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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785940/metabolic-effects-safety-and-acceptability-of-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-dietetic-scheme-on-candidates-for-bariatric-surgery
#1
Vincenzo Pilone, Salvatore Tramontano, Michele Renzulli, Mafalda Romano, Luigi Cobellis, Tiziano Berselli, Luigi Schiavo
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated significant advantages from a preoperative dietetic regimen for candidates to bariatric procedure. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of safety, efficacy, and acceptability of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet in patients before bariatric surgery. SETTING: University Hospital. METHODS: A standardized 30-day sequential preoperative diet regimen has been analyzed, optimizing metabolic response with gradual carbohydrate reintroduction...
March 21, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784585/inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-ii-with-rnai-prevents-liver-injury-in-mouse-models-of-glycogen-storage-diseases
#2
Natalie Pursell, Jessica Gierut, Wei Zhou, Michael Dills, Rohan Diwanji, Monika Gjorgjieva, Utsav Saxena, Jr-Shiuan Yang, Anee Shah, Nandini Venkat, Rachel Storr, Boyoung Kim, Weimin Wang, Marc Abrams, Margaux Raffin, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Henryk Dudek, Bob D Brown, Chengjung Lai
Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) of the liver are devastating disorders presenting with fasting hypoglycemia as well as hepatic glycogen and lipid accumulation, which could lead to long-term liver damage. Diet control is frequently utilized to manage the potentially dangerous hypoglycemia, but there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment for preventing hepatomegaly and concurrent liver metabolic abnormalities, which could lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of glycogen synthesis using an RNAi approach to silence hepatic Gys2 expression effectively prevents glycogen synthesis, glycogen accumulation, hepatomegaly, fibrosis, and nodule development in a mouse model of GSD III...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783731/-lactobacillus-plantarum-strain-ln4-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-changes-in-hepatic-mrna-levels-associated-with-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#3
Eunjung Lee, So-Ra Jung, So-Young Lee, Na-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Dong Paik, Seong-Il Lim
The prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is rapidly becoming a severe global health problem. Recent reports have suggested that the alteration of the gut ecosystem through the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods, such as yogurt and Kimchi, can significantly impact obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related biomarkers. In this study, we screened over 400 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were isolated from fermented foods to identify potent anti-obesogenic and diabetic probiotics in vitro...
May 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782964/an-in-vitro-approach-for-prioritization-and-evaluation-of-chemical-effects-on-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-adipogenesis
#4
Jessica K Hartman, Tyler Beames, Bethany Parks, Daniel Doheny, Gina Song, Alina Efremenko, Miyoung Yoon, Briana Foley, Chad Deisenroth, Patrick D McMullen, Rebecca A Clewell
Rising obesity rates worldwide have socio-economic ramifications. While genetics, diet, and lack of exercise are major contributors to obesity, environmental factors may enhance susceptibility through disruption of hormone homeostasis and metabolic processes. The obesogen hypothesis contends that chemical exposure early in development may enhance adipocyte differentiation, thereby increasing the number of adipocytes and predisposing for obesity and metabolic disease. We previously developed a primary human adipose stem cell (hASC) assay to evaluate the effect of environmental chemicals on PPARG-dependent adipogenesis...
May 18, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782958/changes-in-behavioural-parameters-oxidative-stress-and-neurotrophins-in-the-brain-of-adult-offspring-induced-to-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-the-effects-of-fa-deficient-or-fa-supplemented-diet-during-the-neurodevelopmental-phase
#5
L Canever, T G Freire, G A Mastella, L Damázio, S Gomes, I Fachim, C Michels, G Carvalho, A K Godói, B R Peterle, F F Gava, S Valvassori Sda, J Budni, J Quevedo, A I Zugno
A deficiency of maternal folic acid (FA) can compromise the function and development of the brain, and may produce a susceptibility to diseases such as schizophrenia (SZ) in the later life of offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both FA deficient and FA supplemented diets during gestation and lactation on behavioural parameters, the markers of oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors in adult offspring which had been subjected to an animal model of SZ. Female mother rats (Dam's) were separated into experimental maternal groups, which began receiving a special diet (food) consisting of the AIN-93 diet, a control diet, or an FA deficient diet during the periods of pregnancy and lactation...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778665/a-novel-system-to-quantify-intestinal-lipid-digestion-and-transport
#6
Øystein Sæle, Kari Elin L Rød, Vanessa H Quinlivan, Shengrong Li, Steven A Farber
The zebrafish larva is a powerful tool for the study of dietary triglyceride (TG) digestion and how fatty acids (FA) derived from dietary lipids are absorbed, metabolized and distributed to the body. While fluorescent FA analogues have enabled visualization of FA metabolism, methods for specifically assaying TG digestion are badly needed. Here we present a novel High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method that quantitatively differentiates TG and phospholipid (PL) molecules with one or two fluorescent FA analogues...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777756/peroxiredoxin-5-regulates-adipogenesis-attenuating-oxidative-stress-in-obese-mouse-models-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Mi Hye Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Jung-Hak Kim, Jung Bae Seong, Kyung-Min Kim, Hyun Ae Woo, Dong-Seok Lee
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a hallmark of obesity. Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5), which is a cysteine-dependent peroxidase enzyme, has an intensive ROS scavenging activity because it is located in the cytosol and mitochondria. Therefore, we focused on the role of Prx5 in regulating mitochondrial ROS and adipogenesis. We demonstrated that Prx5 expression was upregulated during adipogenesis and Prx5 overexpression suppressed adipogenesis by regulating cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS generation...
May 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777696/sterilized-bifidobacteria-suppressed-fat-accumulation-and-blood-glucose-level
#8
Keita Kikuchi, Mahmoud Ben Othman, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium improve the balance of intestinal microflora and have various physiological functions beneficial to human health. It is not always known whether the ingested microbial cells are viable- or killed. However, even sterilized bacterial cells are functional. Bacterial cell functions are strain-specific and their modes of action are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of sterilized bifidobacteria in obesity and lipid metabolism...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776922/core-vs-diet-associated-and-postprandial-bacterial-communities-of-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-midgut-and-feaces
#9
Eleni Mente, Eleni Nikouli, Efthimia Antonopoulou, Samuel A M Martin, Konstantinos Ar Kormas
This study investigated the impact of different dietary ingredients with different protein/lipid sources on the midgut and feaces bacteria communities structure just before feeding and 3h after feeding a single meal on rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) individuals. Fish were kept in experimental rearing facilities and fed ad libitum two times daily for five weeks. Fish were fed three different commercial diets containing a higher marine fishmeal/fish oil and a lower marine fishmeal/fish oil content. DNA was extracted from midgut and faeces samples for the analysis of their bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity by targeting the V3-V4 region with 454 pyrosequencing...
May 18, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776647/-effect-of-green-alga-ulva-lactuca-polysaccharides-supplementation-on-blood-pressure-and-on-atherogenic-risk-factors-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#10
Z I Tair, F Bensalah, F Boukortt
AIM OF THE STUDY: To highlight the benefits of green alga Ulva lactuca polysaccharides supplementation on blood pressure and atherogenic risk factors in rats fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Wistar male rats were fed a high fat diet (30% sheep fat) for 3 months. At an average body weight (BW) of 360g, the rats (n=18) were divided into 3 groups and consumed, for 28 days, either a high fat diet (HFD) or a high fat diet enriched with 1% of whole green algae (WGA) powder or with 1% of its polysaccharides (PLS)...
May 15, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775748/microrna-204-5p-regulates-3t3-l1-preadipocyte-proliferation-apoptosis-and-differentiation
#11
Jingjing Du, Peiwen Zhang, Mailin Gan, Xue Zhao, Yan Xu, Qiang Li, Yanzhi Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Mingzhou Li, Jinyong Wang, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Obesity due to excessive lipid accumulation is closely associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and inflammation. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie adipogenesis is crucial to develop treatments for diseases related to obesity. Here, we found that the microRNA-204-5p (miR-204-5p) was expressed at low levels in fat tissues from obese mice fed long-term with a high-fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-204-5p in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly inhibited or promoted 3T3-L1 proliferation, respectively, an effect mediated by regulating cell proliferation factors...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775616/amelioration-of-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-fat-1-transgenic-mouse-skin
#12
Hye-Won Yum, Seong Hoon Kim, Jing X Kang, Young-Joon Surh
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in some fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and increase host immunoresponsiveness. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773079/effects-of-linagliptin-on-endothelial-function-and-postprandial-lipids-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-early-diabetes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#13
Norbert J Tripolt, Felix Aberer, Regina Riedl, Jasmin Url, Gudrun Dimsity, Andreas Meinitzer, Tatjana Stojakovic, Faisal Aziz, Ronald Hödl, Gabriele Brachtl, Dirk Strunk, Marianne Brodmann, Franz Hafner, Harald Sourij
BACKGROUND: Early glucose lowering intervention in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus was demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of micro- and macrovascular risk reduction. However, most of currently ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials are performed in subjects with manifest atherosclerosis and long-standing diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) but early type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on a set of cardiovascular surrogate measurements...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773001/combined-administration-of-monosodium-glutamate-and-high-sucrose-diet-accelerates-the-induction-of-type-2-diabetes-vascular-dysfunction-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#14
Kaja Saikrishna, Ringu Kumari, Kantamaneni Chaitanya, Subhankar Biswas, Pawan G Nayak, Jayesh Mudgal, Anoop Kishore, Krishnadas Nandakumar
In this study, we aimed to develop an experimental animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a combination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and high sucrose diet (HSD). Young male Wistar rats (20-30 g) were injected with MSG (2 or 4 mg/g, i.p. for 4 days). These rats were also fed an HSD, while the control group was fed a starch diet (SFD) for 150 days. Parameters assessed periodically were body weight, feed intake, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, skeletal muscle glucose uptake, cognitive function tests, and microvascular changes using isolated rat aorta...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772998/partially-purified-aqueous-fraction-of-desmodium-gyrans-dc-improves-reverse-cholesterol-transport-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-wistar-rats-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#15
M S Indu, Jose Padikkala, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Apart from the conventional hypolipidemic therapy, plaque regression through enhanced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) has emerged as novel approach in atherosclerotic drug development. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetics as well as agents that augment the functional HDL and RCT pathways are under intense exploration. Desmodium gyrans (Fabacea) has been shown to have hypolipidemic efficacy, with an HDL-enhancing property. In this study, a chromatographically purified active fraction of D. gyrans (DGMAF) significantly decreased the serum and lipid profiles as well as lipotoxicity in liver in Wistar rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD)...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772938/the-suppressive-effect-of-the-three-herb-extract-mixture-on-vascular-and-liver-inflammation-in-atherogenic-diet-with-high-fructose-fed-mice
#16
Hae Seong Song, Hyun Jung Koo, Bong Kyun Park, Jeong Eun Kwon, Seon-A Jang, Hyun Jin Baek, Se Young Kim, Sung Ryul Lee, Se Chan Kang
CONTEXT: Cynanchum wilfordii (Maximowicz) Hemsley (Apocynaceae), Arctium lappa L. var. rubescens Frivald (Asteraceae) and Dioscorea opposite Thunb (Dioscoreaceae) root extracts have been widely used as an alternative for intervening obesity. OBJECTIVES: The synergistic effect of three-herb mixture of C. wilfordii, A. lappa and D. opposita was determined on aortic and liver inflammatory responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CWE, ALE and DOE were prepared from the root of C...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772531/effects-of-oxidized-lipids-and-lipoproteins-on-cardiac-function
#17
Tahar Hajri
Oxidative modifications of lipids and lipoproteins have long been linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and coronary disease. Furthermore, overwhelming evidence indicate that oxidized lipids are also associated with myocardial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy. Oxidized lipid derivatives are generated by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions with unsaturated lipids in the cell and foods. In addition, blood LDL particles are prone to oxidation leading to the formation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which is often associated with obesity, diabetes and metabolic disease...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772096/signatures-of-diversifying-selection-and-convergence-acting-on-passerine-toll-like-receptor-4-in-an-evolutionary-context
#18
Tereza Králová, Tomáš Albrecht, Josef Bryja, David Hořák, Arild Johnsen, Jan T Lifjeld, Marian Novotný, Ondřej Sedláček, Hana Velová, Michal Vinkler
Positive selection acting on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been recently investigated to reveal evolutionary mechanisms of host-pathogen molecular co-adaptation. Much of this research, however, has focused mainly on the identification of sites predicted to be under positive selection, bringing little insight into the functional differences and similarities among species and a limited understanding of convergent evolution in the innate immune molecules. In this study we provide evidence of phenotypic variability in the avian TLR4 ligand-binding region (LBR), the direct interface between host and pathogen molecular structures...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770778/apolipoprotein-e-in-diet-induced-obesity-a-paradigm-shift-from-conventional-perception
#19
Kyriakos E Kypreos, Eleni A Karavia, Caterina Constantinou, Aikaterini Hatziri, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Eva Xepapadaki, Evangelia Zvintzou
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a major protein component of peripheral and brain lipoprotein transport systems. APOE in peripheral circulation does not cross blood brain barrier or blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier. As a result, peripheral APOE expression does not affect brain APOE levels and vice versa. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest a key role of peripherally expressed APOE in the development and progression of coronary heart disease while brain APOE has been associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770337/-chlamydia-pneumoniae-infection-exacerbates-atherosclerosis-in-apob100only-ldlr-mouse-strain
#20
Ildikó Lantos, Valéria Endrész, Dezső Péter Virok, Andrea Szabó, Xinjie Lu, Tímea Mosolygó, Katalin Burián
Aims: Hyperlipidaemia model animals have been used to elucidate the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection in atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to investigate the proatherogenic effect of multiple Cpn infections in ApoB100only/LDLR-/- mice which based on lipid profile can be regarded as the most suitable mouse model of human hypercholesterolemia and to compare the lesion development to that in a major atherosclerosis model ApoE-/- mice. Methods and Results: Aorta samples of ApoB100only/LDLR-/- mice infected three times with Cpn were subjected to morphometric analyses...
2018: BioMed Research International
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