proliferation-of-spinal-cord-derived-neural-precursor-stem-cells
#13
Youngmin Han, Kyoung-Tae Kim
OBJECTIVE: Recently, regenerative therapies have been used in clinical trials (heart, cartilage, skeletal). We don't make use of these treatments to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients yet, but regenerative therapies are rising interest in recent study about SCI. Neural precursor/stem cell (NPSC) proliferation is a significant event in functional recovery of the central nervous system (CNS). However, brain NPSCs and spinal cord NPSCs (SC-NPSCs) have many differences including gene expression and proliferation...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650072/a-single-injection-of-hypertrophied-androgenic-gland-cells-produces-all-female-aquaculture
#14
Tom Levy, Ohad Rosen, Brit Eilam, Dudu Azulay, Eliahu D Aflalo, Rivka Manor, Assaf Shechter, Amir Sagi
Monosex culture, common in animal husbandry, enables gender-specific management. Here, production of all-female prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) was achieved by a novel biotechnology comprising three steps: (a) A single injection of suspended hypertrophied androgenic gland cells caused fully functional sex reversal of females into "neo-males" bearing the WZ genotype; (b) crossing neo-males with normal females (WZ) yielded genomically validated WW females; and (c) WW females crossed with normal males (ZZ) yielded all-female progeny...
September 21, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633837/stable-isotope-ratio-method-for-the-characterisation-of-the-poultry-house-environment
#15
Raminta Skipitytė, Agnė Mašalaitė, Andrius Garbaras, Rūta Mickienė, Ona Ragažinskienė, Violeta Baliukonienė, Bronius Bakutis, Jūratė Šiugždaitė, Saulius Petkevičius, Audrius Sigitas Maruška, Vidmantas Remeikis
Stable isotope analysis was applied to describe the poultry house environment. The poultry house indoor environment was selected for this study due to the relevant health problems in animals and their caretakers. Air quality parameters including temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, NH3, CO2 and total suspended particles, as well as mean levels of total airborne bacteria and fungi count, were measured. Carbon isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C) were obtained in size-segregated aerosol particles. The carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) isotope ratios were measured in feed, litter, scrapings from the ventilation system, feathers and eggs...
September 16, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615269/lisinopril-has-a-cardio-protective-effect-on-experimental-acute-autoimmune-myocarditis-in-rats
#16
Muhammad Atteya, Raeesa A Mohamed, Aly M Ahmed, Nayira A Abdel-Baky, Musaad A Alfayez, Hatim D Almalke, Ahmed F El Fouhil
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effect of lisinopril on experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) in rats, a histologically similar model to human acute myocarditis. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Twenty four, six week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group I received no treatment. Group II received lisinopril at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day suspended in 1 ml of 2% gum acacia daily, from day 1 to day 21. To induce myocarditis, animals of groups III and IV were injected by 1 mg of porcine cardiac myosin on days 1 and 8...
September 7, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582560/the-plasticity-of-extracellular-fluid-homeostasis-in-insects
#17
REVIEW
Klaus W Beyenbach
In chemistry, the ratio of all dissolved solutes to the solution's volume yields the osmotic concentration. The present Review uses this chemical perspective to examine how insects deal with challenges to extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, solute content and osmotic concentration (pressure). Solute/volume plots of the ECF (hemolymph) reveal that insects tolerate large changes in all three of these ECF variables. Challenges beyond those tolerances may be 'corrected' or 'compensated'. While a correction simply reverses the challenge, compensation accommodates the challenge with changes in the other two variables...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574767/resveratrol-protects-rabbits-against-cholesterol-diet-induced-hyperlipidaemia
#18
Y Tanko, A Jimoh, A Ahmed, A Mohammed, J O Ayo
The excessive consumption of high cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased incidence oflipidaemia. Lipidaemia is enhanced by formation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycaemia. The aim ofthese experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administered with cholesterol diet inducedhyperlipidaemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups of five animal (group= 5) each: group 1 = normal control,group 2 = cholesterol diet/high fat diet group only (HFD), group 3 = resveratrol 200 mg/kg (R200), group 4 = resveratrol400 mg/kg (R400), group 5 = HFD + R200 and group 6 = HFD + R400...
2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572497/ex-vivo-ovine-model-for-suspension-microlaryngoscopy-training
#19
G Isaacson, D C Ianacone, A M S Soliman
OBJECTIVE: To develop an ovine model for teaching suspension laryngoscopy and phonosurgery. METHODS: The head and neck from 10 pre-pubescent sheep were harvested following humane euthanasia at the end of an in vivo protocol. No live animals were used in this study. The tissues were saline-perfused and refrigerated for 1-5 days. Suspension laryngoscopy was performed using adolescent Parsons and adult Kantor-Berci laryngoscopes suspended with a Benjamin-Parsons laryngoscope holder...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570294/antihypercholesterolemic-and-antioxidant-effect-of-sterol-rich-methanol-extract-of-stem-of-musa-sapientum-banana-in-cholesterol-fed-wistar-rats
#20
Piyush Dikshit, Mool Kumar Tyagi, Kirtikar Shukla, Jasvindar K Gambhir, Rimi Shukla
Musa sapientum Linn. (English 'Banana' family Musaceae), is a plant with nutritive, as well as medicinal value. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of stem of this plant was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were made hypercholesterolemic by feeding cholesterol (100 mg/kg/day) suspended in soya oil. Treatment groups received extract at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day in addition to cholesterol orally once daily. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks treatment...
March 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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