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autism tractography

E Conti, J Mitra, S Calderoni, K Pannek, K K Shen, A Pagnozzi, S Rose, S Mazzotti, D Scelfo, M Tosetti, F Muratori, G Cioni, A Guzzetta
Advanced connectivity studies in toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are increasing and consistently reporting a disruption of brain connectivity. However, most of these studies compare ASD and typically developing subjects, thus providing little information on the specificity of the abnormalities detected in comparison with other developmental disorders (other-DD). We recruited subjects aged below 36 months who received a clinical diagnosis of Neurodevelopmental Disorder (32 ASD and 16 other-DD including intellectual disability and language disorder) according to DSM-IV TR...
January 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Huey-Ling Chiang, Yu-Jen Chen, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not only often comorbid but also overlapped in behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. Little is known about whether these shared phenotypes are based on common or different underlying neuropathologies. Therefore, this study aims to examine the disorder-specific alterations in white matter (WM) structural property. METHOD: The three comparison groups included 23 male adults with ASD (21...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Molly Wilkinson, Rongpin Wang, Andre van der Kouwe, Emi Takahashi
INTRODUCTION: The goal of this project was to study the white and gray matter brain pathways of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and investigate how ASD brains differ from those of typically developing children of the same age. METHODS: High angular resolution resolution diffusion imaging tractography and diffusion tensor imaging tractography were used to analyze the brains of two 3-year-old children with ASD and two age-matched controls. RESULTS: In the ASD brains, the callosal and corticopontine pathways were thinner overall and terminal areas in the cortical gray matter were significantly smaller...
July 2016: Brain and Behavior
Rachel L Moseley, Marta M Correia, Simon Baron-Cohen, Yury Shtyrov, Friedemann Pulvermüller, Bettina Mohr
Atypical language is a fundamental feature of autism spectrum conditions (ASC), but few studies have examined the structural integrity of the arcuate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting frontal and temporal language regions, which is usually implicated as the main transfer route used in processing linguistic information by the brain. Abnormalities in the arcuate have been reported in young children with ASC, mostly in low-functioning or non-verbal individuals, but little is known regarding the structural properties of the arcuate in adults with ASC or, in particular, in individuals with ASC who have intact language, such as those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
J Katz, M-A d'Albis, J Boisgontier, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara, D Duclap, N Hamdani, J Petit, D Monnet, P Le Corvoisier, M Leboyer, R Delorme, J Houenou
OBJECTIVE: High-functioning autism (HFA) and schizophrenia (SZ) are two of the main neurodevelopmental disorders, sharing several clinical dimensions and risk factors. Their exact relationship is poorly understood, and few studies have directly compared both disorders. Our aim was thus to directly compare neuroanatomy of HFA and SZ using a multimodal MRI design. METHODS: We scanned 79 male adult subjects with 3T MRI (23 with HFA, 24 with SZ and 32 healthy controls, with similar non-verbal IQ)...
July 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Minhui Ouyang, Tina Jeon, Virendra Mishra, Haixiao Du, Yu Wang, Yun Peng, Hao Huang
From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Jeffrey I Berman, James C Edgar, Lisa Blaskey, Emily S Kuschner, Susan E Levy, Matthew Ku, John Dell, Timothy P L Roberts
BACKGROUND: Auditory processing and language impairments are prominent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study integrated diffusion MR measures of white-matter microstructure and magnetoencephalography (MEG) measures of cortical dynamics to investigate associations between brain structure and function within auditory and language systems in ASD. Based on previous findings, abnormal structure-function relationships in auditory and language systems in ASD were hypothesized...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Marco Catani, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Sanja Budisavljevic, Henrietta Howells, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Seán Froudist-Walsh, Lucio D'Anna, Abigail Thompson, Stefano Sandrone, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V Lombardo, Sally J Wheelwright, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Meng-Chuan Lai, Amber N V Ruigrok, Alexander Leemans, Christine Ecker, Mrc Aims Consortium, Michael C Craig, Declan G M Murphy
It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder...
February 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ulrika Roine, Timo Roine, Juha Salmi, Taina Nieminen-von Wendt, Pekka Tani, Sami Leppämäki, Pertti Rintahaka, Karen Caeyenberghs, Alexander Leemans, Mikko Sams
BACKGROUND: Recent brain imaging findings suggest that there are widely distributed abnormalities affecting the brain connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using graph theoretical analysis, it is possible to investigate both global and local properties of brain's wiring diagram, i.e., the connectome. METHODS: We acquired diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data from 14 adult males with high-functioning ASD and 19 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched controls...
2015: Molecular Autism
Aarti Nair, Ruth A Carper, Angela E Abbott, Colleen P Chen, Seraphina Solders, Sarah Nakutin, Michael C Datko, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Preliminary evidence suggests aberrant (mostly reduced) thalamocortical (TC) connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but despite the crucial role of thalamus in sensorimotor functions and its extensive connectivity with cerebral cortex, relevant evidence remains limited. We performed a comprehensive investigation of region-specific TC connectivity in ASD. Resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired for 60 children and adolescents with ASD (ages 7-17 years) and 45 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) participants...
November 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Eugenia Conti, Kerstin Pannek, Sara Calderoni, Anna Gaglianese, Simona Fiori, Paola Brovedani, Danilo Scelfo, Stephen Rose, Michela Tosetti, Giovanni Cioni, Andrea Guzzetta
In recent years, the use of brain diffusion MRI has led to the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormally connected brains. We used the model of disease-discordant identical twins to test the hypothesis that higher-order diffusion MRI protocols are able to detect abnormal connectivity in a single subject. We studied the structural connectivity of the brain of a child with ASD, and of that of his unaffected identical twin, using high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) probabilistic tractography...
July 2015: Functional Neurology
Ruth A Carper, Seraphina Solders, Jeffrey M Treiber, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence indicates that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) stems from abnormal structural and functional connectivity of neural networks. Although diagnostic symptoms are sociocommunicative, motor-related functions (beyond repetitive mannerisms) are also impaired. However, evidence on connectivity at the level of basic motor execution is limited, which we address here. METHOD: We compared right-handed children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years) with ASD (n = 44) to matched typically developing participants (TD, n = 36) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Eugenia Conti, Sara Calderoni, Anna Gaglianese, Kerstin Pannek, Sara Mazzotti, Stephen Rose, Danilo Scelfo, Michela Tosetti, Filippo Muratori, Giovanni Cioni, Andrea Guzzetta
Recent diffusion tensor imaging studies in adolescents and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have reported a loss or an inversion of the typical left-right lateralization in fronto-temporal regions crucial for sociocommunicative skills. No studies explored atypical lateralization in toddlers and its correlation with clinical severity of ASD. We recruited a cohort of 20 subjects aged 36 months or younger receiving a first clinical diagnosis of ASD (15 males; age range 20-36 months). Patients underwent diffusion MRI (High-Angular-Resolution Diffusion Imaging protocol)...
March 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Dienke J Bos, Jessica Merchán-Naranjo, Kenia Martínez, Laura Pina-Camacho, Ivan Balsa, Leticia Boada, Hugo Schnack, Bob Oranje, Manuel Desco, Celso Arango, Mara Parellada, Sarah Durston, Joost Janssen
OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with atypical cortical gray and subcortical white matter development. Neurodevelopmental theories postulate that a relation between cortical maturation and structural brain connectivity may exist. We therefore investigated the development of gyrification and white matter connectivity and their relationship in individuals with ASD and their typically developing peers. METHOD: T1- and diffusion-weighted images were acquired from a representative sample of 30 children and adolescents with ASD (aged 8-18 years), and 29 typically developing children matched for age, sex, hand preference, and socioeconomic status...
August 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Christine Wu Nordahl, Ana-Maria Iosif, Gregory S Young, Lee Michael Perry, Robert Dougherty, Aaron Lee, Deana Li, Michael H Buonocore, Tony Simon, Sally Rogers, Brian Wandell, David G Amaral
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the corpus callosum have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but few studies have evaluated young children. Sex differences in callosal organization and diffusion characteristics have also not been evaluated fully in ASD. METHODS: Structural and diffusion-weighted images were acquired in 139 preschool-aged children with ASD (112 males/27 females) and 82 typically developing (TD) controls (53 males/29 females)...
2015: Molecular Autism
Laura R Fenlon, Sha Liu, Ilan Gobius, Nyoman D Kurniawan, Skyle Murphy, Randal X Moldrich, Linda J Richards
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of poorly understood behavioural disorders, which have increased in prevalence in the past two decades. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the biological basis of these disorders. Studies comparing different mouse strains have identified the inbred BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) strain as a mouse model of ASD based on its anti-social and repetitive behaviours. Adult BTBR mice have complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, reduced cortical thickness and changes in early neurogenesis...
2015: Neural Development
Ulrika Roine, Juha Salmi, Timo Roine, Taina Nieminen-von Wendt, Sami Leppämäki, Pertti Rintahaka, Pekka Tani, Alexander Leemans, Mikko Sams
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in neural structure in individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS), high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The main symptoms of AS are severe impairments in social interactions and restricted or repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests or activities. METHODS: Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired for 14 adult males with AS and 19 age, sex and IQ-matched controls...
2015: Molecular Autism
Miriam Cooper, Anita Thapar, Derek K Jones
AIMS: This analysis examined hypothesised associations between microstructural attributes in specific white matter (WM) tracts selected a priori and measures of clinical variability in adolescents with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Firstly, associations were explored between WM microstructure and ADHD severity in the subgenual cingulum. Secondly, to ensure that tract-specific approaches afforded enhanced rather than differential sensitivity, associations were measured between WM microstructure and autistic traits in the right corticospinal tract based on results of a previously-published voxelwise analysis...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
Leonardo Baldarçara, Stuart Currie, M Hadjivassiliou, Nigel Hoggard, Allison Jack, Andrea P Jackowski, Mario Mascalchi, Cecilia Parazzini, Kathrin Reetz, Andrea Righini, Jörg B Schulz, Alessandra Vella, Sara Jane Webb, Christophe Habas
Hereditary and sporadic cerebellar ataxias represent a vast and still growing group of diseases whose diagnosis and differentiation cannot only rely on clinical evaluation. Brain imaging including magnetic resonance (MR) and nuclear medicine techniques allows for characterization of structural and functional abnormalities underlying symptomatic ataxias. These methods thus constitute a potential source of radiological biomarkers, which could be used to identify these diseases and differentiate subgroups of them, and to assess their severity and their evolution...
April 2015: Cerebellum
Stephanie H Ameis, Jin Fan, Conrad Rockel, Latha Soorya, A Ting Wang, Evdokia Anagnostou
OBJECTIVE: Here, we examined the cingulum bundle, a long-range white matter tract mediating dorsal limbic connectivity, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus controls. We hypothesised that cingulum bundle microstructure would be altered in ASD, based on evidence implicating abnormal white matter connectivity in this disorder. METHODS: DTI data were acquired for 19 ASD participants (IQ ⩾ 70; 7-18 years; mean = 12...
October 2013: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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