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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639500/impaired-communication-between-the-motor-and-somatosensory-homunculus-is-associated-with-poor-manual-dexterity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Abigail Thompson, Declan Murphy, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan, Henrietta Howells, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these connections has not been directly investigated in humans. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the role of the S1-M1 connections in healthy subjects in vivo and whether microstructural alterations are associated with motor impairment in ASD...
July 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555361/white-matter-diffusion-of-major-fiber-tracts-implicated-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Lauren E Libero, Wesley K Burge, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Franco Pestilli, Rajesh K Kana
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder found to have widespread alterations in the function and synchrony of brain regions. These differences may underlie alterations in microstructural organization, such as in white matter pathways. To investigate the diffusion of major white matter tracts, the current study examined multiple indices of white matter diffusion in 42 children and adults with ASD and 44 typically developing (TD) age- and IQ-matched peers using diffusion tensor imaging...
November 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312360/interactive-computer-training-to-teach-discrete-trial-instruction-to-undergraduates-and-special-educators-in-brazil-a-replication-and-extension
#3
Thomas S Higbee, Ana Paula Aporta, Alice Resende, Mateus Nogueira, Celso Goyos, Joy S Pollard
Discrete-trial instruction (DTI) is a behavioral method of teaching young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that has received a significant amount of research support. Because of a lack of qualified trainers in many areas of the world, researchers have recently begun to investigate alternative methods of training professionals to implement behavioral teaching procedures. One promising training method is interactive computer training, in which slides with recorded narration, video modeling, and embedded evaluation of content knowledge are used to teach a skill...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242476/studying-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-structural-and-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-survey
#4
REVIEW
Marwa M T Ismail, Robert S Keynton, Mahmoud M M O Mostapha, Ahmed H ElTanboly, Manuel F Casanova, Georgy L Gimel'farb, Ayman El-Baz
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities have emerged as powerful means that facilitate non-invasive clinical diagnostics of various diseases and abnormalities since their inception in the 1980s. Multiple MRI modalities, such as different types of the sMRI and DTI, have been employed to investigate facets of ASD in order to better understand this complex syndrome. This paper reviews recent applications of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to study autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179194/white-matter-disruption-is-associated-with-persistent-seizures-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#5
Romina Moavero, Antonio Napolitano, Raffaella Cusmai, Federico Vigevano, Lorenzo Figà-Talamanca, Giuseppe Calbi, Paolo Curatolo, Bruno Bernardi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: White matter is diffusely altered in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and these alterations appear to be more evident in subjects with a more severe neurologic phenotype. However, little is known on the correlation between white matter alterations and epilepsy in TSC. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of early onset and refractory seizures on white matter by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: We enrolled 20 children with TSC and epilepsy onset in the first 3years of life and grouped them according to seizure persistence or freedom...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899725/widespread-white-matter-differences-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
V M Vogan, B R Morgan, R C Leung, E Anagnostou, K Doyle-Thomas, M J Taylor
Diffusion tensor imaging studies show white matter (WM) abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, investigations are often limited by small samples, particularly problematic given the heterogeneity of ASD. We explored WM using DTI in a large sample of 130 children and adolescents (7-15 years) with and without ASD, whether age-related changes differed between ASD and control groups, and the relation between DTI measures and ASD symptomatology. Reduced fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity were observed in ASD in numerous WM tracts, including the corpus callosum and thalamocortical fibres-tracts crucial for interhemispheric connectivity and higher order information processing...
June 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869473/relationship-between-m100-auditory-evoked-response-and-auditory-radiation-microstructure-in-16p11-2-deletion-and-duplication-carriers
#7
J I Berman, D Chudnovskaya, L Blaskey, E Kuschner, P Mukherjee, R Buckner, S Nagarajan, W K Chung, E H Sherr, T P L Roberts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deletion and duplication of chromosome 16p11.2 (BP4-BP5) have been associated with developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, and deletion subjects exhibit a large (20-ms) delay of the auditory evoked cortical response as measured by magnetoencephalography (M100 latency). The purpose of this study was to use a multimodal approach to test whether changes in white matter microstructure are associated with delayed M100 latency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty pediatric deletion carriers, 9 duplication carriers, and 39 control children were studied with both magnetoencephalography and diffusion MR imaging...
June 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26663516/atypical-age-dependent-effects-of-autism-on-white-matter-microstructure-in-children-of-2-7-years
#8
Minhui Ouyang, Hua Cheng, Virendra Mishra, Gaolang Gong, Matthew W Mosconi, John Sweeney, Yun Peng, Hao Huang
Atypical age-dependent changes of white matter (WM) microstructure play a central role in abnormal brain maturation of the children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their early manifestations have not been systematically characterized. The entire brain core WM voxels were surveyed to detect differences in WM microstructural development between 31 children with ASD of 2-7 years and 19 age-matched children with typical development (TD), using measurements of fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
February 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600581/childhood-autism-in-india-a-case-control-study-using-tract-based-spatial-statistics-analysis
#9
Zarina Abdul Assis, Bhavani Shankara Bagepally, Jitender Saini, Shoba Srinath, Rose Dawn Bharath, Purushotham R Naidu, Arun Kumar Gupta
CONTEXT: Autism is a serious behavioral disorder among young children that now occurs at epidemic rates in developing countries like India. We have used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures to investigate the microstructure of primary neurocircuitry involved in autistic spectral disorders as compared to the typically developed children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various white matter tracts in Indian autistic children as compared to the controls using TBSS...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26493162/regional-specificity-of-aberrant-thalamocortical-connectivity-in-autism
#10
Aarti Nair, Ruth A Carper, Angela E Abbott, Colleen P Chen, Seraphina Solders, Sarah Nakutin, Michael C Datko, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Preliminary evidence suggests aberrant (mostly reduced) thalamocortical (TC) connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but despite the crucial role of thalamus in sensorimotor functions and its extensive connectivity with cerebral cortex, relevant evidence remains limited. We performed a comprehensive investigation of region-specific TC connectivity in ASD. Resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired for 60 children and adolescents with ASD (ages 7-17 years) and 45 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) participants...
November 2015: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26131145/relation-of-behavior-problems-with-findings-of-cranial-diffusion-tensor-mri-and-mr-spectroscopy-in-autistic-children
#11
Torel Ogur, Oznur Leman Boyunaga
PURPOSE: To investigate any relation of behavior problems with cranial Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) findings in autism spectrum disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 males children (12 autistic patients and 8 healthy controls) was examined by cranial DTI and MRS. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was used to calculate the irritability, lethargy-social withdrawal, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity, and speech disorder scores for each patient...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26078102/edge-centered-dti-connectivity-analysis-application-to-schizophrenia
#12
Edward H Herskovits, L Elliot Hong, Peter Kochunov, Hemalatha Sampath, Rong Chen
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides connectivity information that helps illuminate the processes underlying normal development as well as brain disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Researchers have widely adopted graph representations to model DTI connectivity among brain structures; however, most measures of connectivity have been centered on nodes, rather than edges, in these graphs. We present an edge-based algorithm for assessing anatomic connectivity; this approach provides information about connections among brain structures, rather than information about structures themselves...
October 2015: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26032898/diffusion-tensor-imaging-reveals-no-white-matter-impairments-among-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Melissa Kirkovski, Peter G Enticott, Jerome J Maller, Susan L Rossell, Paul B Fitzgerald
Abnormalities within white matter (WM) have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there is some support for greater neurobiological deficits among females with ASD, there is little research investigating sex differences in WM in ASD. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate WM aberration in 25 adults with high-functioning ASD and 24 age-, sex- and IQ-matched controls. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to explore differences in WM in major tract bundles. The effects of biological sex were also investigated...
July 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973163/sex-differences-in-the-corpus-callosum-in-preschool-aged-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Christine Wu Nordahl, Ana-Maria Iosif, Gregory S Young, Lee Michael Perry, Robert Dougherty, Aaron Lee, Deana Li, Michael H Buonocore, Tony Simon, Sally Rogers, Brian Wandell, David G Amaral
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the corpus callosum have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but few studies have evaluated young children. Sex differences in callosal organization and diffusion characteristics have also not been evaluated fully in ASD. METHODS: Structural and diffusion-weighted images were acquired in 139 preschool-aged children with ASD (112 males/27 females) and 82 typically developing (TD) controls (53 males/29 females)...
2015: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25797658/multimodal-neuroimaging-based-classification-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-anatomical-neurochemical-and-white-matter-correlates
#15
Lauren E Libero, Thomas P DeRamus, Adrienne C Lahti, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Rajesh K Kana
Neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) have uncovered evidence for widespread functional and anatomical brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggesting it to be a system-wide neural systems disorder. Nevertheless, most previous studies have focused on examining one index of neuropathology through a single neuroimaging modality, and seldom using multiple modalities to examine the same cohort of individuals...
May 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25610777/linked-alterations-in-gray-and-white-matter-morphology-in-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-multimodal-brain-imaging-study
#16
Takashi Itahashi, Takashi Yamada, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Bun Yamagata, Daiki Jimbo, Seiji Shioda, Miho Kuroda, Kazuo Toriizuka, Nobumasa Kato, Ryuichiro Hashimoto
Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA), to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25433958/altered-white-matter-connectivity-as-a-neural-substrate-for-social-impairment-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie H Ameis, Marco Catani
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms have been hypothesized to result from altered brain connectivity. The 'disconnectivity' hypothesis has been used to explain characteristic impairments in socio-emotional function, observed clinically in ASD. Here, we review the evidence for impaired white matter connectivity as a neural substrate for socio-emotional dysfunction in ASD. A review of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, and focused discussion of relevant post-mortem, structural, and functional neuroimaging studies, is provided...
January 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25379451/white-matter-correlates-of-sensory-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Jennifer R Pryweller, Kimberly B Schauder, Adam W Anderson, Jessica L Heacock, Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Cassandra R Newsom, Whitney A Loring, Carissa J Cascio
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25299583/high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-characterization-of-the-neuroligin-3-knock-in-mouse-model-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Manoj Kumar, Jeffery T Duda, Wei-Ting Hwang, Charles Kenworthy, Ranjit Ittyerah, Stephen Pickup, Edward S Brodkin, James C Gee, Ted Abel, Harish Poptani
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise an etiologically heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders. Neuroligin-3 (NL-3) is a cell adhesion protein that mediates synapse development and has been implicated in ASD. We performed ex-vivo high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and behavioral (social approach and zero maze) tests at 3 different time points (30, 50 and 70 days-of-age) on NL-3 and wild-type littermates to assess developmental brain abnormalities in NL-3 mice...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25287727/altered-cingulum-bundle-microstructure-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Stephanie H Ameis, Jin Fan, Conrad Rockel, Latha Soorya, A Ting Wang, Evdokia Anagnostou
OBJECTIVE: Here, we examined the cingulum bundle, a long-range white matter tract mediating dorsal limbic connectivity, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus controls. We hypothesised that cingulum bundle microstructure would be altered in ASD, based on evidence implicating abnormal white matter connectivity in this disorder. METHODS: DTI data were acquired for 19 ASD participants (IQ ⩾ 70; 7-18 years; mean = 12...
October 2013: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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