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Shenglong Xu, Congjun Wu
Crystal structures and the Bloch theorem play a fundamental role in condensed matter physics. We extend the static crystal to the dynamic "space-time" crystal characterized by the general intertwined space-time periodicities in D+1 dimensions, which include both the static crystal and the Floquet crystal as special cases. A new group structure dubbed a "space-time" group is constructed to describe the discrete symmetries of a space-time crystal. Compared to space and magnetic groups, the space-time group is augmented by "time-screw" rotations and "time-glide" reflections involving fractional translations along the time direction...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
William R Critchley, Caroline Pellet-Many, Benjamin Ringham-Terry, Michael A Harrison, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes...
March 15, 2018: Cells
Tomoko Kubori, Tomoe Kitao, Hiroki Ando, Hiroki Nagai
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila establishes the replicative niche as a result of the actions of a large array of effector proteins delivered via the Legionella type IV secretion system (T4SS). Many effector proteins are expected to be involved in biogenesis and regulation of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) that is highly decorated with ubiquitin. Here, we identified a Legionella deubiquitinase (DUB), designated LotA, by carrying out a genome analysis to find proteins resembling the eukaryotic ovarian tumor (OTU) superfamily of cysteine proteases...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, complex instruments, and skilled personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Alexey E Lyashkov, Joachim Beahr, Edward G Lakatta, Yael Yaniv, Victor A Maltsev
Recent data suggest that cardiac pacemaker cell function is determined by numerous time-, voltage-, and Ca-dependent interactions of cell membrane electrogenic proteins (M-clock) and intracellular Ca cycling proteins (Ca-clock), forming a coupled-clock system. Many aspects of the coupled-clock system, however, remain underexplored. The key players of the system are Ca release channels (ryanodine receptors), generating local Ca releases (LCRs) from sarcoplasmic reticulum, electrogenic Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) current, and L-type Ca current (ICaL )...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Luke N Allen, Jessica Pullar, Kremlin Khamarj Wickramasinghe, Julianne Williams, Nia Roberts, Bente Mikkelsen, Cherian Varghese, Nick Townsend
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with low-income and middle-income countries experiencing a disproportionately high burden. Since 2010 WHO has promoted 24 highly cost-effective interventions for NCDs, dubbed 'best buys'. It is unclear whether these interventions have been evaluated in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). Aim: To systematically review research on interventions aligned to WHO 'best buys' for NCDs in LLMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Stefano Ghirlanda
Building on the work of Ralph Miller and coworkers (Miller and Matzel, 1988; Denniston et al., 2001; Stout and Miller, 2007), I propose a new formalization of the comparator hypothesis that seeks to overcome some shortcomings of existing formalizations. The new model, dubbed ecco for "Error-Correcting COmparisons," retains the comparator process and the learning of CS-CS associations based on contingency. ecco assumes, however, that learning of CS-US associations is driven by total error correction, as first introduced by Rescorla and Wagner (1972)...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Stephanie Häfner, Finn Burg, Martina Kannler, Nicole Urban, Peter Mayer, Alexander Dietrich, Dirk Trauner, Johannes Broichhagen, Michael Schaefer
Natural products have many health benefits and their application can improve the quality of life. Recently, the diterpene (+) larixol and its acetylated congeners demonstrated a selective inhibition of the second messenger-gated cation channel transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) over its close isoforms TRPC3 and TRPC7. Building on this knowledge, we expand these findings by chemical diversification of (+)-larixol mostly at position C6. Implementing High-Throughput Ca2+ FLIPR screening assays and electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings, we showcase larixyl N-methylcarbamate, dubbed SH045, as a compound with nanomolar affinity and a 13-fold subtype selectivity over TRPC3 in stably expressing HEK293 cells...
March 9, 2018: ChemMedChem
Richard S Marken, Dennis M Shaffer
Marken and Shaffer (Exp Brain Res 235:1835-1842, 2017) have argued that the power law of movement, which is generally thought to reflect the mechanisms that produce movement, is actually an example of what Powers (Psychol Rev 85:417-435, 1978) dubbed a behavioral illusion, where an observed relationship between variables is seen as revealing something about the mechanisms that produce a behavior when, in fact, it does not. Zago et al. (Exp Brain Res. , 2017) and Taylor (Exp Brain Res, https://doi...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Shirley Wen-Yu Chiu, Ho-Wen Cheng, Zhi-Xin Chen, Huai-Hsien Wang, Ming-Yu Lai, Juen-Kai Wang, Yuh-Lin Wang
Recently, specific biomarkers in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of bacteria have been successfully exploited for rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) - dubbed SERS-AST. The biomolecules responsible for these bacterial SERS biomarkers have been identified as several purine derivative metabolites involved in bacterial purine salvage pathways (W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, A. Sauer-Budge, R. Theberge, C. E. Costello and L. D. Ziegler, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2016, 408, 4631)...
March 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Soo-Yeon Kim, Seul-Ki Kwon, So-Young Lee, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Most proteins undergo ubiquitination, a process by which ubiquitin proteins bind to their substrate proteins; by contrast, deubiquitination is a process that reverses ubiquitination. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) function to remove ubiquitin proteins from the protein targets and serve an essential role in regulating DNA repair, protein degradation, apoptosis and immune responses. Abnormal regulation of DUBs may affect a number of cellular processes and may lead to a variety of human diseases, including cancer...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
V Regász, V Boháč, J Rychnovský
AIM: To present a case of a woman diagnosed with intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus. TYPE OF STUDY: Case report. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Středomoravská nemocniční a.s., Přerov Hospital. CASE REPORT: A 39-year old woman was referred to our unit with uterine fibroids, dysfunctional uterine bleeding and anaemia. Abdominal hysterectomy was performed. The histopathological analysis diagnosed the presence of intravenous leiomyomatosis...
2018: Ceská Gynekologie
D Henrich, C Seebach, R Verboket, A Schaible, I Marzi, H Bonig
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a critical-size femur defect model. Being BMC a mixed population of predominantly mature haematopoietic cells, which cell type(s) is(are) instrumental for healing remains elusive. Although clinical therapies using BMC are often dubbed as stem cell therapies, whether stem cells are relevant for the therapeutic effects is unclear and, at least in the context of bone repair, seems dubious. Instead, in light of the critical contribution of monocytes and macrophages to tissue development, homeostasis and injury repair, in the current study it was hypothesised that BMC-mediated bone healing derived from the stem cell population...
March 6, 2018: European Cells & Materials
Zixuan Lin, Yang Li, Pan Su, Deng Mao, Zhiliang Wei, Jay J Pillai, Abhay Moghekar, Matthias van Osch, Yulin Ge, Hanzhang Lu
PURPOSE: Many brain diseases are associated with an alteration in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its permeability. Current methods using contrast agent are primarily sensitive to major leakage of BBB to macromolecules, but may not detect subtle changes in BBB permeability. The present study aims to develop a novel non-contrast MRI technique for the assessment of BBB permeability to water. METHODS: The central principle is that by measuring arterially labeled blood spins that are drained into cerebral veins, water extraction fraction (E) and permeability-surface-area product (PS) of BBB can be determined...
March 1, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Sachin Rustgi, Edouard Boex-Fontvieille, Christiane Reinbothe, Diter von Wettstein, Steffen Reinbothe
Plants have evolved an intricate regulatory network of proteases and corresponding protease inhibitors (PI), which operate in various biological pathways and serve diverse spatiotemporal functions during the sedentary life of a plant. Intricacy of the regulatory network can be anticipated from the observation that, depending on the developmental stage and environmental cue(s), either a single PI or multiple PIs regulate the activity of a given protease. On the other hand, the same PI often interacts with different targets at different places, necessitating another level of fine control to be added in planta...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Brianne Senior, Molly Babel
A listeners' ability to comprehend one speaker against a background of other speech-a phenomenon dubbed the cocktail party problem-varies according to the properties of the speech streams and the listener. Although a number of factors that contribute to a listener's ability to successfully segregate two simultaneous speech signals have been identified, comparably little work has focused on the role accents may play in this process. To this end, familiar Canadian-accented voices and unfamiliar British-accented voices were used in a competing talker task...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Christina Wilms, Ioanna Krikki, Adelheid Hainzl, Sonja Kilo, Marius Alupei, Evgenia Makrantonaki, Maximilian Wagner, Carsten M Kroeger, Titus Josef Brinker, Martina Gatzka
Development and homeostasis of the epidermis are governed by a complex network of sequence-specific transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers cooperatively regulating the subtle balance of progenitor cell self-renewal and terminal differentiation. To investigate the role of histone H2A deubiquitinase 2A-DUB/Mysm1 in the skin, we systematically analyzed expression, developmental functions, and potential interactions of this epigenetic regulator using Mysm1-deficient mice and skin-derived epidermal cells...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mahbub Rashid, Nayma Khan, Belinda Jones
This article reports the findings of a 2-phase quasi-experimental study looking at the perceptual effects of physical and visual accessibilities on clinical staff in intensive care units (ICUs). In a previous CCNQ article by Rashid et al, the first phase of the study was reported comparing, among other things, physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception in 2 ICUs with the open-plan and racetrack-type layouts. The data for that phase of the study were collected in December 2014, which included the data on physical and visual accessibilities collected using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax, and the data on staff perception collected using a questionnaire survey...
April 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Carlos E S Bernardes, Catarina Garcia, Filipe Pereira, Joana Mota, Paula C Pereira, Maria-João Cebola, Catarina Pinto Reis, Isabel Correia, M Fátima M da Piedade, Manuel Eduardo Minas da Piedade, Patricia Rijo
The abietane 7α-acetoxy-6β-hydroxyroyleanone (AHR), obtained from plant extracts, is an attractive lead for drug development, given its known antimicrobial properties. Two basic requirements to establish any compound as a new drug, are the development of a convenient extraction process and the characterization of its structural and thermal properties. In this work seven different methods were tested to optimize the extraction of AHR from Plectranthus grandidentatus Gürke. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) proved to be the method of choice, delivering an amount of AHR (57...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Patricia Fajardo-Cavazos, Joshua D Leehan, Wayne L Nicholson
The effect of Bacillus subtilis exposure to the human spaceflight environment on growth, mutagenic frequency, and spectrum of mutations to rifampicin resistance (RifR ) was investigated. B. subtilis cells were cultivated in Biological Research in Canister-Petri Dish Fixation Units (BRIC-PDFUs) on two separate missions to the International Space Station (ISS), dubbed BRIC-18 and BRIC-21, with matching asynchronous ground controls. No statistically significant difference in either growth or in the frequency of mutation to RifR was found in either experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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