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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931817/late-neoproterozoic-seawater-oxygenation-by-siliceous-sponges
#1
Michael Tatzel, Friedhelm von Blanckenburg, Marcus Oelze, Julien Bouchez, Dorothee Hippler
The Cambrian explosion, the rapid appearance of most animal phyla in the geological record, occurred concurrently with bottom seawater oxygenation. Whether this oxygenation event was triggered through enhanced nutrient supply and organic carbon burial forced by increased continental weathering, or by species engaging in ecosystem engineering, remains a fundamental yet unresolved question. Here we provide evidence for several simultaneous developments that took place over the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition: expansion of siliceous sponges, decrease of the dissolved organic carbon pool, enhanced organic carbon burial, increased phosphorus removal and seawater oxygenation...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928637/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-play-a-predominant-role-in-the-cholinergic-potentiation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked-firing-responses-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#2
Zsolt K Bali, Lili V Nagy, István Hernádi
The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928280/the-enigma-of-embryonic-diapause
#3
REVIEW
Marilyn B Renfree, Jane C Fenelon
Embryonic diapause - a period of embryonic suspension at the blastocyst stage - is a fascinating phenomenon that occurs in over 130 species of mammals, ranging from bears and badgers to mice and marsupials. It might even occur in humans. During diapause, there is minimal cell division and greatly reduced metabolism, and development is put on hold. Yet there are no ill effects for the pregnancy when it eventually continues. Multiple factors can induce diapause, including seasonal supplies of food, temperature, photoperiod and lactation...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923308/effect-of-penile-traction-and-vacuum-erectile-device-for-peyronie-s-disease-in-an-animal-model
#4
Haocheng Lin, Chunhui Liu, Run Wang
BACKGROUND: Penile traction therapy with the use of a traction device (TD) or vacuum erectile device (VED) has been studied as local modalities for Peyronie's disease (PD). AIM: To identify changes of penile curvature, erectile function, and possible cellular and molecular mechanisms between the TD and VED in a rat model of PD. METHODS: Peyronie's plaque was induced in 30 adult male rats. Then, rats were randomly divided into control (PD without treatment), VED, and TD groups...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921522/extraluminal-biodegradable-splint-to-treat-upper-airway-anterior-malacia-a-preclinical-proof-of-principle
#5
François Gorostidi, Cécile Courbon, Marco Burki, Antoine Reinhard, Kishore Sandu
OBJECTIVE: Upper airway malacia highly complicates the treatment of benign laryngotracheal stenosis, and no ideal option is available to date. We here explore the use of extraluminal biodegradable splints in an animal model of long-segment anterior tracheomalacia (TM). We show the efficacy, as well as the tissue tolerance, of a custom-made biodegradable extraluminal device surgically inserted around the trachea. STUDY DESIGN: Preclinical animal study. METHODS: Anterior TM was induced in rabbits through an anterior neck approach by removing eight consecutive anterior tracheal rings without damaging the underlying mucosa...
September 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913839/long-term-stability-of-a-compounded-suspension-of-torsemide-5-mg-ml-for-oral-administration
#6
D Adin, P R Johnson, C H Kim, T Nguyenba, S Rosen
BACKGROUND: Torsemide use for congestive heart failure (CHF) has been reported, but prescription frequency is unknown. Commercially available tablet sizes in North America limit dosing precision, indicating a need to evaluate its strength and stability in suspension. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of torsemide prescriptions and to determine a beyond use date (BUD) of a compounded suspension of torsemide for oral administration stored under 2 temperature conditions for 90 days...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910262/work-minimization-accounts-for-footfall-phasing-in-slow-quadrupedal-gaits
#7
James R Usherwood, Zoe T Self Davies
Quadrupeds, like most bipeds, tend to walk with an even left/right footfall timing. However, the phasing between hind and forelimbs shows considerable variation. Here, we account for this variation by modeling and explaining the influence of hind-fore limb phasing on mechanical work requirements. These mechanics account for the different strategies used by: (1) slow animals (a group including crocodile, tortoise, hippopotamus and some babies); (2) normal medium to large mammals; and (3) (with an appropriate minus sign) sloths undertaking suspended locomotion across a range of speeds...
September 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867360/the-use-of-tmz-embedded-hydrogels-for-the-treatment-of-orthotopic-human-glioma-xenografts
#8
Bandita Adhikari, Jie Li, Michael G Brandel, Diahnn Futalan, Johnny Akers, Timothy Deming, Clark C Chen, Bob S Carter
The current treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is limited by the restricted arsenal of agents which effectively cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). For example, only a fraction of temozolomide (TMZ) administered systemically is available for therapeutic effect because of the BBB and the instability of TMZ under physiologic conditions. A novel approach to overcome this obstacle is to bypass the BBB and locally deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly to the tumor mass. We have explored the loading of TMZ into a novel hydrogel matrix, which can be delivered in liquid form and then solidifies in situ and releases chemotherapy as the matrix dissolves...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859901/use-of-hydrogel-scaffolds-to-develop-an-in-vitro-3d-culture-model-of-human-intestinal-epithelium
#9
R H Dosh, A Essa, N Jordan-Mahy, C Sammon, C L Le Maitre
The human intestinal cell lines: Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells have been used extensively in 2D and 3D cell cultures as simple models of the small intestinal epithelium in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the potential of three hydrogel scaffolds to support the 3D culture of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells and critically assess their use as scaffolds to stimulate villi formation to model a small intestinal epithelium in vitro. Here, alginate, L-pNIPAM, and L-pNIPAM-co-DMAc hydrogels were investigated. The cells were suspended within or layered on these hydrogels and maintained under static or dynamic culture conditions for up to 21 days...
August 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836844/behavioral-and-physiologic-changes-in-holstein-steers-experimentally-infected-with-mannheimia-haemolytica
#10
Nicole L Eberhart, Jennifer M Storer, Marc Caldwell, Arnold M Saxton, Peter D Krawczel
OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in behavior and surfactant protein (SP) A and D concentrations in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples of calves experimentally infected with Mannheimia haemolytica. ANIMALS Twelve 4- to 5-month-old Holstein steers. PROCEDURES Calves were divided into 2 treatment groups and instrumented with a data logger to collect behavioral data. After 10 days of acclimation, calves were experimentally inoculated with 3 × 10(9) CFUs to 5 × 10(9) CFUs of M haemolytica suspended in approximately 5 mL of PBS solution (infected calves; n = 6) or 5 mL of PBS solution without M haemolytica (control calves; 6) through a catheter into the right accessory lung lobe...
September 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835763/the-effects-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-its-replacement-on-inflammatory-markers-in-rats-a-pilot-study
#11
Kok-Yong Chin, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana
BACKGROUND: Testosterone deficiency is linked to low-grade inflammation in humans, but this condition is not replicated in an animal study. The current study aims at determining the effects of testosterone deficiency and its replacement on the circulating inflammatory cytokine level in orchidectomized male rats. METHODS: Three-month-old Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 18) were randomized equally into 3 groups. Bilateral orchidectomy was performed on 2 groups. The sham group was subjected to similar surgical stress, but their testes were retained...
January 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820992/bioavailability-of-dissolved-organic-nitrogen-don-in-wastewaters-from-animal-feedlots-and-storage-lagoons
#12
Jingyi Sun, Eakalak Khan, Senay Simsek, Jae-Bom Ohm, Halis Simsek
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from animal wastes can contribute to pollution of surface waters. Bioavailable DON (ABDON) is a portion of DON utilized by algae with or without bacteria. This study determined DON and ABDON levels in animal wastewater collected from two different sources: an animal feedlot wastewater storage tank and a sheep wastewater storage lagoon. Inocula for the ABDON bioassays were comprised of individual species and several combinations involving two algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris) and a mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) bacterial culture...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783788/concentrations-of-campylobacter-spp-escherichia-coli-enterococci-and-yersinia-spp-in-the-feces-of-farmed-red-deer-in-new-zealand
#13
Isabelle Pattis, Elaine Moriarty, Craig Billington, Brent Gilpin, Roger Hodson, Nick Ward
Intensive deer farming can cause environmental issues, mainly by its impact on soils and water quality. In particular, there is a risk to the microbial quality of water, as high quantities of suspended sediment and fecal bacteria can enter into water systems. The feces of farmed red deer (, = 206) from Canterbury and Southland, New Zealand, were analyzed with regard to the presence of spp., , enterococci, and spp.. Enterococci and were isolated from all samples, with mean concentrations of 4.5 × 10 (95% CI 3...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762147/pahs-in-water-and-surface-sediments-from-douro-river-estuary-and-porto-atlantic-coast-portugal-impacts-on-human-health
#14
Maria João Rocha, José Luís Dores-Sousa, Catarina Cruzeiro, Eduardo Rocha
This study investigated the presence of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) in waters from the Douro River estuary and nearby Atlantic seacoast, which both bath the Porto metropolis. In the area, there is an oil refinery, an important harbour, an intense maritime traffic, small marinas and highly inhabited cities. For the analysis of PAHs, water samples were taken from four sampling sites, at six different times of the year (2011), and extracted by solid-phase extraction (dissolved fraction) and by ultrasound technique (suspended fraction), before their quantification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741242/the-weakening-effect-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-auda-on-febrile-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-and-turpentine-in-rat
#15
Jakub Piotrowski, Tomasz Jędrzejewski, Małgorzata Pawlikowska, Agata Joanna Pacuła, Jacek Ścianowski, Wiesław Kozak
A still growing body of evidence suggests the importance of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the regulation of inflammatory response; therefore, drugs that stabilize their levels by targeting the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme responsible for their metabolism, are currently under investigation. The effect of sEH inhibitors on molecular components of fever mechanism, i.e., on synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines or prostaglandins, has been repeatedly proven; however, the hypothesis that sEH inhibitors affect febrile response has never been tested...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738837/assessment-of-cerebral-circulation-in-a-porcine-model-of-intravenously-given-e-coli-induced-fulminant-sepsis
#16
Levente Molnár, Norbert Németh, Mariann Berhés, Endre Hajdú, Lóránd Papp, Ábel Molnár, Judit Szabó, Ádám Deák, Béla Fülesdi
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to assess cerebral hemodynamic changes in a porcine model of E.coli induced fulminant sepsis. METHODS: Nineteen healthy female Hungahib pigs, 10-12 weeks old, randomly assigned into two groups: Control (n = 9) or Septic Group (n = 10). In the Sepsis group Escherichia coli culture suspended in physiological saline was intravenously administrated in a continuously increasing manner according to the following protocol: 2 ml of bacterial culture suspended in physiological saline was injected in the first 30 min, then 4 ml of bacterial culture was administered within 30 min, followed by infusion of 32 ml bacterial culture for 2 h...
July 24, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728387/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-behaviour-physiology-and-performance-of-pigs-a-review
#17
Mbusiseni Vusumuzi Mkwanazi, Cyprial Ndumiso Ncobela, Arnold Tapera Kanengoni, Michael Chimonyo
The aim of this paper is to critically analyse and synthesise existing knowledge concerning the use of environmental enrichment and its effect on behaviour, physiology and performance of pigs housed in intensive production systems. The objective is also to provide clarity as to what constitute successful enrichment and recommend on when and how enrichment should be used. Environmental enrichment is usually understood as an attempt to improve animal welfare and to lesser extent, performance. Common enrichment objects used are straw bedding, suspended rope and wood shavings, toys, rubber tubing, coloured plastic keys, table tennis balls, chains and strings...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717055/incidence-of-anaphylactic-reactions-after-propofol-administration-in-dogs
#18
Mamoru Onuma, Misao Terada, Sadaharu Ono, Akiyoshi Murakami, Tomoko Ishida, Tadashi Sano
Propofol is an anesthetic agent suspended in an emulsion system that includes egg yolk lecithin and soybean oil, because of which, there is concern about the use of propofol in patients allergic to these substances. We examined the association between propofol administration and incidence of adverse events in dogs with allergy to egg yolk lecithin and soybean oil. On the basis of the findings of an allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) test, 14 dogs with high levels (high-IgE group) and 7 dogs with low levels (normal-IgE group) of IgE were selected...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682114/effectiveness-of-topical-application-of-ostrich-oil-on-the-healing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infected-wounds
#19
Mohammad Reza Farahpour, Mahsa Vahid, Ahmad Oryan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Management of infected wounds is one of the major challenges that surgeons and nurses face. Several antimicrobial agents have been used, but the toxicity, drug resistance, and their effect on the healing process remain a matter of concern. The present study was designed to analyze the accelerative impact of topical application of ostrich oil on infected wounds in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 BALB/c mice were divided into four main groups of control-sham, mupirocin, and two treatment groups receiving 2% and 4% (w/w) concentrations of ostrich oil, topically...
July 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646777/predicting-improved-optical-water-quality-in-rivers-resulting-from-soil-conservation-actions-on-land
#20
J R Dymond, R J Davies-Colley, A O Hughes, C D Matthaei
Deforestation in New Zealand has led to increased soil erosion and sediment loads in rivers. Increased suspended fine sediment in water reduces visual clarity for humans and aquatic animals and reduces penetration of photosynthetically available radiation to aquatic plants. To mitigate fine-sediment impacts in rivers, catchment-wide approaches to reducing soil erosion are required. Targeting soil conservation for reducing sediment loads in rivers is possible through existing models; however, relationships between sediment loads and sediment-related attributes of water that affect both ecology and human uses of water are poorly understood...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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