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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607418/arcuate-fasciculus-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-toddlers-with-language-regression
#1
Lin Zhang, Kailong Li, Chengqi Zhang, Xianlong Qi, Ning Zheng, Guangbin Wang
Language regression is observed in a subset of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as initial symptom. However, such a phenomenon has not been fully explored, partly due to the lack of definite diagnostic evaluation methods and criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen toddlers with ASD exhibiting language regression and fourteen age-matched typically developing (TD) controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA), average fiber length (AFL), tract volume (TV) and number of voxels (NV) were analyzed by Neuro 3D in Siemens syngo workstation...
2018: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584599/alterations-of-white-matter-connectivity-in-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Shi-Jun Li, Yi Wang, Long Qian, Gang Liu, Shuang-Feng Liu, Li-Ping Zou, Ji-Shui Zhang, Nan Hu, Xiao-Qiao Chen, Sheng-Yuan Yu, Sheng-Li Guo, Ke Li, Mian-Wang He, Hai-Tao Wu, Jiang-Xia Qiu, Lei Zhang, Yu-Lin Wang, Xin Lou, Lin Ma
Purpose To investigate the topologic architecture of white matter connectivity networks in preschool-aged children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus typical development (TD). Materials and Methods Forty-two participants were enrolled, including 21 preschool children with ASD (14 male children and seven female children; mean age, 4.56 years ± 0.97 [standard deviation]) and 21 children with TD (11 males and 10 females; mean age, 5.13 years ± 0.82). The diagnosis of ASD was determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Global Assessment of Functioning scores (mean score, 8...
March 27, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486546/impaired-white-matter-integrity-and-social-cognition-in-high-function-autism-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#3
Woo Young Im, Ji Hye Ha, Eun Joo Kim, Keun-Ah Cheon, Jaeil Cho, Dong-Ho Song
OBJECTIVE: It is known that many of the cognitive and social deficits associated with autism can arise from abnormal functional connectivity between brain networks. This aberrant functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be explained by impaired integrity of white matter tracts that link distant regions of the networks. METHODS: We investigated white matter in 9 children with high-function autism (HFA) compared to 13 typically developing controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
March 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338313/rapport-building-and-instructional-fading-prior-to-discrete-trial-instruction-moving-from-child-led-play-to-intensive-teaching
#4
M Alice Shillingsburg, Bethany Hansen, Melinda Wright
Discrete trial instruction (DTI) is effective for teaching skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although effective, instructional settings can become aversive resulting in avoidant and escape-related behaviors. Given the significant social impairments associated with ASD, interventions that promote social approach and reduce avoidance are warranted. Rapport building or "pairing" the therapist and teaching setting with highly preferred activities prior to instruction can reduce problematic behaviors during subsequent instruction...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262472/-structural-change-of-the-corpus-callosum-fibers-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-two-year-follow-up
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
C Chang, N N Qiu, T Xiao, X Xiao, K K Chu, Y Li, Q R Wu, H Fang, X Y Ke
Objective: To conduct a follow-up investigation of structural changes of the corpus callosum fibers of toddlers (2 to 5 years of age) with autism spectrum disorder(ASD) and to explore the associations with clinical symptoms. Method: In this prospective randomized controlled study, ASD children who were diagnosed in the Child Mental Health Research Center, Nanjing Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from May 2011 to November 2012 were included in the ASD group, and developmentally delayed children were included in the control group (DD group)...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170625/connectopathy-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review-of-evidence-from-visual-evoked-potentials-and-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Takao Yamasaki, Toshihiko Maekawa, Takako Fujita, Shozo Tobimatsu
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show superior performance in processing fine details; however, they often exhibit impairments of gestalt face, global motion perception, and visual attention as well as core social deficits. Increasing evidence has suggested that social deficits in ASD arise from abnormal functional and structural connectivities between and within distributed cortical networks that are recruited during social information processing. Because the human visual system is characterized by a set of parallel, hierarchical, multistage network systems, we hypothesized that the altered connectivity of visual networks contributes to social cognition impairment in ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128446/disrupted-focal-white-matter-integrity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#7
Xin Di, Azeezat Azeez, Xiaobo Li, Emad Haque, Bharat B Biswal
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that has long been considered to result from brain underconnectivity. However, volumetric analysis of structural MRI data has failed to find consistent white matter alterations in patients with ASD. The present study aims to examine whether there are consistent focal white matter alterations as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in individuals with ASD compared with typically developing (TD) individuals. METHOD: Coordinate-based meta-analysis was performed on 14 studies that reported fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations between individuals with ASD and TD individuals...
March 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116187/a-translational-study-on-looming-evoked-defensive-response-and-the-underlying-subcortical-pathway-in-autism
#8
Yu Hu, Zhuoming Chen, Lu Huang, Yue Xi, Bingxiao Li, Hong Wang, Jiajian Yan, Tatia M C Lee, Qian Tao, Kwok-Fai So, Chaoran Ren
Rapidly approaching objects indicating threats can induce defensive response through activating a subcortical pathway comprising superior colliculus (SC), lateral posterior nucleus (LP), and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Abnormal defensive response has been reported in autism, and impaired synaptic connections could be the underlying mechanism. Whether the SC-LP-BLA pathway processes looming stimuli abnormally in autism is not clear. Here, we found that looming-evoked defensive response is impaired in a subgroup of the valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of autism...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877317/association-of-white-matter-structure-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Yuta Aoki, Yuliya N Yoncheva, Bosi Chen, Tanmay Nath, Dillon Sharp, Mariana Lazar, Pablo Velasco, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Importance: Clinical overlap between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly appreciated, but the underlying brain mechanisms remain unknown to date. Objective: To examine associations between white matter organization and 2 commonly co-occurring neurodevelopmental conditions, ASD and ADHD, through both categorical and dimensional approaches. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study at an outpatient academic clinical and research center, the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at New York University Langone Medical Center...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503904/white-matter-compromise-in-autism-differentiating-motion-confounds-from-true-differences-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
Seraphina K Solders, Ruth A Carper, Ralph-Axel Müller
Common findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced fractional anisotropy (FA), and increased mean and radial diffusivity (MD, RD) of white matter tracts. However, findings may be confounded by head motion. We examined how group-level motion matching affects DTI comparisons between ASD and typically developing (TD) groups. We included 57 ASD and 50 TD participants, comparing three subsets at increasing levels of motion-matching stringency: full sample (FS); quality-controlled (QC); and quantitatively-matched (QM)...
October 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447268/atypical-age-dependency-of-executive-function-and-white-matter-microstructure-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Kenia Martínez, Jessica Merchán-Naranjo, Laura Pina-Camacho, Yasser Alemán-Gómez, Leticia Boada, David Fraguas, Carmen Moreno, Celso Arango, Joost Janssen, Mara Parellada
Executive function (EF) performance is associated with measurements of white matter microstructure (WMS) in typical individuals. Impaired EF is a hallmark symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it is unclear how impaired EF relates to variability in WMS. Twenty-one male youth (8-18 years) with ASD and without intellectual disability and twenty-one typical male participants (TP) matched for age, intelligence quotient, handedness, race and parental socioeconomic status were recruited. Five EF domains were assessed and several DTI-based measurements of WMS [fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD)] were estimated for eighteen white matter tracts...
November 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407202/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-an-iq-100-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#12
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
June 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301102/neural-correlates-of-language-variability-in-preschool-aged-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Letitia R Naigles, Ryan Johnson, Ann Mastergeorge, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J Rogers, David G Amaral, Christine Wu Nordahl
Children with autism vary widely in their language abilities, yet the neural correlates of this language variability remain unclear, especially early in development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine diffusivity measures along the length of 18 major fiber tracts in 104 preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The boys were assigned to subgroups according to their level of language development (Low: no/low language, Middle: small vocabulary, High: large vocabulary and grammar), based on their raw scores on the expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) sections of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL)...
June 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202133/toddlers-later-diagnosed-with-autism-exhibit-multiple-structural-abnormalities-in-temporal-corpus-callosum-fibers
#14
Noa Fingher, Ilan Dinstein, Michal Ben-Shachar, Shlomi Haar, Anders M Dale, Lisa Eyler, Karen Pierce, Eric Courchesne
Interhemispheric functional connectivity abnormalities are often reported in autism and it is thus not surprising that structural defects of the corpus callosum (CC) are consistently found using both traditional MRI and DTI techniques. Past DTI studies however, have subdivided the CC into 2 or 3 segments without regard for where fibers may project to within the cortex, thus placing limitations on our ability to understand the nature, timing and neurobehavioral impact of early CC abnormalities in autism. Leveraging a unique cohort of 97 toddlers (68 autism; 29 typical) we utilized a novel technique that identified seven CC tracts according to their cortical projections...
December 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639500/impaired-communication-between-the-motor-and-somatosensory-homunculus-is-associated-with-poor-manual-dexterity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Abigail Thompson, Declan Murphy, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan, Henrietta Howells, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these connections has not been directly investigated in humans. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the role of the S1-M1 connections in healthy subjects in vivo and whether microstructural alterations are associated with motor impairment in ASD...
February 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555361/white-matter-diffusion-of-major-fiber-tracts-implicated-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Lauren E Libero, Wesley K Burge, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Franco Pestilli, Rajesh K Kana
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder found to have widespread alterations in the function and synchrony of brain regions. These differences may underlie alterations in microstructural organization, such as in white matter pathways. To investigate the diffusion of major white matter tracts, the current study examined multiple indices of white matter diffusion in 42 children and adults with ASD and 44 typically developing (TD) age- and IQ-matched peers using diffusion tensor imaging...
November 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312360/interactive-computer-training-to-teach-discrete-trial-instruction-to-undergraduates-and-special-educators-in-brazil-a-replication-and-extension
#17
Thomas S Higbee, Ana Paula Aporta, Alice Resende, Mateus Nogueira, Celso Goyos, Joy S Pollard
Discrete-trial instruction (DTI) is a behavioral method of teaching young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that has received a significant amount of research support. Because of a lack of qualified trainers in many areas of the world, researchers have recently begun to investigate alternative methods of training professionals to implement behavioral teaching procedures. One promising training method is interactive computer training, in which slides with recorded narration, video modeling, and embedded evaluation of content knowledge are used to teach a skill...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242476/studying-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-structural-and-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-survey
#18
REVIEW
Marwa M T Ismail, Robert S Keynton, Mahmoud M M O Mostapha, Ahmed H ElTanboly, Manuel F Casanova, Georgy L Gimel'farb, Ayman El-Baz
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities have emerged as powerful means that facilitate non-invasive clinical diagnostics of various diseases and abnormalities since their inception in the 1980s. Multiple MRI modalities, such as different types of the sMRI and DTI, have been employed to investigate facets of ASD in order to better understand this complex syndrome. This paper reviews recent applications of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to study autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179194/white-matter-disruption-is-associated-with-persistent-seizures-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#19
Romina Moavero, Antonio Napolitano, Raffaella Cusmai, Federico Vigevano, Lorenzo Figà-Talamanca, Giuseppe Calbi, Paolo Curatolo, Bruno Bernardi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: White matter is diffusely altered in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and these alterations appear to be more evident in subjects with a more severe neurologic phenotype. However, little is known on the correlation between white matter alterations and epilepsy in TSC. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of early onset and refractory seizures on white matter by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: We enrolled 20 children with TSC and epilepsy onset in the first 3years of life and grouped them according to seizure persistence or freedom...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899725/widespread-white-matter-differences-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
V M Vogan, B R Morgan, R C Leung, E Anagnostou, K Doyle-Thomas, M J Taylor
Diffusion tensor imaging studies show white matter (WM) abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, investigations are often limited by small samples, particularly problematic given the heterogeneity of ASD. We explored WM using DTI in a large sample of 130 children and adolescents (7-15 years) with and without ASD, whether age-related changes differed between ASD and control groups, and the relation between DTI measures and ASD symptomatology. Reduced fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity were observed in ASD in numerous WM tracts, including the corpus callosum and thalamocortical fibres-tracts crucial for interhemispheric connectivity and higher order information processing...
June 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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