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Non invasive cardiac output

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124903/relationship-between-the-left-ventricular-size-and-the-amount-of-trabeculations
#1
Bruno Paun, Bart Bijnens, Constantine Butakoff
Contemporary imaging modalities offer non-invasive quantification of myocardial deformation; however, they make gross assumptions about internal structure of the cardiac walls. Our aim is to study the possible impact of the trabeculations on the stroke volume, strain and capacity of differently sized ventricles. The cardiac left ventricle is represented by an ellipsoid and the trabeculations by a tissue occupying a fixed volume. The ventricular contraction is modelled by scaling the ellipsoid whereupon the measurements of longitudinal strain, end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volume are derived and compared...
November 9, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121915/clinical-monitoring-of-cardiac-output-assessed-by-transoesophageal-echocardiography-in-anaesthetised-dogs-a-comparison-with-the-thermodilution-technique
#2
Matheus M Mantovani, Denise T Fantoni, André M Gimenes, Jacqueline R de Castro, Patrícia B Flor, Keila K Ida, Denise S Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) is an important haemodynamic parameter to monitor in patients during surgery. However, the majority of the techniques for measuring CO have a limited application in veterinary practice due to their invasive approach and associated complexity and risks. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a technique used to monitor cardiac function in human patients during surgical procedures and allows CO to be measured non-invasively. This prospective clinical study aimed to compare the transoesophageal echocardiography using a transgastric view of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the thermodilution (TD) technique for the assessment of CO during mean arterial pressure of 65-80 mmHg (normotension) and <65 mmHg (hypotension) in dogs undergoing elective surgery...
November 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120514/assessment-of-venous-hemodynamics-and-volume-homeostasis-during-pregnancy
#3
EDITORIAL
W Gyselaers, M Spaanderman
Venous hemodynamics and volume homeostasis are important aspects of cardiovascular physiology, however today their relevance is still very much underappreciated. Their most important role is maintenance and control of venous return and as such cardiac output. A high flow/low resistance circulation, remaining constant under physiological circumstances, is mandatory for an uncomplicated course of pregnancy. In this paper, characteristics of normal and abnormal venous and volume regulating functions are discussed with respect to normal and pathologic outcomes of pregnancy, and current (non-invasive) methods to assess these functions are summarized...
November 9, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106770/probing-the-cardiac-malate-aspartate-shuttle-non-invasively-using-hyperpolarized-1-2-13-c2-pyruvate
#4
Albert P Chen, Angus Z Lau, Yi-Ping Gu, Marie A Schroeder, Jennifer Barry, Charles H Cunningham
Previous studies have demonstrated that using hyperpolarized [2-(13) C]pyruvate as a contrast agent can reveal (13) C signals from metabolites associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, the metabolites detectable from TCA cycle-mediated oxidation of [2-(13) C]pyruvate are the result of several metabolic steps. In the instance of the [5-(13) C]glutamate signal, the amplitude can be modulated by changes to the rates of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux, TCA cycle flux and metabolite pool size...
November 6, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103320/cross-sectional-area-of-the-murine-aorta-linearly-increases-with-increasing-core-body-temperature
#5
A Colleen Crouch, Adam B Manders, Amos A Cao, Ulrich M Scheven, Joan M Greve
PURPOSE: The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. METHODS: Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102503/maternal-hemodynamics-a-method-to-classify-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy
#6
Enrico Ferrazzi, Tamara Stampalija, Lorenzo Monasta, Daniela Di Martino, Sharona Vonck, Wilfried Gyselaers
BACKGROUND: The classification of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is based on the time at the onset of hypertension, proteinuria, and other associated complications. Maternal hemodynamic interrogation in HDP considers not only the peripheral blood pressure but also the entire cardiovascular system, and it might help to classify the different clinical phenotypes of this syndrome. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine cardiovascular parameters in a cohort of patients affected by HDP according to the clinical phenotypes that prioritize fetoplacental characteristics and not the time at onset of HDP...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089251/longitudinal-study-to-assess-changes-in-arterial-stiffness-and-cardiac-output-parameters-among-low-risk-pregnant-women
#7
Mohamed Waseem Osman, Mintu Nath, Asma Khalil, David R Webb, Thompson G Robinson, Hatem A Mousa
AIM: A single-centre, prospective longitudinal study to assess changes in maternal arterial stiffness and cardiac output parameters among low-risk healthy pregnant women. METHODOLOGY: Thirty low-risk, healthy, pregnant women attending their routine antenatal dating ultrasound scan were recruited. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness and cardiac output was undertaken at five gestational windows from 11 to 40 weeks of pregnancy. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model incorporating time and other relevant predictors as fixed effects, and patient as a random effect...
October 16, 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074714/potential-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-lung-inhomogeneity-using-highly-precise-highly-time-resolved-measurements-of-gas-exchange
#8
James E Mountain, Peter Santer, David Patrick O'Neill, Nicholas M J Smith, Luca Ciaffoni, John H Couper, Grant A D Ritchie, Gus Hancock, Jonathan P Whiteley, Peter A Robbins
Inhomogeneity in the lung impairs gas exchange and can be an early marker of lung disease. We hypothesised that highly precise measurements of gas exchange contain sufficient information to quantify many aspects of the inhomogeneity non-invasively. Our aim was to explore whether one parameterization of lung inhomogeneity could both fit such data and provide reliable parameter estimates. A mathematical model of gas exchange in an inhomogeneous lung was developed, containing inhomogeneity parameters for compliance, vascular conductance and deadspace, all relative to lung volume...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071382/hydroxyethyl-starch-130-0-4-versus-crystalloid-co-loading-during-general-anesthesia-induction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Takashi Juri, Koichi Suehiro, Shigemune Kuwata, Sayaka Tsujimoto, Akira Mukai, Katsuaki Tanaka, Tokuhiro Yamada, Takashi Mori, Kiyonobu Nishikawa
PURPOSE: Hypotension and decreased cardiac output (CO) are common adverse effects during anesthesia induction depending on the patient's pre-anesthetic cardiac condition. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 to prevent hypotension and decreased CO during the induction of general anesthesia. METHODS: Ninety patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into a HES group and a crystalloid group. Following the insertion of an intravenous line, fluid was administered to each patient at a rate of 25 ml/min using either crystalloid or HES 130/0...
December 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060676/gamma-variate-modeling-of-indicator-dilution-curves-in-electrical-impedance-tomography
#10
Benjamin Hentze, Thomas Muders, Henning Luepschen, Steffen Leonhardt, Christian Putensen, Marian Walter
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, that can be used to monitor regional lung ventilation (V̇) in intensive care units (ICU) at bedside. This work introduces a method to extract regional lung perfusion (Q̇) from EIT image streams in order to quantify regional gas exchange in the lungs. EIT data from a single porcine animal trial, recorded during injection of a contrast agent (NaCl 10%) into a central venous catheter (CVC), are used for evaluation. Using semi-negative matrix factorization (Semi-NMF) a set of source signals is extracted from the data...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060215/regression-analysis-and-transfer-function-in-estimating-the-parameters-of-central-pulse-waves-from-brachial-pulse-wave
#11
Chai Rui, Li Si-Man, Xu Li-Sheng, Yao Yang, Hao Li-Ling
This study mainly analyzed the parameters such as ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. These parameters extracted from the central pulse wave invasively measured were compared with the parameters measured from the brachial pulse waves by a regression model and a transfer function model...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059883/monitoring-of-cardiac-output-and-lung-ventilation-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-in-a-porcine-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#12
Nadine Hochhausen, Henriette Dohmeier, Rolf Rossaint, Michael Czaplik
Adequate medical treatment of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is still challenging since patient-individual aspects have to be taken into account. Lung protective ventilation and hemodynamic stability have always been two of the most crucial aims of intensive care therapy. For both aspects, a continuous - preferably non-invasive - monitoring is desirable that is available at the bedside. Unfortunately, there is no technique clinically established yet, that provides both measurement of cardiac stroke volume and ventilation dynamics in real-time...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059861/modeling-young-and-adult-patients-with-cirrhosis-through-a-three-element-windkessel-wk3e
#13
L J Cymberknop, I Farro, C R Arbeitman, J Cardelino, R L Armentano
INTRODUCTION: Measurement of hemodynamic parameters constitutes an important tool in the management of patients with cirrhosis. In recent years, non-invasive measurements have gain attention, due to the potential complications associated to invasive procedures. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the hemodynamic alterations of cirrhosis in young and adult subjects, through a three element windkessel (WK3e). METHODS: Individuals were divided in three age groups: Young Healthy group (control, CG), Young Cirrhotic Group (YCG) and Adult Cirrhotic Group (ACG)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034783/cerebral-and-limb-tissue-oxygenation-during-peripheral-venoarterial-extracorporeal-life-support
#14
Nousjka P A Vranken, Anouk A M A Lindelauf, Antoine P Simons, Marcel J H Ariës, Jos G Maessen, Patrick W Weerwind
Femoral access in extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been associated with regional variations in arterial oxygen saturation, potentially predisposing the patient to ischemic tissue damage. Current monitoring techniques, however, are limited to intermittent bedside evaluation of capillary refill among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess whether cerebral and limb regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) values reflect changes in various patient-related parameters during venoarterial ECLS (VA-ECLS)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029934/ability-of-pulse-wave-transit-time-to-detect-changes-in-stroke-volume-and-to-estimate-cardiac-output-compared-to-thermodilution-technique-in-isoflurane-anaesthetised-dogs
#15
H Sano, J P Chambers
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of pulse wave transit time (PWTT) to detect changes in stroke volume (SV) and to estimate cardiac output (CO) compared with the thermodilution technique in isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. ANIMALS: Eight adult laboratory dogs. METHODS: The dogs were anaesthetized with isoflurane and mechanically ventilated. Reference CO (TDCO) was measured via a pulmonary artery catheter using the thermodilution technique and reference SV (TDSV) was calculated...
April 26, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942874/contribution-of-central-and-peripheral-factors-at-peak-exercise-in-heart-failure-patients-with-progressive-severity-of-exercise-limitation
#16
Alberico Del Torto, Nicoletta Corrieri, Carlo Vignati, Piero Gentile, Gaia Cattadori, Stefania Paolillo, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
BACKGROUND: A reduced cardiac output (CO) response during exercise is a major limiting factor in heart failure (HF). Oxygen consumption (VO2) is directly proportional to CO. Peripheral mechanisms via arteriovenous oxygen difference (Δ(a-v)O2) play a pivotal role in chronic HF. We hypothesized a weak correlation between peak VO2 and peak CO with a greater Δ(a-v)O2 variability in most severe HF. METHODS: We analyzed 278 HF patients (NYHA II-III) who performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test with non-invasive CO measurement by inert gas rebreathing...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925377/applied-upper-airway-resistance-instantly-affects-breath-components-a-unique-insight-into-pulmonary-medicine
#17
Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Svend Kamysek, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch
Respiratory parameters such as flow or rate have complex effects onto exhalation of volatile substances and can hamper clinical interpretation of breath biomarkers. We investigated effects of progressively applied upper-airway resistances onto exhalation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in healthy humans. We performed real-time mass-spectrometric determination of breath volatiles in 50 subjects with parallel non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring, breath-resolved spirometry and capnometry during controlled tidal breathing (12 breaths/min)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900614/echocardiographic-evaluation-of-pulmonary-pressures-and-right-ventricular-function-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-a-simple-approach-for-the-intensivist
#18
REVIEW
Maurice Beghetti
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is diagnosed using cardiac catheterization and is defined as an elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) greater than 25 mmHg. Although invasive hemodynamics remains the gold standard and is mandatory for disease confirmation, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an extremely useful non-invasive and widely available tool that allows for screening and follow-up, in particular, in the acute setting. TTE may be a valuable alternative, allowing for direct measurement and/or indirect assessment of PAP...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885662/differential-diagnosis-of-alterations-in-arterial-flow-and-tissue-oxygenation-on-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#19
Anna Hofer, Sylvia Leitner, Michaela Kreuzer, Jens Meier
BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) may be life-saving in several clinical situations, but it is also one of the most invasive therapeutic procedures, with significant potential for life-threatening complications. Pulse pressure waves are typically very small or even absent at the onset of ECMO therapy, and will reappear with the improvement of cardiac function. A low pulse pressure may indicate low cardiac output due to heart failure during sustained ECMO support...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884833/circulatory-flow-restoration-versus-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-new-therapeutic-approach-in-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#20
Sayed Nour, Daniel Carbognani, Juan Carlos Chachques
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) remains a major problem for health authorities worldwide. Insufficiencies of current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are most probably related to an inappropriate concept and applied methods that still concentrate on heartbeat as priority, instead of blood circulation to maintain organs' perfusions. The aim of this works is to propose a new therapeutic approach for SCA in a more effective and secure manner compared with current CPR methods. It correlates to a non-invasive circulatory flow restoration (CFR) device composed of a multilayered thoracic and infradiaphragmatic compartments that will be pulsated alternatively and in fixed frequencies using a low-pressure pneumatic generator...
September 8, 2017: Artificial Organs
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