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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632066/differences-in-trunk-and-thigh-muscle-strength-endurance-and-thickness-between-elite-sailors-and-non-sailors
#1
Bernd Friesenbichler, Julia F Item-Glatthorn, Fabian Neunstöcklin, Nicola C Casartelli, Gaël Guilhem, Nicola A Maffiuletti
Dinghy sailors lean their upper body over the windward side of the boat ('hiking') to keep the boat's balance and maximise its speed. Sustaining the hiking position is essential for competitive performance and this study examined sport-specific differences of muscles relevant for hiking in elite sailors. Knee extensor muscle strength as well as trunk muscle strength, muscle endurance and muscle thickness were assessed in elite dinghy sailors (n = 15) and compared to matched, non-sailing controls (n = 15)...
March 1, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632041/automated-volumetry-of-hippocampus-is-useful-to-confirm-unilateral-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-in-patients-with-radiologically-positive-findings
#2
Guilherme Silva, Cristina Martins, Nádia Moreira da Silva, Duarte Vieira, Dias Costa, Ricardo Rego, José Fonseca, João Paulo Silva Cunha
Background and purpose We evaluated two methods to identify mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS): visual inspection by experienced epilepsy neuroradiologists based on structural magnetic resonance imaging sequences and automated hippocampal volumetry provided by a processing pipeline based on the FMRIB Software Library. Methods This retrospective study included patients from the epilepsy monitoring unit database of our institution. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in 1.5T and 3T scanners with protocols that included thin coronal T2, T1 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and isometric T1 acquisitions...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631257/the-validity-and-responsiveness-of-isometric-lower-body-multi-joint-tests-of-muscular-strength-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
David Drake, Rodney Kennedy, Eric Wallace
BACKGROUND: Researchers and practitioners working in sports medicine and science require valid tests to determine the effectiveness of interventions and enhance understanding of mechanisms underpinning adaptation. Such decision making is influenced by the supportive evidence describing the validity of tests within current research. The objective of this study is to review the validity of lower body isometric multi-joint tests ability to assess muscular strength and determine the current level of supporting evidence...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630644/isometric-gene-tree-reconciliation-revisited
#4
Broňa Brejová, Askar Gafurov, Dana Pardubská, Michal Sabo, Tomáš Vinař
BACKGROUND: Isometric gene tree reconciliation is a gene tree/species tree reconciliation problem where both the gene tree and the species tree include branch lengths, and these branch lengths must be respected by the reconciliation. The problem was introduced by Ma et al. in 2008 in the context of reconstructing evolutionary histories of genomes in the infinite sites model. RESULTS: In this paper, we show that the original algorithm by Ma et al. is incorrect, and we propose a modified algorithm that addresses the problems that we discovered...
2017: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630573/effects-of-suspended-moxibustion-on-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-pilot-study
#5
Ding Meng, Dong Xiaosheng, Wang Xuhui, Wang Xu, Zhang Xijin
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of suspended moxibustion upon tender point on delayed onset muscle soreness. The study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial with 50 subjects in each group. Subjects in moxibustion group received suspended moxibustion upon tender point (by palpation) twice. The controls received no treatment. Each subject received treatments twice, 24 hr and 48 hr after the delayed onset muscle soreness induction. The measurements of Pain Visual Analog Scale, maximum isometric muscle strength and circumference were made immediately after delayed onset muscle soreness induction, before and after every treatment session and 72 hr after delayed onset muscle soreness induction...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627963/the-natural-history-of-recovery-of-elbow-flexion-after-obstetric-brachial-plexus-injury-managed-without-nerve-repair
#6
T E J Hems, T Savaridas, D A Sherlock
In this study, we report the outcome for spontaneous recovery of elbow flexion in obstetric brachial plexus injury managed without nerve reconstruction. Excluding those with transient paralysis, our records revealed 152 children with obstetric brachial plexus injury born before our unit routinely offered brachial plexus reconstruction. Five had had nerve repairs. Of the remainder, only one patient had insufficient flexion to reach their mouth. Elbow flexion started to recover clinically at a mean age of 4 months for Narakas Group 1, 6 months for Group 2, 8 months for Group 3 and 12 months for Group 4...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626855/a-scaling-method-to-individualise-muscle-force-capacities-in-musculoskeletal-models-of-the-hand-and-wrist-using-isometric-strength-measurements
#7
Benjamin Goislard de Monsabert, G Rao, A Gay, E Berton, L Vigouroux
Because the force-generating capacities of muscles are currently estimated using anatomical data obtained from cadaver specimens, hand musculoskeletal models provide only a limited representation of the specific features of individual subjects. A scaling method is proposed to individualise muscle capacities using dynamometric measurements and electromyography. For each subject, a strength profile was first defined by measuring net moments during eight maximum isometric contractions about the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints...
June 19, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626308/relationship-between-trunk-function-evaluated-using-the-trunk-righting-test-and-physical-function-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#8
Kazuaki Kinoshita, Kazunari Ishida, Masashi Hashimoto, Yuki Yoneda, Yuta Naka, Hideyuki Kitanishi, Hiroki Oyagi, Yuichi Hoshino, Masahiro Kurosaka, Nao Shibanuma
[Purpose] The present study was to validate the importance of the trunk function evaluated by trunk righting test (TRT) with motor function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to show the clinical use of TRT. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent total knee arthroplasty in our hospital. Correlations between physical functional test, such as muscle strength, balance function, and performance and TRT were statistically evaluated. [Results] The independent factors for ipsilateral TRT were maximal isometric knee extensor strength test and ipsilateral step test...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626072/5-ht-causes-splanchnic-venodilation
#9
Bridget Mahon Seitz, Hakan Orer, Teresa Krieger-Burke, Emma S Darios, Janice M Thompson, Gregory D Fink, Stephanie W Watts
Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytrypamine) causes relaxation of the isolated superior mesenteric vein (SMV), a splanchnic blood vessel, through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. As part of studies designed to identify the mechanism(s) through which chronic (>24 hours) infusion of 5-HT lowers blood pressure, we test the hypothesis that 5-HT causes an in vitro and in vivo splanchnic venodilation that is 5-HT7 receptor-dependent. In tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction, the portal vein (PV) and abdominal inferior vena cava (Ab IVC) relaxed to 5-HT and the 5-HT1/7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT); relaxation was abolished by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625710/effect-of-an-individualised-physical-exercise-program-on-lipid-profile-in-sedentary-patients-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#10
Francisco Javier Rubio Pérez, Luis Franco Bonafonte, Daiana Ibarretxe Guerediaga, Maria Pilar Oyon Belaza, Paola Ugarte Peyron
Physical exercise has become in an important tool in the reduction of cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an unsupervised physical exercise program that on the physical condition and the lipid profile. METHOD: The final sample included 49 sedentary men and women, who were non-smokers, with dyslipidaemia, overweight, and type1 obesity. The 4-month program included walking for 30-60minutes every day, and for three days a week, 30minutes of cycling at an intensity of 40-60% of maximum functional capacity, as well as isometric abdominals and static stretching...
June 15, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624688/relation-between-peak-power-output-in-sprint-cycling-and-maximum-voluntary-isometric-torque-production
#11
Mehdi Kordi, Stuart Goodall, Paul Barratt, Nicola Rowley, Jonathan Leeder, Glyn Howatson
From a cycling paradigm, little has been done to understand the relationships between maximal isometric strength of different single joint lower body muscle groups and their relation with, and ability to predict PPO and how they compare to an isometric cycling specific task. The aim of this study was to establish relationships between maximal voluntary torque production from isometric single-joint and cycling specific tasks and assess their ability to predict PPO. Twenty male trained cyclists participated in this study...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623713/indirect-sinusoidal-vibrations-induces-an-acute-increase-in-explosive-strength
#12
Leandro V de Paula, Pedro V S Moreira, Rudolf Huebner, Leszek A Szmuchrowski
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of indirect vibration on neuromuscular responses and fatigue resistance (electromyographic activity - EMG and force) during isometric exercise. Nineteen healthy men (age=22.4±2.7years; body mass=76.4±12.9kg, height=175±6.7cm) performed isometric elbow flexion exercises in three experimental treatments: only isometric exercise (control - CON); isometric exercise with the addition of sinusoidal vibrations (SVE1; frequency=20Hz, displacement=3.55±0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622156/aerobic-versus-isometric-handgrip-exercise-in-hypertension-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Nikolaos Pagonas, Stergios Vlatsas, Frederic Bauer, Felix S Seibert, Walter Zidek, Nina Babel, Peter Schlattmann, Timm H Westhoff
OBJECTIVES: Aerobic dynamic exercise reduces blood pressure (BP) and is broadly recommended by current American and European hypertension guidelines. Isometric exercise is currently not recommended, since data from only a few studies are available. We compare for the first time the effects of isometric handgrip training and aerobic exercise in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 75 hypertensive patients were randomized to one of the following 12-week programmes: Isometric handgrip training five times weekly (two contractions of 2 min at 30% of maximal power with each arm); 'Sham-handgrip training' five times weekly (two contractions of 2 min at 5% of maximal power with each arm); Aerobic exercise training of 30 min three to five times per week...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620311/physiological-adaptations-to-hypoxic-vs-normoxic-training-during-intermittent-living-high
#14
Stefan De Smet, Paul van Herpt, Gommaar D'Hulst, Ruud Van Thienen, Marc Van Leemputte, Peter Hespel
In the setting of "living high," it is unclear whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) should be performed "low" or "high" to stimulate muscular and performance adaptations. Therefore, 10 physically active males participated in a 5-week "live high-train low or high" program (TR), whilst eight subjects were not engaged in any altitude or training intervention (CON). Five days per week (~15.5 h per day), TR was exposed to normobaric hypoxia simulating progressively increasing altitude of ~2,000-3,250 m...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620014/the-tendinopathic-achilles-tendon-does-not-remain-iso-volumetric-upon-repeated-loading-insights-from-3d-ultrasound
#15
Leila Nuri, Steven J Obst, Richard Newsham-West, Rod S Barrett
Mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (MAT) alters the normal three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the Achilles tendon (AT) at rest and under a single tensile load. However, how MAT changes the 3D morphology of AT during repeated loading remains unclear. This study compared the AT longitudinal, transverse and volume strains during repeated loading in MAT with those of the contralateral tendon in people with unilateral MAT. Ten adults with unilateral MAT performed 10 successive 25 second submaximal (50%) voluntary isometric plantarflexion contractions with both legs...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619292/psychophysiological-response-in-parachute-jumps-the-effect-of-experience-and-type-of-jump
#16
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Jesús Fernández-Lucas
We aimed to analyse the effect of experience and type of parachute jump on the psychophysiological responses of jumpers. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills, self-confidence and cognition, and somatic and state anxiety, before and after four different parachute jumps: a sport parachute jump, a manual tactical parachute jump, tandem pilots, and tandem passengers. Independently of the parachute jump, the psychophysiological responses of experienced paratroopers were not affected by the jumps, except for an increase in anaerobic metabolism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619087/longitudinal-estimation-of-intramuscular-tibialis-anterior-coherence-during-subacute-spinal-cord-injury-relationship-with-neurophysiological-functional-and-clinical-outcome-measures
#17
Elisabeth Bravo-Esteban, Julian Taylor, Manuel Aleixandre, Cristina Simón-Martínez, Diego Torricelli, Jose Luis Pons, Gerardo Avila-Martín, Iriana Galán-Arriero, Julio Gómez-Soriano
BACKGROUND: Estimation of surface intramuscular coherence has been used to indirectly assess pyramidal tract activity following spinal cord injury (SCI), especially within the 15-30 Hz bandwidth. However, change in higher frequency (>40 Hz) muscle coherence during SCI has not been characterised. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify change of high and low frequency intramuscular Tibialis Anterior (TA) coherence during incomplete subacute SCI. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects and 22 subjects with motor incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale, AIS, C or D grade) were recruited and tested during 4 sessions performed at 2-week intervals up to 8 months after SCI...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618556/strain-tensor-selection-and-the-elastic-theory-of-incompatible-thin-sheets
#18
Oz Oshri, Haim Diamant
The existing theory of incompatible elastic sheets uses the deviation of the surface metric from a reference metric to define the strain tensor [Efrati et al., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 57, 762 (2009)JMPSA80022-509610.1016/j.jmps.2008.12.004]. For a class of simple axisymmetric problems we examine an alternative formulation, defining the strain based on deviations of distances (rather than distances squared) from their rest values. While the two formulations converge in the limit of small slopes and in the limit of an incompressible sheet, for other cases they are found not to be equivalent...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616033/exercise-induced-muscle-fatigue-in-the-unaffected-knee-joint-and-its-influence-on-postural-control-and-lower-limb-kinematics-in-stroke-patients
#19
Sun Wook Park, Sung Min Son, Na Kyung Lee
This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint on postural control and kinematic changes in stroke patients. Forty participants (20 stroke patients, 20 age-matched healthy participants) were recruited. To induce fatigue, maximum voluntary isometric contractions were performed in the unaffected knee joint in a Leg Extension Rehab exercise machine using the pneumatic resistance. We measured static and dynamic balance and lower-limb kinematics during gait...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615977/high-lateral-plantar-pressure-is-related-to-an-increased-tibialis-anterior-fibularis-longus-activity-ratio-in-patients-with-recurrent-lateral-ankle-sprain
#20
Shinshiro Mineta, Takayuki Inami, Raldy Mariano, Norikazu Hirose
INTRODUCTION: Center of pressure (COP) is a sudden displacement at the time of a lateral ankle sprain (LAS). It has been suggested that the distribution of plantar pressure and the quantity of COP displacement are important for assessing the risk of LAS. Therefore, we evaluated the plantar pressure during a single-leg balance test with eyes closed (SLB-C) to identify the factors and characteristics of plantar pressure in people with repeated cases of LAS. METHODS: We recruited 22 collegiate athletes and divided them into an instability group (IG; n=11) and a control group (CG; n=11)...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
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