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Cancer research

K-X Lou, Z-H Li, P Wang, Z Liu, Y Chen, X-L Wang, H-X Cui
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the expression of human long non-coding ribonucleic acid (lncRNA), BRAF-activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) in breast cancer tissues and its effects on the in vitro proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells; also, we investigated its possible mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expressions of BANCR in 65 pairs of breast cancer tissues and para-carcinoma normal breast tissues were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Z Xing, H-Y Wang, W-Y Su, Y-F Liu, X-X Wang, P Zhan, T-F Lv, Y Song
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant activation of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways closely involved in the occurrence and progression of several types of human malignancies. This research was undertaken to elucidate the important role of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Wnt3 expression in lung cancers and their respective normal tissues were examined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Then, Wnt3 was regulated with RNA interference (RNAi) technology in human lung cancer A549 cells, and the cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell invasion/metastasis, and apoptosis were evaluated...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Persefoni Fragkiadaki, Theodoros Mariolis Sapsakos, George Papadakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, John Tsiaoussis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers. In fact, it is placed in the third place among the most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and in the second one for the most diagnosed cancer in women, following breast cancer. Moreover, its high mortality rates classifies it among the leading causes of cancer‑related death worldwide. Thus, in order to help clinicians to optimize their practice, it is crucial to introduce more effective tools that will improve not only early diagnosis, but also prediction of the most likely progression of the disease and response to chemotherapy...
March 21, 2018: Oncology Reports
Anna Maria Grugnetti, Cristina Arrigoni, Maria Antonietta Fusco, Arianna Magon, Adele Sgarella, Maria Luisa Gallotti, Giuseppina Grugnetti, Rosario Caruso
Distress could be often experienced by breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Those distress assessment is strategic to deliver care in a tailored way, enhancing the overall wellbeing. So far, those distress is measurable by the Chemotherapy-induced Alopecia Distress Scale (CADS), which is not yet available in Italian, due to there are no validation studies on this topic. For this reason, the aim of this study was to validate and adapt Chemotherapy-induced Alopecia Distress Scale within the Italian context (I-CADS)...
March 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Osvaldo P Almeida, Andrew H Ford, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recent research has identified several potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia, including mental disorders. Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder, have also been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but currently available data difficult to generalise because of bias and confounding. We designed the present study to investigate if the presence of a psychotic disorder increased the risk of incident dementia in later life...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Mayura Kale, Gajanan Sonwane, Rajesh Nawale, Vishnukant Mourya
There has been a rapid surge in the research and exchange of ideas in various areas of chemistry such as organic, pharmaceutical, analytical, and medicinal chemistry. It is well recognized that heterocycles are vital components of many biochemical processes. Pharma industry comprises of more than 75% of top selling drugs that are of heterocyclic origin. Among many diseases, cancer can be considered to be a dreaded disease that has overtaken the masses across the globe. Hence, there has been a need to develop drugs that are less toxic and do not provide resistance in the long run...
March 20, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Bakhtyar Sepehri, Raouf Ghavami
BACKGROUND: HSP90 is necessary for the conformational maturation of proteins, proteins disaggregation, folding new synthesized peptides and the refolding of denatured proteins. The inhibition of HSP90 leads to proteasomal degradations of client proteins that finally kill cancer cells. METHODS: In this research, molecular docking and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were used to investigate the interactions of tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives with the N-terminal domain binding site of the HSP90 and predicting their inhibitory activities Results: A CoMFA model with five components and q2 of 0...
March 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Xiaoyan Yang, Dongya Wang, Yunhao Shi, Jianhua Zou, Qisen Zhao, Qi Zhang, Wei Huang, Jinjun Shao, Xiaoji Xie, Xiaochen Dong
In preclinical and clinical research, to destroy cancers, particularly those located in deep tissues is still a great challenge. Photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy are promising alternative approaches for tissue cancer curing. Black phosphorus (BP) based nanomaterials, with broad UV-vis near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and excellent photothermal effect, have shown great potential in biomedical applications. Herein, a biocompatible therapeutic platform, Chlorin e6 (Ce6) decorated BP nanosheets (NSs), has been developed for fluorescence and thermal imaging guided photothermal and photodynamic synergistic cancer treatment...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Laura M Higgins, Vidya Ganapathy, Harini Kantamneni, Xinyu Zhao, Yang Sheng, Mei-Chee Tan, Charles M Roth, Richard E Riman, Prabhas V Moghe, Mark C Pierce
Rare-earth-doped nanocomposites have appealing optical properties for use as biomedical contrast agents, but few systems exist for imaging these materials. We describe the design and characterization of (i) a preclinical system for whole animal in vivo imaging and (ii) an integrated optical coherence tomography/confocal microscopy system for high-resolution imaging of ex vivo tissues. We demonstrate these systems by administering erbium-doped nanocomposites to a murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Short-wave infrared emissions were detected in vivo and in whole organ imaging ex vivo...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Michael J Duffy, Naoise C Synnott, John Crown
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss mutant p53 as a possible therapeutic target and biomarker for breast cancer. RESULTS: TP53 (p53) is the most frequently mutated gene in invasive breast cancer. Although mutated in 30-35% of all cases, p53 is mutated in approximately 80% of triple-negative (TN) tumors (i.e., tumors negative for ER, PR, and HER2). Because of this high prevalence, mutated p53 is both a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for patients with breast cancer, especially for those with the TN subtype...
March 21, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
I Gnass, S Krutter, N Nestler
BACKGROUND: People with cancer are increasingly supported by home care services. Pain is a relevant symptom of these diseases and nurses of home care services are involved in the treatment. The German National Expert Standard "Pain management in nursing" includes evidence-based recommendations for the implementation of adequate pain management. Considering the given structural conditions of home care services, nurses describe both barriers and challenges with the implementation...
March 21, 2018: Der Schmerz
Sophia Lazar, Lawrence E Goldfinger
Platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) have long been known to increase in circulation in the presence of cancer, and have been considered to be cancer promoting by multiple mechanisms including shrouding of circulating tumor cells allowing immune evasion, inducing a procoagulant state associated with increased risk for venous thromboembolic events in cancer patients, and supporting metastatic dissemination by establishment of niches for anchorage of circulating tumor cells. These modes of PMP-enhanced progression of late stage cancer are generally based on the adhesive and procoagulant surfaces of PMPs...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Abdulbari Bener, Reem Alsulaiman, Lisa Doodson, Hanadi R El Ayoubi
Introduction: Breast cancer has been the most common cancer type that affects women worldwide and subsequent treatment is often associated with considerable psychological and quality of life (QoL). Aim: This study aimed to assess psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) general QoL questionnaire (QLQ-C30) for breast cancer patients in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted on 678 breast cancer patients using Arabic version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 tool...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Taoufik Ladhari, Konrad Szafnicki
Usual therapies against malignant tumors, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, is severe and when repeated their efficiency may decrease because tumorous cells may become resistant. Contrarily, hyperthermia has been known for some time as an effective auxiliary treatment, which can be applied repeatedly. In some cases of abdominal carcinomatosis, particularly those of digestive origin, HIPEC is considered as an promising therapeutic option. Chemotherapy and hyperthermia are combined via the perfusion of the abdominal cavity with hot fluids containing chemotherapeutic agents, thus, augmenting the influence of appropriate chemotherapeutic agents with heat...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Fathima Kamil, Julie H Rowe
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is defined as the structural and dynamic network of cellular and non-cellular interactions between malignant cells and the surrounding non-malignant matrix. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are two of the most challenging gastrointestinal malignancies. Despite clinical advancements in understanding tumor biology and growth of the chemotherapeutic industry, there have been no corresponding improvements in prognosis and overall survival of HCC and PDAC...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Aparna Kalyan, Sheetal Kircher, Hiral Shah, Mary Mulcahy, Al Benson
Despite significant advances in standard of care therapies, the 5-year survival rate for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) remains around 12%. Immunotherapy has not provided the stellar advances in colorectal cancer that has been seen in other malignancies. Immunotherapy appears to play a pivotal role in microsatellite unstable CRC tumors where the response rates are profound. These results have led to FDA approval of pembrolizumab for MSI-H CRC tumors. Additional research into several new immune agents including IDO inhibitors, vaccine therapy and combinatorial agents are being evaluated for CRC...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Parisa Fatourachi, Behnaz Faramarziyan Azimi Maragheh, Seyede Momeneh Mohammadi, Behnaz Valipour, Alireza Dehnad, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
Aim: In this study we attempt to indicate anti-carcinogenic influence of ether extracted metabolites of Streptomyces Levis sp. on gene expression in colon cancer. Background: Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. In recent decades, researchers have been seeking the treatment for cancer. Natural products are valuable compounds with fewer side effects in comparison to chemotherapy drugs. Methods: Secondary metabolites were extracted with the inoculation of bacterial sample in Mueller Hinton Broth...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Fu-Mei Shang, Hong-Li Liu
Fusobacterium nucleatum ( F. nucleatum ) is a Gram-negative obligate anaerobe bacterium in the oral cavity and plays a role in several oral diseases, including periodontitis and gingivitis. Recently, several studies have reported that the level of F. nucleatum is significantly elevated in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas compared to that in adjacent normal tissue. Several researchers have also demonstrated that F. nucleatum is obviously associated with colorectal cancer and promotes the development of colorectal neoplasms...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Juan Wei, Hailan Su, Yang Bi, Jixin Li, Lidan Feng, Wenjun Sheng
As a major cancer type in females, cervical cancer has been explored in depth by researchers. HeLa is a cervical cancer cell line. Isorhamnetin is an O-methylated flavonol that is primarily extracted from sea buckthorn. In the present study, the anti-proliferative effect of isorhamnetin on HeLa cells was evaluated using a Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Isorhamnetin inhibited the cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle distribution revealed that isorhamnetin inhibited the cell cycle progression of HeLa by causing G2/M phase arrest and decreasing the proportion of cells in G1 phase...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Gilda Varricchi, Pietro Ameri, Christian Cadeddu, Alessandra Ghigo, Rosalinda Madonna, Giancarlo Marone, Valentina Mercurio, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Paolo Parrella, Flora Pirozzi, Antonio Pecoraro, Paolo Spallarossa, Concetta Zito, Giuseppe Mercuro, Pasquale Pagliaro, Carlo G Tocchetti
Antineoplastic drugs can be associated with several side effects, including cardiovascular toxicity (CTX). Biochemical studies have identified multiple mechanisms of CTX. Chemoterapeutic agents can alter redox homeostasis by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species RNS. Cellular sources of ROS/RNS are cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, stromal and inflammatory cells in the heart. Mitochondria, peroxisomes and other subcellular components are central hubs that control redox homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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