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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340152/sarcopenia-and-relationships-between-muscle-mass-measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-physical-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-3-5
#1
Yunan Zhou, Matthias Hellberg, Philippa Svensson, Peter Höglund, Naomi Clyne
Background.: Sarcopenia and poor physical function are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to investigate the relationships between muscle mass and measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and between muscle mass and strength and balance, respectively, in patients with CKD stages 3-5. Methods.: This is a baseline data analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 148 adult patients with an estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335033/lingual-alveolar-contact-pressure-during-speech-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-preliminary-findings
#2
Jeff Searl, Stephanie Knollhoff, Richard J Barohn
Purpose: This preliminary study on lingual-alveolar contact pressures (LACP) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) had several aims: (a) to evaluate whether the protocol induced fatigue, (b) to compare LACP during speech (LACP-Sp) and during maximum isometric pressing (LACP-Max) in people with ALS (PALS) versus healthy controls, (c) to compare the percentage of LACP-Max utilized during speech (%Max) for PALS versus controls, and (d) to evaluate relationships between LACP-Sp and LACP-Max with word intelligibility...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332714/phosphate-increase-during-fatigue-affects-crossbridge-kinetics-in-intact-mouse-muscle-at-physiological-temperature
#3
M Nocella, G Cecchi, B Colombini
Actomyosin ATP hydrolysis during muscle contraction releases inorganic phosphate, increasing [Pi ] in the myoplasm. Experiments in skinned fibres at low temperature (10-12°C) have shown that [Pi ] increase depresses isometric force and alters the kinetics of actomyosin interaction. However, Pi effects decrease with temperature and this raises the question of Pi role under physiological conditions. The present experiments were made to investigate this point. Intact fibre bundles isolated from the flexor digitorum brevis of C57BL/6 mice were stimulated with a series of tetanic contractions at 1...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332029/brief-submaximal-isometric-exercise-improves-cold-pressor-pain-tolerance
#4
Emily Foxen-Craft, Lynnda M Dahlquist
Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), or the inhibition of pain following physical exercise, has been demonstrated in adults, but its mechanisms have remained unclear due to variations in methodology. This study aimed to address methodological imitations of past studies and contribute to the literature demonstrating the generalizability of EIH to brief submaximal isometric exercise and cold pressor pain. Young adults (n = 134) completed a baseline cold pressor trial, maximal voluntary contraction (hand grip strength) assessment, 10-min rest, and either a 2-min submaximal isometric handgrip exercise or a sham exercise in which no force was exerted, followed by a cold pressor posttest...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331306/is-cardiac-autonomic-modulation-during-upper-limb-isometric-contraction-and-valsalva-maneuver-impaired-in-copd-patients
#5
Cássia da Luz Goulart, Ramona Cabiddu, Paloma de Borba Schneiders, Elisabete Antunes San Martin, Renata Trimer, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves da Silva
PURPOSE: To evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV) indices and heart rate (HR) responses during isometric contraction (IC) and Valsalva maneuver (VM) in COPD patients. METHODS: Twenty-two stable moderate to severe COPD patients were evaluated. R-R intervals were recorded (monitor Polar(®) S810i) during dominant upper limb IC (2 minutes). Stable signals were analyzed by Kubios HRV(®) software. Indices of HRV were computed in the time domain (mean HR; square root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals [RMSSD] and HRV triangular index [RR tri index]) and in the frequency domain (high frequency [HF]; low frequency [LF] and LF/HF ratio)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331221/relationship-between-joint-torque-and-muscle-fascicle-shortening-at-various-joint-angles-and-intensities-in-the-plantar-flexors
#6
Atsuki Fukutani, Jun Misaki, Tadao Isaka
Because it is difficult to measure tendon length changes directly in humans, tendon length changes during dynamic movement have been evaluated indirectly from changes in muscle fascicle length and joint angle. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the indirect method. Twitch contractions of the ankle plantar flexors were evoked isometrically in eight subjects. Twitch contractions evoked by singlet, doublet, and triplet stimulations were conducted at dorsiflexion 20° (DF20), plantar flexion 0° (PF0), and plantar flexion 20° (PF20)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330923/allometric-growth-in-reef-building-corals
#7
Maria Dornelas, Joshua S Madin, Andrew H Baird, Sean R Connolly
Predicting demographic rates is a critical part of forecasting the future of ecosystems under global change. Here, we test if growth rates can be predicted from morphological traits for a highly diverse group of colonial symbiotic organisms: scleractinian corals. We ask whether growth is isometric or allometric among corals, and whether most variation in coral growth rates occurs at the level of the species or morphological group. We estimate growth as change in planar area for 11 species, across five morphological groups and over 5 years...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330816/the-prospective-evaluation-of-changes-in-fatty-infiltration-and-shoulder-strength-in-nonsurgically-treated-rotator-cuff-tears
#8
Yoshihiro Nakamura, Shin Yokoya, Yohei Harada, Katsunori Shiraishi, Nobuo Adachi, Mitsuo Ochi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of fatty infiltration in rotator cuff muscles and shoulder strength in rotator cuff tears and these changes during nonsurgical treatment. METHODS: Fifty-three shoulders from 47 patients (mean age: 69.9 years) diagnosed with rotator cuff tears by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were treated nonsurgically. The degrees of fatty infiltration in supraspinatus (SSP) and infraspinatus (ISP) muscles were graded by the modified Goutallier classification (grade 0-1, grade 2-3, or grade 4)...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326439/a-distinct-functional-distribution-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-motoneurons-in-the-rat-trigeminal-motor-nucleus
#9
Yukako Morita-Isogai, Hajime Sato, Mitsuru Saito, Eriko Kuramoto, Dong Xu Yin, Takeshi Kaneko, Takashi Yamashiro, Kenji Takada, Seog Bae Oh, Hiroki Toyoda, Youngnam Kang
Gamma-motoneurons (γMNs) play a crucial role in regulating isometric muscle contraction. The slow jaw-closing during mastication is one of the most functional isometric contractions, which is developed by the rank-order recruitment of alpha-motoneurons (αMNs) in a manner that reflects the size distribution of αMNs. In a mouse spinal motor nucleus, there are two populations of small and large MNs; the former was identified as a population of γMNs based on the positive expression of the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor 3 (Err3) and negative expression of the neuronal DNA-binding protein NeuN, and the latter as that of αMNs based on the opposite pattern of immunoreactivity...
March 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325123/effect-of-stimulation-of-cold-receptors-with-menthol-on-emg-activity-of-quadriceps-muscle-during-low-load-contraction
#10
Tadayuki Tokunaga, Hitoshi Sugawara, Chigaya Tadano, Masuo Muro
PURPOSE: Facilitatory and inhibitory responses of spinal motor neurons are influenced by somatosensory input from the skin. The purpose of this study, employing electromyography, was to examine the neuromuscular changes that occur with menthol applied to the skin over the quadriceps muscle. METHODS: Forty-two healthy volunteers performed isometric knee extensions at 35% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) in three groups (Adult Placebo, Adult Menthol, Older Adult Menthol)...
March 21, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324992/age-related-neuromuscular-changes-in-semg-of-m-tibialis-anterior-using-higher-order-statistics-gaussianity-linearity-test
#11
Ariba Siddiqi, Sridhar P Arjunan, Dinesh K Kumar
Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324821/muscular-activity-and-torque-of-the-foot-dorsiflexor-muscles-during-decremental-isometric-test-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Maria Ruiz-Muñoz, Manuel González-Sánchez, Jaime Martín-Martín, Antonio I Cuesta-Vargas
PURPOSE: To analyse the torque variation level that could be explained by the muscle activation (EMG) amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles (tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), extensor hallucis longus (EHL)) during isometric foot dorsiflexion at different intensities. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, forty-one subjects performed foot dorsiflexion at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) with the hip and knee flexed 90° and the ankle in neutral position (90° between leg and foot)...
November 30, 2016: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324754/effects-of-sit-to-stand-training-combined-with-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation-on-spasticity-muscle-strength-and-balance-ability-in-patients-with-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Kyoung-Sim Jung, Tae-Sung In, Hwi-Young Cho
Sit-to-stand is a fundamental movement of human being for performing mobility and independent activity. However, Stroke people symptoms experience difficulty in conducting the sit-to-stand due to paralysis and especially ankle spasticity. Recently, transcutaneouselectrical- stimulation (TENS) is used to reduce pain but also to manage spasticity. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether TENS would lead to ankle spasticity reduction and (2) whether sit-to-stand training combined with TENS would improve spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in stroke patients...
March 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323584/evidence-for-gz-adaptation-observed-with-wearable-biosensors-during-high-performance-jet-flight
#14
G Merrill Rice, Dallas Snider, Jeffrey L Moore, J Timothy Lavan, Rich Folga, Thomas B VanBrunt
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have evaluated physiological responses to high acceleration forces during actual flight and to our knowledge no normative data has been acquired by technologies such as wearable biosensors during high performance jet aircraft operations. METHODS: In-flight physiological data from an FDA cleared portable triaxial accelerometer and bio-sensor were observed from five active duty F-18 pilots of the Naval Flight Demonstration Squadron (Blue Angels)...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323013/electroencephalographic-sensorimotor-rhythms-are-modulated-in-the-acute-phase-following-focal-vibration-in-healthy-subjects
#15
Susanna Lopez, Fabiano Bini, Claudio Del Percio, Franco Marinozzi, Claudia Celletti, Antonio Suppa, Raffaele Ferri, Emanuela Staltari, Filippo Camerota, Claudio Babiloni
Few minutes of focal vibration (FV) on limb muscles can improve motor control in neurological (stroke, Parkinson) patients for unknown underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here we hypothesized that in healthy volunteers this FV would increase excitability in the primary sensorimotor cortex (S1-M1) during an isometric contraction of the stimulated muscle. The design included an initial control condition with no FV stimulation (Baseline) as well as three short experimental sessions of FV and a Sham (fake) session in a pseudo-random order...
March 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321881/acute-fatigue-and-perceptual-responses-to-resistance-exercise
#16
James Peter Fisher, Joshua Farrow, James Steele
INTRODUCTION: Despite assumptions, there is an absence of research on acute fatigue responses to high- and low-load and advanced technique resistance exercise. METHODS: Trained males (n=8; 27.2 ±7.4years; 180.0 ± 6.6cm; 86.6 ±10.3kg) were assessed for decrement in maximal voluntary isometric torque (MViT) and perceived effort and discomfort following heavier load (HL; 80% MViT), lighter load (LL; 30% MViT), forced repetitions (FR) and breakdown set (BD) training protocols...
March 21, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320672/spatial-analysis-of-multichannel-surface-emg-in-hemiplegic-stroke
#17
Ghulam Rasool, Babak Afsharipour, Nina Suresh, William Z Rymer
We investigated spatial activation patterns of upper extremity muscles during isometric force generation in both intact persons and in hemispheric stroke survivors. We used a 128-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) grid to record the electrical activity of biceps brachii muscles during these contractions. EMG data were processed to develop 2-dimensional root mean square (RMS) maps of muscle activity. Our objective was to determine whether motor impairments following stroke were associated with changes in the muscle activity maps and in the spatial distribution of muscular activation...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320574/standardized-method-to-measure-muscle-force-at-the-bedside-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Jean-Sébastien Souweine, Agathe Boudet, Leila Chenine, Helene Leray, Annie Rodriguez, Georges Mourad, Jacques Mercier, Jean-Paul Cristol, Maurice Hayot, Fares Gouzi
OBJECTIVES: In hemodialysis, diminution of muscle strength constitutes a major prognostic factor of mortality. Currently, measurement of quadriceps isometric maximal voluntary force (MVF) represents the reference method to investigate muscle strength. However, reduction of MVF is rarely detected in these patients due to the absence of portative bedside tools in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were therefore to assess the agreement of a belt-stabilized handheld dynamometer (HHD) with the dynamometer chair (reference method) and to determine intratester and intertester reliability of the quadriceps MVF measurements using belt-stabilized HHD in healthy subjects and in hemodialysis patients...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320184/reliability-of-single-and-paired-pulse-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-the-assessment-of-knee-extensor-muscle-function
#19
John Temesi, Sandy N Ly, Guillaume Y Millet
This study examined inter-session and intra-session transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reliability at two test stimulus intensities in the knee extensors. Strong and weak TMS was delivered via single- and paired- (3-ms and 100-ms inter-stimulus interval) pulses on the same day and different days. All stimuli were delivered during isometric contractions of the knee extensors at 20% of maximal voluntary force. Motor-evoked potentials (MEP) were assessed in quadriceps femoris muscles. Relative (intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC) and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM) reliability and variability (coefficient of variation) were assessed...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318816/use-of-electromyography-to-optimize-lokomat-%C3%A2-settings-for-subject-specific-gait-rehabilitation-in-post-stroke-hemiparetic-patients-a-proof-of-concept-study
#20
Yosra Cherni, Mickael Begon, Hicham Chababe, Florent Moissenet
OBJECTIVES: While generic protocols exist for gait rehabilitation using robotic orthotics such as the Lokomat(®), several settings - guidance, body-weight support (BWS) and velocity - may be adjusted to individualize patient training. However, no systematic approach has yet emerged. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and effects of a systematic approach based on electromyography to determine subject-specific settings with application to the strengthening of the gluteus maximus muscle in post-stroke hemiparetic patients...
March 16, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
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