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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438610/hyperglycemia-increases-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-via-mapk1-and-mapk3-signaling-to-etv1-and-kit-leading-to-rapid-gastric-emptying
#1
Yujiro Hayashi, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Siva Arumugam Saravanaperumal, Michael R Bardsley, John A Smestad, Andrea Lorincz, Seth T Eisenman, Gianluca Cipriani, Molly H Nelson Holte, Fatimah J Al Khazal, Sabriya A Syed, Gabriella B Gajdos, Kyoung Moo Choi, Gary J Stoltz, Katie E Miller, Michael L Kendrick, Brian P Rubin, Simon J Gibbons, Adil E Bharucha, David R Linden, Louis James Maher, Gianrico Farrugia, Tamas Ordog
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is common in diabetic gastroparesis. However, in approximately 20% of patients with diabetes, gastric emptying (GE) is accelerated. GE is also faster in obese individuals, and is associated with increased blood levels of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. To understand the fate of ICCs in hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic states characterized by rapid GE, we studied mice with mutation of the leptin receptor (Lepr(db/db)), which in our colony had accelerated GE...
April 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436890/in-situ-force-augmentation-improves-surface-contact-and-force-control
#2
Randy Lee, Roberta Klatzky, George Stetten
Surgeons routinely perform surgery with noisy, sub-threshold, or obscured visual and haptic feedback, either due to the necessary surgical approach, or because the systems on which they are operating are exceedingly delicate. Technological solutions incorporating haptic feedback augmentation have been proposed to address these difficulties, but the consequences for motor control have not been directly investigated and quantified. In this paper, we present two isometric force generation tasks performed with a hand-held robotic tool that provides in-situ augmentation of force sensation...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436401/effects-of-amplitude-and-phase-duration-modification-on-electrically-induced-contraction-force-and-discomfort
#3
Shmuel Springer, Maxim Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation. However, the optimal combination of phase-duration and amplitude for enhancing motor output is not yet resolved. OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of increasing phase-duration and amplitude on isometric knee extension force and discomfort, while controlling the effects of electrode-skin resistance and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Twenty-one healthy volunteers participated in the study...
April 14, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435092/-terpinen-4-ol-changes-intracellular-ca-2-handling-and-induces-pacing-disturbance-in-rat-hearts
#4
Antonio Nei Santana Gondim, Aline Lara, Artur Santos-Miranda, Danilo Roman-Campos, Sandra Lauton-Santos, José Evaldo Rodrigues Menezes-Filho, Carla Maria Lins de Vasconcelos, Eduardo Antonio Conde-Garcia, Silvia Guatimosim, Jader S Cruz
(-)-Terpinen-4-ol is a naturally occurring plant monoterpene and has been shown to have a plethora of biological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of (-)-terpinen-4-ol on the rat heart, a key player in the control and maintenance of arterial blood pressure. The effects of (-)-terpinen-4-ol on the rat heart were investigated using isolated left atrium isometric force measurements, in vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings, patch clamp technique, and confocal microscopy. It was observed that (-)-terpinen-4-ol reduced contraction force in an isolated left atrium at millimolar concentrations...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434718/corrigendum-to-extracting-low-velocity-concentric-and-eccentric-dynamic-muscle-properties-from-isometric-contraction-experiments-mathematical-biosciences-278-2016-77-93
#5
R Rockenfeller, M Günther
We provide corrections to our paper "Extracting Low-Velocity Concentric and Eccentric Dynamic Muscle Properties from Isometric Contraction Experiments, Mathematical Biosciences 278 (2016), p. 77-93", where we used an erroneous form of Hatze's activation dynamics. The statements of the paper still hold true in general, even though the numerical values of Tables 1, 2, and 3 slightly vary. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.
April 20, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434061/the-sources-of-calcium-for-noradrenaline-induced-contraction-in-the-human-thoracic-internal-artery
#6
Leszek Buzun, Beata Modzelewska, Anna Kostrzewska, Ewa Kleszczewska, Tomasz Kleszczewski
The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of intracellular and extracellular calcium sources in contraction caused by noradrenaline (NA) of the human internal thoracic artery (ITA) in vitro. Distal segments of ITA were obtained from 20 patients (aged 38-73, at the time of routine coronary artery surgical revascularization (CABG)). Contractile responses to 10(-6) mol/L NA in the physiological salt solution and in Ca(2+)-free solution without and after incubation with 10(-6) mol/L thapsigargin (TSG) were recorded under isometric conditions...
April 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433808/comparisons-of-hip-strength-and-countermovement-jump-height-in-elite-tennis-players-with-and-without-acute-history-of-groin-injuries
#7
V Moreno-Pérez, A Lopez-Valenciano, D Barbado, J Moreside, J L L Elvira, F J Vera-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Despite the high groin-injury (GI) prevalence in tennis, no studies have assessed the extent to which intrinsic groin injury risk factors, such as hip muscle strength, have recovered in elite tennis players with a history of previous GI. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether elite tennis players with a history of GI show differences in hip strength and jump height between injured and uninjured limbs and compared with dominant limb in tennis players without history of acute groin-injuries (NGI)...
April 13, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433473/sex-difference-in-the-heat-shock-response-to-high-external-load-resistance-training-in-older-humans
#8
Rose Njemini, Louis Nuvagah Forti, Tony Mets, Evelien Van Roie, Walter Coudyzer, Ingo Beyer, Christophe Delecluse, Ivan Bautmans
BACKGROUND: Literature reports on the effects of resistance training on heat shock protein70 (Hsp70) adaptation in older subjects are scarce. Moreover, the optimum training load required to obtain a beneficial adaptation profile is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training at various external loads on extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) resting levels in older humans. METHODS: Fifty-six community-dwelling older (68±5years) volunteers were randomized to 12weeks of resistance training (3×/week) at either high-resistance (HIGH, 8 males, 10 females, 2×10-15 repetitions at 80%1RM), low resistance (LOW, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×80-100 repetitions at 20%1RM), or mixed low resistance (LOW+, 9 Males, 10 Females, 1×60 repetitions at 20%1RM followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40%1RM)...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432606/neuromuscular-electrostimulation-a-new-therapeutic-option-to-improve-radio-cephalic-arteriovenous-fistula-maturation-in-end-stage-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#9
Lucia Martinez, Vicent Esteve, Montserrat Yeste, Vicent Artigas, Secundino Llagostera
BACKGROUND: Radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF) is the gold standard vascular access for end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Exercises after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation improve maturation. No articles are published regarding neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) in AVF maturation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness of a NMES programme on RCAVF maturation process. METHODS: An 8-week single-centre prospective study...
April 21, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432420/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-function-after-repeated-eccentric-contractions-of-the-knee-extensor-muscles
#10
Andrea Lee, Jake Baxter, Claire Eischer, Matt Gage, Sandra Hunter, Tejin Yoon
PURPOSE: This study examined the mechanisms for force and power reduction during and up to 48 h after maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles in young men and women. METHODS: 13 men (22.8 ± 2.6 years) and 13 women (21.6 ± 2.2 years) performed 150 maximal effort eccentric contractions (5 sets of 30) with the knee extensor muscles at 60° s(-1). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC) were performed before and after the 150 eccentric contractions...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431747/effects-of-vibration-training-in-reducing-risk-of-slip-related-falls-among-young-adults-with-obesity
#11
Feng Yang, Jose Munoz, Long-Zhu Han, Fei Yang
This study examined the effects of controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing risk of slip-related falls in people with obesity. Twenty-three young adults with obesity were randomly assigned into either the vibration or placebo group. The vibration and placebo groups respectively received 6-week vibration and placebo training on a side-alternating vibration platform. Before and after the training, the isometric knee extensors strength capacity was measured for the two groups. Both groups were also exposed to a standardized slip induced by a treadmill during gait prior to and following the training...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429109/associations-of-maximal-voluntary-isometric-hip-extension-torque-with-muscle-size-of-hamstring-and-gluteus-maximus-and-intra-abdominal-pressure
#12
Kota Tayashiki, Kosuke Hirata, Kiraku Ishida, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Naokazu Miyamoto
PURPOSE: Muscle size of the hamstring and gluteus maximus (GM) as well as intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) are considered as factors affecting the torque development during hip extension. This study examined the associations of torque development during maximal voluntary isometric hip extension with IAP and muscle size of the hamstring and GM. METHODS: Anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the hamstring and thickness of GM were determined in 20 healthy young males using an ultrasonography apparatus (Experiment 1)...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428836/muscle-function-and-fatigability-of-trunk-flexors-in-males-and-females
#13
Rita E Deering, Jonathon W Senefeld, Tatyana Pashibin, Donald A Neumann, Sandra K Hunter
BACKGROUND: Optimal function of the abdominal muscles is necessary for several life functions including lifting and carrying tasks. Sex differences in strength and fatigability are established for many limb muscles and back extensor muscles, but it is unknown if sex differences exist for the abdominal muscles despite their functional importance. METHODS: Eighteen females (24.3 ± 4.8 years) and 15 males (24.1 ± 6.6 years) performed (1) isometric trunk flexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in a range of trunk positions to establish a torque-angle curve and (2) submaximal (50% MVC), intermittent isometric contraction (6 s on, 4 s off) until task failure to determine fatigability of the trunk flexor muscles...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427290/a-real-time-method-for-decoding-the-neural-drive-to-muscles-using-single-channel-intra-muscular-emg-recordings
#14
Saeed Karimimehr, Hamid Reza Marateb, Silvia Muceli, Marjan Mansourian, Miguel Angel Mañanas, Dario Farina
The neural command from motor neurons to muscles - sometimes referred to as the neural drive to muscle - can be identified by decomposition of electromyographic (EMG) signals. This approach can be used for inferring the voluntary commands in neural interfaces in patients with limb amputations. This paper proposes for the first time an innovative method for fully automatic and real-time intramuscular EMG (iEMG) decomposition. The method is based on online single-pass density-based clustering and adaptive classification of bivariate features, using the concept of potential measure...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427235/catan-ionic-hybrid-lipidic-nano-carriers-for-enhanced-bioavailability-and-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-chemodrugs
#15
Bilin Liu, Dan He, Jianyong Wu, Quan Sun, Mi Zhang, Qunyou Tan, Yao Li, Jingqing Zhang
To date there has not been any report on catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers, let alone a report on applying them to deliver insoluble anti-tumor drugs. Catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers containing curcumin (CUR-C-HLN) inherit the merits of catan-ionic systems, hybrid lipidic systems and nano-structured carriers (the second-generation substitute of solid lipidic nano-systems). Catan-ionic surfactants increased microvesicle stabilization by producing unordered isometric clusters, enhanced absorptive amount as an inhibitor of enzyme and protein, improved tumor accumulation by cellular endocytosis and membranous fusion; hybrid lipids helped to obtain high drug content and low leakage by forming a less-organized matrix arrangement...
March 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426514/comparison-of-the-hang-high-pull-and-loaded-jump-squat-for-the-development-of-vertical-jump-and-isometric-force-time-characteristics
#16
Dustin J Oranchuk, Tracey L Robinson, Zachary J Switaj, Eric J Drinkwater
Weightlifting movements have high skill demands and require expert coaching. Loaded jumps have a comparably lower skill demand, but may be similarly effective for improving explosive performance. The purpose of this study was to compare vertical jump performance, isometric force, and rate of force development (RFD) following a ten-week intervention employing the hang high-pull (hang-pull) or trap-bar jump squat (jump-squat). Eighteen NCAA Division II swimmers (8 males, 10 females) with at least one year of resistance training experience volunteered to participate...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423017/auxotonic-to-isometric-contraction-transitioning-in-a-beating-heart-causes-myosin-step-size-to-down-shift
#17
Thomas P Burghardt, Xiaojing Sun, Yihua Wang, Katalin Ajtai
Myosin motors in cardiac ventriculum convert ATP free energy to the work of moving blood volume under pressure. The actin bound motor cyclically rotates its lever-arm/light-chain complex linking motor generated torque to the myosin filament backbone and translating actin against resisting force. Previous research showed that the unloaded in vitro motor is described with high precision by single molecule mechanical characteristics including unitary step-sizes of approximately 3, 5, and 8 nm and their relative step-frequencies of approximately 13, 50, and 37%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422532/effects-of-post-exercise-protein-intake-on-muscle-mass-and-strength-during-resistance-training-is-there-an-optimal-ratio-between-fast-and-slow-proteins
#18
Marina Fabre, Christophe Hausswirth, Eve Tiollier, Odeline Molle, Julien Louis, Alexandre Durguerian, Nathalie Neuveux, Xavier Bigard
While effects of the two classes of proteins found in milk (i.e. soluble proteins, including whey, and casein) on muscle protein synthesis have been well investigated after a single bout of resistance exercise (RE), the combined effects of these two proteins on the muscle responses to resistance training (RT) have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of protein supplementation varying by the ratio between milk soluble proteins (fast-digested protein) and casein (slow-digested protein) on the muscle to a 9-week RT program...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421606/role-of-mucosa-in-generating-spontaneous-activity-in-the-guinea-pig-seminal-vesicle
#19
Mitsue Takeya, Hikaru Hashitani, Tokumasa Hayashi, Ryuhei Higashi, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Makoto Takano
The role of the mucosa in generating the spontaneous activity of guinea-pig seminal vesicle (SV) was explored. Changes in contractility, membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics of SV smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were recorded using isometric tension recording, intracellular microelectrode recording and epi-fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging, respectively. Mucosa-intact but not mucosa-denuded SV preparations generated TTX (1 μm)-resistant spontaneous phasic contractions that were abolished by nifedipine (3 μm)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421126/femoral-neck-strain-during-maximal-contraction-of-isolated-hip-spanning-muscle-groups
#20
Saulo Martelli
The aim of the study was to investigate femoral neck strain during maximal isometric contraction of the hip-spanning muscles. The musculoskeletal and the femur finite-element models from an elderly white woman were taken from earlier studies. The hip-spanning muscles were grouped by function in six hip-spanning muscle groups. The peak hip and knee moments in the model were matched to corresponding published measurements of the hip and knee moments during maximal isometric exercises about the hip and the knee in elderly participants...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
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