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Extreme physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333144/did-creatinine-standardization-give-benefits-to-the-evaluation-of-glomerular-filtration-rate
#1
Laurence Piéroni, Anne-Sophie Bargnoux, Jean-Paul Cristol, Etienne Cavalier, Pierre Delanaye
During the last decade, a lot of efforts has been made to improve the evaluation of renal functions. Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) remains the only valuable test to confirm or confute the status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is recommended by Kidney Disease Global Outcomes guidelines when estimation of GFR is not reliable. However, in routine clinical practice, serum creatinine remains the one of the most prescribed biological parameters and is an undeniable factor, alone or in association with other parameters, of the estimation of GFR...
December 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332275/impact-of-drought-stress-induced-by-polyethylene-glycol-on-growth-water-relations-and-cell-viability-of-norway-spruce-seedlings
#2
Ilya E Zlobin, Yury V Ivanov, Alexander V Kartashov, Vladimir V Kuznetsov
We investigated physiological responses of 7-week-old Norway spruce seedlings to water deficits of different intensities. Hydroponically grown seedlings were subjected to mild (-0.15 MPa), strong (-0.5 and -1.0 MPa) and extreme (-1.5 MPa) water deficit induced by polyethylene glycol 6000, and their growth parameters, water status and physiological activity were analyzed. Seedlings effectively restricted water loss under drought, and even under extreme water deficit, shoot relative water content did not fall below 85%...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331642/protein-adaptations-in-extremophiles-an-insight-into-extremophilic-connection-of-mycobacterial-proteome
#3
REVIEW
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331521/increased-transcript-levels-and-kinetic-function-of-pyruvate-kinase-during-severe-dehydration-in-aestivating-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#4
Neal J Dawson, Yulia Biggar, Amal I Malik, Kenneth B Storey
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, can withstand extremely arid conditions through aestivation, resulting in dehydration and urea accumulation. Aestivating X. laevis reduce their metabolic rate, and rely on anaerobic glycolysis to meet reduced ATP demands. The present study investigated how severe dehydration affected the transcript levels, kinetic profile, and phosphorylation state of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver and skeletal muscle of X. laevis. Compared to control frogs, severely dehydrated frogs showed an increase in the transcript abundance of both liver and muscle isoforms of PK...
January 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328657/molecular-mechanism-of-protein-unfolding-under-shear-a-lattice-boltzmann-molecular-dynamics-study
#5
Fabio Sterpone, Philippe Derreumaux, Simone Melchionna
Proteins are marginally stable soft-matter entities that can be disrupted using a variety of perturbative stresses, including thermal, chemicals or mechanical ones. Fluid under extreme flow conditions is a possible route to probe the weakness of biomolecules and collect information on the molecular cohesive interactions that secure their stability. Moreover, in many cases, physiological flow triggers the functional response of specialised proteins as occurring in blood coagulation or cell adhesion. In this paper, we deploy the Lattice Boltzmann Molecular Dynamics technique based on the coarse grained model for protein OPEP, to study the mechanism of protein unfolding under Couette flow...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327922/a-constrained-tetrapeptide-as-a-model-of-cu-i-binding-sites-involving-cu4s6-clusters-in-proteins
#6
Edit Mesterházy, Colette Lebrun, Attila Jancsó, Pascale Delangle
Peptide design is an efficient strategy to create relevant models of natural metal binding sites found in proteins. The two short tetrapeptides Ac-Cys-dPro-Pro-Cys-NH2 (CdPPC) and Ac-Cys-Pro-Gly-Cys-NH2 (CPGC) were synthesized and studied as mimics of Cu(I) binding sites involved in Cu homeostasis. Both sequences contain β turn inducing motifs to rigidify the peptide backbone structure and thereby preorganize the metal-binding side chains. The more constrained structure of the peptide CdPPC with respect to CPGC was evidenced by the measurements of the temperature coefficients of the amide protons by 1H NMR, which suggest a solvent-shielded intramolecular hydrogen bond in CdPPC, and no H-bond in CPGC...
January 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321984/effects-of-bhramari-pranayama-on-health-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Maheshkumar Kuppusamy, Dilara Kamaldeen, Ravishankar Pitani, Julius Amaldas, Poonguzhali Shanmugam
Pranayama, a branch of yoga practice is extremely beneficial to mankind in maintaining sound physical and mental health and this article aims to attain an insight on the studies conducted on the effectiveness of Bhramari Pranayama (Bhr.P) on health. The studies done until May 2016 were found using Medline, Embase, Google scholar and manual search. Studies conducted on the health effectiveness of Bhr.P specifically were included on the basis of prisma guidelines. The data were defined by their objectives, methodology, study setting, findings, interventions done and implications suggested in the study...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321863/impact-of-moderate-and-extreme-climate-change-scenarios-on-growth-morphological-features-photosynthesis-and-fruit-production-of-hot-pepper
#8
Sang Gyu Lee, Sung Kyeom Kim, Hee Ju Lee, Hee Su Lee, Jin Hyoung Lee
Horticultural crop production and changes in physiological aspects during the growing season may be affected by climate change factors (CC), which include increased temperature and the associated doubling or tripling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the potential effects are complex and many parameters might impact on the observed effects. To evaluate the effects of CC, the growth, yield, fruit characteristics, photosynthetic traits, and morphological characteristics of hot peppers were investigated...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317314/phi-in-physiology-psychology-and-biomechanics-the-golden-ratio-between-myth-and-science
#9
REVIEW
Marco Iosa, Giovanni Morone, Stefano Paolucci
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the use of the so-called golden ratio (Phi, ϕ), an irrational number with fractal properties, used in artworks since V century BC. and now for modelling complex biological structures and functions. This number, in fact, recursively pops-up in human history, from Ancient Greeks to Renaissance, and to contemporary scientific studies. Nevertheless, recent scientific results often fall between two extremes: those of a priori sceptic researchers accusing the artificial emergence of ϕ in many studies, and those of researchers that find a mystic meaning in the presence of ϕ in human physiology...
January 6, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317069/blood-flow-restriction-training-as-a-prehabilitation-concept-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-narrative-review-about-current-preoperative-interventions-and-the-potential-impact-of-bfr
#10
Alexander Franz, Fina Pauline Queitsch, Michael Behringer, Constantin Mayer, Rüdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens
Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most commonly diagnosed joint ailments and responsible for increased rates of total knee arthroplasty surgeries worldwide. Whereas the surgical approach is able to diminish the perceived knee pain of concerned patients', the postoperative recovery is often accompanied by persistent skeletal muscle dysfunctions and atrophy, which is responsible for functional deficits for up to several years. Recent findings indicate that surgery induced adverse effects on skeletal muscles are largely associated with the use of pneumatic tourniquets, wherefore several studies try to reduce tourniquet use in orthopedic surgery...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316299/survival-in-spatially-variable-thermal-environments-consequences-of-induced-thermal-defense
#11
Mark Denny
As Earth's climate warms, plants and animals are likely to encounter an increased frequency and severity of extreme thermal events, and the ensuing destruction is likely to play an important role in structuring ecological communities. However, accurate prediction of the population-scale consequences of extreme thermal events requires detailed knowledge of the small-scale interaction between individual organisms and their thermal environment. In this study I propose a simple model that allows one to explore how individual-to-individual variation in body temperature and thermal physiology determines what fraction of a population will be killed by an extreme thermal event...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316093/trees-tolerate-an-extreme-heatwave-via-sustained-transpirational-cooling-and-increased-leaf-thermal-tolerance
#12
John E Drake, Mark G Tjoelker, Angelica Vårhammar, Belinda E Medlyn, Peter B Reich, Andrea Leigh, Sebastian Pfautsch, Chris J Blackman, Rosana López, Michael J Aspinwall, Kristine Y Crous, Remko A Duursma, Dushan Kumarathunge, Martin G De Kauwe, Mingkai Jiang, Adrienne B Nicotra, David T Tissue, Brendan Choat, Owen K Atkin, Craig V M Barton
Heatwaves are likely to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, which may impair tree function and forest C uptake. However, we have little information regarding the impact of extreme heatwaves on the physiological performance of large trees in the field. Here, we grew Eucalyptus parramattensis trees for one year with experimental warming (+3 °C) in a field setting, until they were greater than 6-m-tall. We withheld irrigation for one month to dry the surface soils and then implemented an extreme heatwave treatment of four consecutive days with air temperatures exceeding 43 °C, while monitoring whole-canopy exchange of CO2 and H2 O, leaf temperatures, leaf thermal tolerance, and leaf and branch hydraulic status...
January 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306799/purine-salvage-in-plants
#13
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ashihara, Claudio Stasolla, Tatsuhito Fujimura, Alan Crozier
Purine bases and nucleosides are produced by turnover of nucleotides and nucleic acids as well as from some cellular metabolic pathways. Adenosine released from the S-adenosyl-L-methionine cycle is linked to many methyltransferase reactions, such as the biosynthesis of caffeine and glycine betaine. Adenine is produced by the methionine cycles, which is related to other biosynthesis pathways, such those for the production of ethylene, nicotianamine and polyamines. These purine compounds are recycled for nucleotide biosynthesis by so-called "salvage pathways"...
January 4, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306438/revealing-the-raft-domain-organization-in-the-plasma-membrane-by-single-molecule-imaging-of-fluorescent-ganglioside-analogs
#14
Kenichi G N Suzuki, Hiromune Ando, Naoko Komura, Miku Konishi, Akihiro Imamura, Hideharu Ishida, Makoto Kiso, Takahiro K Fujiwara, Akihiro Kusumi
Gangliosides have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, particularly in the formation and function of raft domains in the plasma membrane. However, the scarcity of suitable fluorescent ganglioside analogs had long prevented us from determining exactly how gangliosides perform their functions in the live-cell plasma membrane. With the development of new fluorescent ganglioside analogs, as described by Komura et al. (2017), this barrier has been broken. We can now address the dynamic behaviors of gangliosides in the live-cell plasma membrane, using fluorescence microscopy, particularly by single-fluorescent molecule imaging and tracking...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305692/cd99-at-the-crossroads-of-physiology-and-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Michela Pasello, Maria Cristina Manara, Katia Scotlandi
CD99 is a cell surface protein with unique features and only partly defined mechanisms of action. This molecule is involved in crucial biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, death, differentiation and diapedesis, and it influences processes associated with inflammation, immune responses and cancer. CD99 is frequently overexpressed in many types of tumors, particularly pediatric tumors including Ewing sarcoma and specific subtypes of leukemia. Engagement of CD99 induces the death of malignant cells through non-conventional mechanisms...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304075/%C3%AE-cell-specific-overexpression-of-adiponectin-receptor-1-does-not-improve-diabetes-mellitus-in-akita-mice
#16
Jungmi Choi, Hatasu Kobayashi, Hiroko Okuda, Kouji H Harada, Midori Takeda, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Shunsuke Yamane, Daisuke Tanaka, Shohab Youssefian, Nobuya Inagaki, Akio Koizumi
Adiponectin, a metabolically-active cytokine secreted from adipose tissue, is reported to have anti-apoptotic effects on β-cells as well as anti-hyperglycemic effects through adiponectin receptor signaling. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of adiponectin on β-cells have not been confirmed in established diabetic models, and the anti-hyperglycemic effects and their associated signal cascades remain controversial. To investigate the effects of adiponectin on β-cell protection and its down-stream signaling events, we have generated β-cell-specific rat insulin promoter (RIP)-AdipoR1 transgenic mice (AdipoR1 mice), in which the adiponectin receptor, AdipoR1, is overexpressed in β-cells in a manner synchronous with insulin demand...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300196/mesenteric-oxygenation-changes-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-pneumoperitoneum-after-multiple-blood-transfusions-a-case-report
#17
Terri Marin, James E Moore
BACKGROUND: The multifactorial pathology and broad clinical presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) development in premature infants make prediction of disease onset extremely challenging. Over the past decade, packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions have been temporally linked to the development of NEC in severely anemic preterm infants, although this issue is highly controversial. PURPOSE: In this case study, we describe events of an extremely low birth-weight infant who developed NEC complicated by pneumoperitoneum after receiving multiple PRBC transfusions...
January 3, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299670/flexibility-is-the-key-metabolic-and-thermoregulatory-behaviour-in-a-small-endotherm
#18
Franz Langer, Nadine Havenstein, Joanna Fietz
Hibernation is the most effective way to reduce thermoregulatory costs during periods of unfavourable environmental conditions. In preparation to hibernation, fat-storing hibernators accumulate large quantities of body fat, which increases their locomotor costs and also the risk of predation. As a consequence, there should be a strong selective pressure to restrict pre-hibernation fattening to a short-time period before the onset of hibernation. The edible dormouse (Glis glis) is characterized by having adapted its whole life history to the irregularly occurring mast-seeding pattern of the European beech (Fagus sylvaticus)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297313/a-compendium-and-functional-characterization-of-mammalian-genes-involved-in-adaptation-to-arctic-or-antarctic-environments
#19
Nikolay S Yudin, Denis M Larkin, Elena V Ignatieva
BACKGROUND: Many mammals are well adapted to surviving in extremely cold environments. These species have likely accumulated genetic changes that help them efficiently cope with low temperatures. It is not known whether the same genes related to cold adaptation in one species would be under selection in another species. The aims of this study therefore were: to create a compendium of mammalian genes related to adaptations to a low temperature environment; to identify genes related to cold tolerance that have been subjected to independent positive selection in several species; to determine promising candidate genes/pathways/organs for further empirical research on cold adaptation in mammals...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290677/clinical-relevance-and-cost-savings-of-levocarnitine-versus-ammonul-in-the-management-of-hyperammonemia-in-a-cancer-patient-the-impact-of-a-clinical-pharmacist
#20
Chukwuma Anyanwu, Chinonso Ezeudu, Hoa Le, Oliver Egwim
Background: Hyperammonemia, a relatively uncommon condition characterized by elevated ammonia levels in the blood, presents with varied physiological etiologies that may send patients to the intensive care unit (ICU) with encephalopathy. An immediate decrease in ammonia levels is necessary to avert neurological damage. However, due to the multifaceted nature of hyperammonemia, a definite determination of etiology is not always possible. Objective: This case report examines the clinical and economic impact of a pharmacist in managing acute hyperammonemia of unknown etiology in a 62-year-old Hispanic man who had recently been diagnosed with metastatic medullary thyroid cancer and associated hypercalcemia...
January 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
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