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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793158/botulinum-toxin-type-a-affects-mechanics-of-non-injected-antagonistic-rat-muscles
#1
Filiz Ateş, Can A Yucesoy
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) effects on the mechanics of non-injected antagonistic muscles are unknown. The aim was to test the following hypotheses in a rat model: BTX-A injected into gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and lateralis (GL) (1) decreases forces of the antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), (2) reduces length range of force exertion and (3) increases passive forces of the TA, and (4) changes inter-antagonistic and inter-synergistic epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792554/effect-of-acetazolamide-and-methazolamide-on-diaphragm-and-dorsiflexor-fatigue-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Paolo B Dominelli, Chris J McNeil, Tyler Dennis Vermeulen, Troy J R Stuckless, Courtney V Brown, Giulio S Dominelli, Erik Richard Swenson, Lucas J Teppema, Glen Edward Foster
Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor used clinically and to prevent acute mountain sickness, worsens skeletal muscle fatigue in animals and humans. In animals, methazolamide, a methylated analogue of acetazolamide and an equally potent CA inhibitor, reportedly exacerbates fatigue less than acetazolamide. Accordingly, we sought to determine, in humans, if methazolamide would attenuate diaphragm and dorsiflexor fatigue compared to acetazolamide. Healthy men (dorsiflexor: n=12; diaphragm: n=7) performed fatiguing exercise on three occasions, after ingesting acetazolamide (250 mg three times a day) and then in random order, methazolamide (100 mg twice a day) or placebo for 48 h...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792104/association-of-hip-and-foot-factors-with-patellar-tendinopathy-jumper-s-knee-in-athletes
#3
Luciana D Mendonça, Juliana M Ocarino, Natália F N Bittencourt, Luciana G Macedo, Sérgio T Fonseca
Study Design Clinical measurement, cross-sectional. Background Investigations on the causes of patellar tendinopathy (PT) should consider impairments at the hip and foot/ankle since they are known to influence movement patterns and affect patellar tendon loading. Objectives To investigate, by means of CART analysis, impairments of the hip and foot/ankle that are associated with PT in volleyball and basketball athletes. Methods One-hundred and ninety athletes were assessed for impairments of the hip and foot/ankle including: shank-forefoot alignment (SFA), ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM), iliotibial band flexibility, passive hip internal rotation (IR) ROM, and hip external rotator (ER) and hip abductor isometric strength...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791760/neopterin-7-8-dihydroneopterin-is-elevated-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients-and-protects-mdx-skeletal-muscle-function
#4
Angus Lindsay, Alexandra Schmiechen, Christopher M Chamberlain, James M Ervasti, Dawn A Lowe
Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of dystrophin-deficient muscle. We tested the hypothesis that Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients would have elevated levels of the macrophage synthesized pterins, neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin compared to unaffected age-matched controls. Urinary neopterin/creatinine and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine were elevated in DMD patients and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine was associated with patient age and ambulation. 7,8-dihydroneopterin correction with specific gravity was also elevated in DMD patients...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791702/all-inside-technique-for-acl-reconstruction-using-a-flipcutter%C3%A2-and-the-tightrope%C3%A2-system
#5
Nicos Papaloucas
There have been many innovations in the field of ACL-reconstruction over the years, including the FlipCutter® and TightRope® system (both from Arthrex Inc.). The FlipCutter® is a combined guide pin and reamer that allows minimally invasive socket-creation from the inside out, especially in difficult-to-reach areas. The TightRope® is a further development of the well-known Endobutton™ (Smith & Nephew plc) that consists of a four-point knotless locking system. Its main advantage is its adjustability, which makes it possible to fill the entire bone socket with the graft without any empty space...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791349/polarimetric-learning-a-siamese-approach-to-learning-distance-metrics-of-algal-mueller-matrix-images
#6
Xianpeng Li, Ran Liao, Hui Ma, Priscilla T Y Leung, Meng Yan
Polarimetric measurements are becoming increasingly accurate and fast to perform in modern applications. However, analysis on the polarimetric data usually suffers from its high-dimensional nature spatially, temporally, or spectrally. This paper associates polarimetric techniques with metric learning algorithms, namely, polarimetric learning, by introducing a distance metric learning method called Siamese network that aims to learn good distance metrics of algal Mueller matrix images in low-dimensional feature spaces...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789262/eccentric-cycling-emphasising-a-low-cardiopulmonary-demand-increases-leg-strength-equivalent-to-workload-matched-concentric-cycling-in-middle-age-sedentary-males
#7
Michael C Lewis, Gregory E Peoples, Herbert Groeller, Marc A Brown
OBJECTIVES: This study determined if eccentric endurance cycling, eliciting a low cardiovascular demand, could stimulate muscle strength adaptations in sedentary middle-aged males. DESIGN: Twenty-four middle-aged sedentary males were allocated to concentric (CON) or matched workload eccentric (ECC) cycling (60% peak concentric workload) according to their maximal voluntary isometric quadriceps strength. METHODS: Seventeen participants [42...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788440/exercise-induced-hypoalgesia-after-isometric-wall-squat-exercise-a-test-retest-reliabilty-study
#8
Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Kristian Damgaard Lyng, Fredrik Wannebo Yttereng, Mads Holst Christensen, Mathias Brandhøj Sørensen, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
Background: Isometric exercises decrease pressure pain sensitivity in exercising and nonexercising muscles known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). No studies have assessed the test-retest reliability of EIH after isometric exercise. This study investigated the EIH on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) after an isometric wall squat exercise. The relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the PPT as a test stimulus and the EIH response in exercising and nonexercising muscles were calculated...
May 19, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787475/isometric-versus-dynamic-measurements-of-fatigue-does-age-matter-a-meta-analysis
#9
Renata L Krüger, Saied Jalal Aboodarda, Pierre Samozino, Charles L Rice, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: The assessment of power changes after fatiguing exercise provides important additional information about neuromuscular function compared to traditional isometric measurements, especially when exploring age-related changes in fatigability. Therefore, the aim of this review was to explore the effects of age on neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) when measured in isometric compared with dynamic contractions. The importance of central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to age-related NMF were discussed...
May 22, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787474/hypothermia-decreases-o2-cost-for-ex-vivo-contraction-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#10
Patrick J Ferrara, Anthony R P Verkerke, Jeffrey J Brault, Katsuhiko Funai
INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that the energy efficiency of key ATPases involved in skeletal muscle contractile activity are improved in a hypothermic condition. However, it is unclear how a decrease in temperature affects skeletal muscle O2 consumption (mVO2) induced by muscle contraction. METHODS: Isolated mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were incubated in a temperature-controlled (37°C or 25°C) bath that included an O2 probe. EDL muscles from one limb were subjected to the measurement of resting mVO2, and the contralateral EDL muscles were used for the measurement of mVO2 with electrically-stimulated contraction...
May 22, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786656/temperature-effects-on-force-and-actin%C3%A2-myosin-interaction-in-muscle-a-look-back-on-some-experimental-findings
#11
REVIEW
K W Ranatunga
Observations made in temperature studies on mammalian muscle during force development, shortening, and lengthening, are re-examined. The isometric force in active muscle goes up substantially on warming from less than 10 °C to temperatures closer to physiological (>30 °C), and the sigmoidal temperature dependence of this force has a half-maximum at ~10 °C. During steady shortening, when force is decreased to a steady level, the sigmoidal curve is more pronounced and shifted to higher temperatures, whereas, in lengthening muscle, the curve is shifted to lower temperatures, and there is a less marked increase with temperature...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785630/calcium-channels-rho-kinase-protein-kinase-c-and-phospholipase-c-pathways-mediate-mercury-chloride-induced-myometrial-contractions-in-rats
#12
Swati Koli, Atul Prakash, Soumen Choudhury, Rajesh Mandil, Satish K Garg
Adverse effects of mercury on female reproduction are reported; however, its effect on myogenic activity of uterus and mechanism thereof is obscure. Present study was undertaken to unravel the mechanistic pathways of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 )-induced myometrial contraction in rats. Isometric tension in myometrial strips of rats following in vitro exposure to HgCl2 was recorded using data acquisition system-based physiograph. HgCl2 produced concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 μM) uterotonic effect which was significantly (p < 0...
May 21, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785524/a-9-year-follow-up-study-of-quantitative-muscle-strength-changes-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#13
Cynthia Gagnon, Émilie Petitclerc, Marie Kierkegaard, Jean Mathieu, Élise Duchesne, Luc J Hébert
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a neuromuscular disorder presenting with major muscle impairments. However, few studies have addressed muscle strength progression using quantitative methods. The aims of this study were to document muscle strength changes in eight muscle groups among adults with DM1 over a 9-year period, and to compare this progression between phenotypes (adult and late-onset) and sex. Patients with a genetic diagnosis of DM1 with the late-onset or the adult phenotype were recruited at baseline through the clinical registry of the Saguenay Neuromuscular Clinic...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785343/perinatal-specimens-of-maiasaura-from-the-upper-cretaceous-of-montana-usa-insights-into-the-early-ontogeny-of-saurolophine-hadrosaurid-dinosaurs
#14
Albert Prieto-Marquez, Merrilee F Guenther
Perinatal specimens of hadrosaurids discovered in the late 1970's by field crews from Princeton University were significant in providing evidence of the early ontogenetic stages in North American dinosaurs. These specimens from the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) Two Medicine Formation of Montana consist of over a dozen skeletons referable to the saurolophine hadrosaurid Maiasaura peeblesorum , but never fully figured or described. Here, we provide a more complete documentation of the morphology of these specimens, along with an examination of variation during a large span of the development of saurolophine hadrosaurids...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#15
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781788/a-review-of-the-reliability-of-biomechanical-variables-produced-during-the-isometric-mid-thigh-pull-and-isometric-squat-and-the-reporting-of-normative-data
#16
Claire J Brady, Andrew J Harrison, Thomas M Comyns
The use of isometric strength testing, particularly the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) has increased dramatically over the last decade. The IMTP and isometric squat (ISqT) provide one aspect of performance monitoring with variables such as peak force and rate of force development being derived from the force-time curve. The reliability of some of these variables is conflicting in the literature, and the reporting of the reliability is not standardised across the research. The majority of research only reports intraclass correlation coefficients with very few studies reporting coefficient of variation and 90% confidence intervals...
May 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778449/mechanisms-underlying-the-relaxation-by-a484954-a-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-kinase-inhibitor-in-rat-isolated-mesenteric-artery
#17
Tomoko Kodama, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) is a calmodulin-related protein kinase which regulates protein translation. A484954 is an inhibitor of eEF2K. In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of A484954 on contractility of isolated blood vessels. Isometric contraction of rat isolated aorta and main branch of superior mesenteric artery (MA) was measured. Expression of an inward rectifier K+ (Kir ) channel subtype mRNA and protein was examined. A484954 caused relaxation in endothelium-intact [E (+)] and -denuded [E (-)] aorta or MA precontracted with noradrenaline (NA)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778242/cardiovascular-responses-to-isometric-handgrip-exercise-in-young-patients-with-recurrent-vasovagal-syncope
#18
Juan Idiaquez, Juan Francisco Idiaquez, Rodrigo Iturriaga
OBJECTIVE: Arterial blood pressure (BP) increased in healthy humans in response to isometric handgrip (IHG), but the pattern of the relative contribution of cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) changes to the pressor response is different among individuals. We investigated weather patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS) have a similar pattern of individual CO, TPR and pressor responses to IHG, as healthy subjects. METHODS: 32 patients (27...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777475/effects-of-resistance-training-detraining-and-retraining-on-strength-and-functional-capacity-in-elderly
#19
Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Bruno Monteiro Moura, Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Fernando Diefenthaeler
BACKGROUND: The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. AIM: To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. METHODS: Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining...
May 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776601/echo-intensity-versus-muscle-function-correlations-in-older-adults-are-influenced-by-subcutaneous-fat-thickness
#20
Matt S Stock, Morgan Whitson, Adam M Burton, Nicole T Dawson, Eric J Sobolewski, Brennan J Thompson
Recently, an equation that allows investigators to correct echo intensity for subcutaneous fat was developed. We evaluated correlations between uncorrected and corrected echo intensity versus measures of lower-extremity function. Twenty-three older adults (11 men, 12 women; mean age = 72 y) participated. B-Mode ultrasonography was used to quantify rectus femoris echo intensity and subcutaneous fat thickness. Knee extensor isometric peak torque and rate of torque development at 200 ms (RTD200) were determined (joint angle = 90°)...
May 15, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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