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Extreme physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933447/indian-summer-heat-wave-of-2015-a-biometeorological-analysis-using-half-hourly-automatic-weather-station-data-with-special-reference-to-andhra-pradesh
#1
M A Sarath Chandran, A V M Subba Rao, V M Sandeep, V P Pramod, P Pani, V U M Rao, V Visha Kumari, Ch Srinivasa Rao
Heat wave is a hazardous weather-related extreme event that affects living beings. The 2015 summer heat wave affected many regions in India and caused the death of 2248 people across the country. An attempt has been made to quantify the intensity and duration of heat wave that resulted in high mortality across the country. Half hourly Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), based on a complete heat budget of human body, was estimated using automatic weather station (AWS) data of four locations in Andhra Pradesh state, where the maximum number of deaths was reported...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933085/plant-physiological-morphological-and-yield-related-responses-to-night-temperature-changes-across-different-species-and-plant-functional-types
#2
Panpan Jing, Dan Wang, Chunwu Zhu, Jiquan Chen
Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932677/suite-of-clinically-relevant-functional-assays-to-address-therapeutic-efficacy-and-disease-mechanism-in-the-dystrophic-mdx-mouse
#3
Yafeng Song, Shira Tziporah Rosenblum, Leon Morales, Mihail Petrov, Christopher Greer, Samantha Globerman, Hansell H Stedman
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive primary myodegenerative disease caused by a genetic deficiency of the 427 KD cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Despite its single-gene etiology, DMD's complex pathogenesis remains poorly understood, complicating the extrapolation from results of preclinical studies in genetic homologues to the design of informative clinical trials. Here we describe novel phenotypic assays which when applied to the mdx mouse resemble recently used primary endpoints for DMD clinical trials...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931216/promising-features-of-moringa-oleifera-oil-recent-updates-and-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Imran
Lipids are the concentrated source of energy, fat soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids, carriers of flavours and many bio-active compounds with important role in maintaining physiological functions of biological body. Moringa oleifera is native to Himalaya and widely grown in many Asian and African countries with seed oil content range from 35-40%. Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) has light yellow colour with mild nutty flavour and fatty acids composition suggests that MOO is highly suitable for both edible and non-edible applications...
December 8, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927999/elevated-temperature-drives-a-shift-from-selfing-to-outcrossing-in-the-insect-pollinated-legume-faba-bean-vicia-faba
#5
Jacob Bishop, Hannah E Jones, Donal M O'Sullivan, Simon G Potts
Climate change can threaten the reproductive success of plants, both directly, through physiological damage during increasingly extreme weather events, and indirectly, through disruption of plant-pollinator interactions. To explore how plant-pollinator interactions are modified by extreme weather, we exposed faba bean (Vicia faba) plants to elevated temperature for 5 d during flowering, simulating a heatwave. We then moved the plants to flight cages with either bumblebees or no pollinators, or to two field sites, where plants were enclosed in mesh bags or pollinated by wild insect communities...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927623/metabolic-and-functional-characterization-of-effects-of-developmental-temperature-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Mads F Schou, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Anders Pedersen, Goran B Karlsson, Volker Loeschcke, Anders Malmendal
The ability of ectotherms to respond to changes in their thermal environment through plastic mechanisms is central to their adaptive capability. However, we still lack knowledge on physiological and functional responses by which ectotherms acclimate to temperatures during development, and in particular, how physiological stress at extreme temperatures may counteract beneficial acclimation responses at benign temperatures. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to ten developmental temperatures covering their entire permissible temperature range...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926637/pigmentation-and-pregnancy-knowing-what-is-normal
#7
Amy Kalowitz Bieber, Kathryn J Martires, Jennifer A Stein, Jane M Grant-Kels, Marcia S Driscoll, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz
Changes in melanocytic nevi during pregnancy are frequently attributed to the new hormonal milieu and are dismissed without concern for malignancy. Recent studies suggest that pregnancy itself does not induce significant change in nevi, and delays in the assessment of changing moles may contribute to the often more advanced nature of melanomas diagnosed during or soon after pregnancy. Nevi on the breasts and abdomen can grow as a result of skin expansion, but studies have found no significant changes in nevi located in more stable areas such as the back or lower extremities...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921099/thermoresponsive-microgels-containing-trehalose-as-soft-matrices-for-3d-cell-culture
#8
Małgorzata Burek, Sylwia Waśkiewicz, Anna Lalik, Sebastian Student, Tadeusz Bieg, Ilona Wandzik
A series of thermoresponsive glycomicrogels with trehalose in the cross-links or with trehalose in the cross-links and as pending moieties was synthesized. These materials were obtained by surfactant-free precipitation copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and various amounts of trehalose monomers. The resultant particles showed a spherical shape and a submicrometer hydrodynamic size with a narrow size distribution. At 25 °C, glycomicrogels in solutions with physiological ionic strength formed stable colloids, which further gelled upon heating to physiological temperature forming a macroscopic hydrogel with an interconnected porous structure...
December 6, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920988/ureteric-obstruction-caused-by-a-migrated-intrauterine-device
#9
Xuesong Yang, Xi Duan, Tao Wu
We present an extremely rare case of ureteric obstruction caused by a migrated intrauterine device. A 36-year-old female with complaints of almost 10 months left flank pain presented to our hospital. She used an IUD for contraception for 6 months after the birth of her first child. The IUD was not visible then. Ultrasonography (US) revealed that left severe hydronephrosis and upper ureterectasis. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) found that IUD was located very close to the lower ureter which was adjacent to the third anatomize physiological narrow...
January 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920767/ecophysiology-and-comparative-genomics-of-nitrosomonas-mobilis-ms1-isolated-from-autotrophic-nitrifying-granules-of-wastewater-treatment-bioreactor
#10
Soe Myat Thandar, Norisuke Ushiki, Hirotsugu Fujitani, Yuji Sekiguchi, Satoshi Tsuneda
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which oxidize ammonia to nitrite in the first step of nitrification, play an important role in biological wastewater treatment systems. Nitrosomonas mobilis is an important and dominant AOB in various wastewater treatment systems. However, the detailed physiological and genomic properties of N. mobilis have not been thoroughly investigated because of limited success isolating pure cultures. This study investigated the key physiological characteristics of N. mobilis Ms1, which was previously isolated into pure culture from the nitrifying granules of wastewater treatment bioreactor...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920298/malate-synthase-and-%C3%AE-methylmalyl-coa-lyase-reactions-in-the-methylaspartate-cycle-in-haloarcula-hispanica
#11
Farshad Borjian, Jing Han, Jing Hou, Hua Xiang, Jan Zarzycki, Ivan A Berg
: Haloarchaea are extremely halophilic heterotrophic microorganisms belonging to the class Halobacteria (Euryarchaeota). Almost half of the haloarchaea possesses the genes coding for enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle, a recently discovered anaplerotic acetate assimilation pathway. In this cycle, the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle together with the dedicated enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle convert two acetyl-CoA molecules to malate. The methylaspartate cycle involves two reactions catalyzed by homologous enzymes belonging to the CitE-like enzyme superfamily, the malyl-CoA lyase/thioesterase (haloarchaeal malate synthase, hMS, Hah_2476 in Haloarcula hispanica) and the β-methylmalyl-CoA lyase (hMCL, Hah_1341)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919449/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-may-affect-cytokine-response-and-benefit-healing-of-combat-related-extremity-wounds
#12
Felipe A Lisboa, Matthew J Bradley, Matthew T Hueman, Seth A Schobel, Beverly J Gaucher, Edda L Styrmisdottir, Benjamin K Potter, Jonathan A Forsberg, Eric A Elster
BACKGROUND: After adequate operative debridement and antimicrobial therapies, combat-related extremity wounds that either heal or fail are both associated with a distinct inflammatory response. Short-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in postoperative pain management may affect this response and, by consequence, the healing potential of these wounds. We investigated whether patients treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had a distinct inflammatory response; different rates of critical colonization, defined as >10(5) colony forming units on quantitative bacteriology; and healing potential...
December 2, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918644/self-assembled-supramolecular-nanogels-as-a-safe-and-effective-drug-delivery-vector-for-cancer-therapy
#13
Chih-Chia Cheng, Mei-Chih Liang, Zhi-Sheng Liao, Jyun-Jie Huang, Duu-Jong Lee
Simple construction and manipulation of low-molecular-weight supramolecular nanogels, based on the introduction of multiple hydrogen bonding interactions, with the desired physical properties to achieve effective and safe delivery of drugs for cancer therapy remain highly challenging. Herein, a novel supramolecular oligomer cytosine (Cy)-polypropylene glycol containing self-complementary multiple hydrogen-bonded Cy moieties is developed, which undergoes spontaneous self-assembly to form nanosized particles in an aqueous environment...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918537/the-genome-and-transcriptome-of-japanese-flounder-provide-insights-into-flatfish-asymmetry
#14
Changwei Shao, Baolong Bao, Zhiyuan Xie, Xinye Chen, Bo Li, Xiaodong Jia, Qiulin Yao, Guillermo Ortí, Wenhui Li, Xihong Li, Kristin Hamre, Juan Xu, Lei Wang, Fangyuan Chen, Yongsheng Tian, Alex M Schreiber, Na Wang, Fen Wei, Jilin Zhang, Zhongdian Dong, Lei Gao, Junwei Gai, Takashi Sakamoto, Sudong Mo, Wenjun Chen, Qiong Shi, Hui Li, Yunji Xiu, Yangzhen Li, Wenteng Xu, Zhiyi Shi, Guojie Zhang, Deborah M Power, Qingyin Wang, Manfred Schartl, Songlin Chen
Flatfish have the most extreme asymmetric body morphology of vertebrates. During metamorphosis, one eye migrates to the contralateral side of the skull, and this migration is accompanied by extensive craniofacial transformations and simultaneous development of lopsided body pigmentation. The evolution of this developmental and physiological innovation remains enigmatic. Comparative genomics of two flatfish and transcriptomic analyses during metamorphosis point to a role for thyroid hormone and retinoic acid signaling, as well as phototransduction pathways...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917832/1-45%C3%A2-%C3%A3-resolution-structure-of-srpn18-from-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-gambiae
#15
David A Meekins, Xin Zhang, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Kristin Michel
Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) in insects function within development, wound healing and immunity. The genome of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, encodes 23 distinct serpin proteins, several of which are implicated in disease-relevant physiological responses. A. gambiae serpin 18 (SRPN18) was previously categorized as non-inhibitory based on the sequence of its reactive-center loop (RCL), a region responsible for targeting and initiating protease inhibition. The crystal structure of A. gambiae SRPN18 was determined to a resolution of 1...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916343/cardiac-autophagic-vacuolation-in-severe-x-linked-myopathy-with-excessive-autophagy
#16
Iulia Munteanu, Hannu Kalimo, Antti Saraste, Ichizo Nishino, Berge A Minassian
X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy (XMEA), caused by mutations of the VMA21 gene, is a strictly skeletal muscle disease. Extensive studies in yeast established VMA21 as the master assembly chaperone of V-ATPase, the complex multisubunit proton pump that acidifies organelles and that is vital to all mammalian tissues. As such, skeletal muscle disease exclusivity in XMEA is highly surprising. We now show that the severest VMA21 mutation, c.164-6t>g, does result in XMEA-typical pathology with autophagic vacuolar changes outside skeletal muscle, namely in the heart...
October 19, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916329/detection-of-manganese-peroxidase-and-other-exoenzymes-in-four-isolates-of-geastrum-geastrales-in-pure-culture
#17
Francisco Kuhar, Valeria C Castiglia, Juan C Zamora
Knowledge regarding the enzymatic machinery of fungi is decisive to understand their ecological role. The species of the genus Geastrum are known to grow extremely slowly in pure culture, which makes it difficult to evaluate physiological parameters such as enzyme activity. Qualitative assays were performed on isolates of four species of this genus, showing evidence of laccase, cellulase, pectinase, amylase and lipase activity and suggesting that a wide range of carbon sources can be exploited by these species...
December 1, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909028/teaching-about-water-relations-in-plant-cells-an-uneasy-struggle
#18
Lilianna Malińska, Eliza Rybska, Ewa Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Małgorzata Adamiec
University students often struggle to understand the role of water in plant cells. In particular, osmosis and plasmolysis appear to be challenging topics. This study attempted to identify student difficulties (including misconceptions) concerning osmosis and plasmolysis and examined to what extent the difficulties could be revised during a plant physiology course. A questionnaire was developed to monitor university students' conceptual knowledge before and after a course, and both qualitative and quantitative data were obtained...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903904/yeast-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-maintains-consistent-activity-and-mutagenicity-across-a-wide-range-of-physiological-dntp-concentrations
#19
Olga V Kochenova, Rachel Bezalel-Buch, Phong Tran, Alena V Makarova, Andrei Chabes, Peter M J Burgers, Polina V Shcherbakova
In yeast, dNTP pools expand drastically during DNA damage response. We show that similar dNTP elevation occurs in strains, in which intrinsic replisome defects promote the participation of error-prone DNA polymerase ζ (Polζ) in replication of undamaged DNA. To understand the significance of dNTP pools increase for Polζ function, we studied the activity and fidelity of four-subunit Polζ (Polζ4) and Polζ4-Rev1 (Polζ5) complexes in vitro at 'normal S-phase' and 'damage-response' dNTP concentrations. The presence of Rev1 inhibited the activity of Polζ and greatly increased the rate of all three 'X-dCTP' mispairs, which Polζ4 alone made extremely inefficiently...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903669/exertional-dyspnoea-in-obesity
#20
Vipa Bernhardt, Tony G Babb
The purpose of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the obese person, as in any cardiopulmonary exercise test, is to determine the patient's exercise tolerance, and to help identify and/or distinguish between the various physiological factors that could contribute to exercise intolerance. Unexplained dyspnoea on exertion is a common reason for CPET, but it is an extremely complex symptom to explain. Sometimes obesity is the simple answer by elimination of other possibilities. Thus, distinguishing among multiple clinical causes for exertional dyspnoea depends on the ability to eliminate possibilities while recognising response patterns that are unique to the obese patient...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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