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Mario Lebendiker, Tsafi Danieli
Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP) is one of the most popular fusion partners being used for producing recombinant proteins in bacterial cells. MBP allows the use of a simple capture affinity step on Amylose-Agarose or Dextrin-Sepharose columns, resulting in a protein that is often 70-90 % pure in a single step. In addition to protein isolation applications, MBP provides a high degree of translation, and facilitates the proper folding and solubility of the target protein. This paper describes efficient procedures for isolating highly purified MBP target proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Johnson W McRorie, William D Chey
BACKGROUND: Misconceptions about the effects of dietary fiber and 'functional' fiber on stool parameters and constipation persist in the literature. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted with the use of the Scopus and PubMed scientific databases to identify and objectively assess well-controlled clinical studies that evaluated the effects of fiber on stool parameters and constipation. RESULTS: The totality of well-controlled randomized clinical studies show that, to exert a laxative effect, fiber must: (1) resist fermentation to remain intact throughout the large bowel and present in stool, and (2) significantly increase stool water content and stool output, resulting in soft/bulky/easy-to-pass stools...
November 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Makoto Ogata, Seiichiro Umemura, Naohiro Sugiyama, Natsuki Kuwano, Ami Koizumi, Tadakazu Sawada, Michiyo Yanase, Takeshi Takaha, Jun-Ichi Kadokawa, Taichi Usui
A series of multivalent sialoglyco-conjugated nanoparticles were efficiently synthesized by using highly-branched α-glucuronic acid-linked cyclic dextrins (GlcA-HBCD) as a backbone. The sialoglycoside-moieties, with varying degrees of substitution, could be incorporated onto the preformed nanoparticles. These synthesized particles, which are highly soluble in aqueous solution, were shown to have a spherical nanostructure with a diameter of approximately 15nm. The interactions of the sialoglyco-nanoparticles (Neu5Acα2,6LacNAc-GlcA-HBCDs) with human influenza virus strain A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) were investigated using a hemagglutination inhibition assay...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Amalia Pérez-Jiménez, Emilia Abellán, Marta Arizcun, Gabriel Cardenete, Amalia E Morales, M Carmen Hidalgo
Common dentex (Dentex dentex) is an appreciated carnivorous fish with high growth rate and life cycle adaptable to existing farming techniques. Since the use of carbohydrates is an economic and sustainable alternative for a protein-sparing effect, the study of how this macronutrient affects the welfare of carnivorous species must be studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different types and levels of carbohydrates on common dentex oxidative status. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22MJkg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types (pregelatinized starch-PS, dextrin-Dx and maltodextrin-Mx) and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates...
August 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Deepika Mehta, Tulasi Satyanarayana
Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent, and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yayun Huang, Haixia Yu, Lou Li, Chenwu Zhang, Hongfen Zhang, Guangbin Zhang, Anjia Chen
This work reported that IL ([Bmim] [PF6 ]) and Sulfobutylether-β-Cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) were used as electrolyte additives for the separation and determination of Camptothecin alkaloids by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Separation parameters such as the buffer type, pH and concentration of the running buffer, the concentration of SBE-β-CD and ionic liquid (IL), temperature and separation voltage were all investigated in order to achieve the maximum possible resolution. The four analytes were baseline separated within 10 min in capillary at the separation voltage of 15 kV with a running buffer consisting of 20 mM borate buffer, 20 mM IL and 100 mM SBE-β-CD at pH 9...
August 4, 2016: Electrophoresis
Yanjie Bai, Yong-Cheng Shi
Glycosidic linkages in a pyrodextrin were identified by NMR spectroscopy for the first time. Pyrodextrin was prepared by slurrying waxy maize starch at pH 3, filtering and drying at 40°C to 10-15% moisture content, then heating at 170°C for 4h. (1)H and (13)C NMR resonances of the pyrodextrin were assigned with the assistance of 2D techniques including COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC, all measured on a 500MHz instrument. During dextrinization, native waxy maize starch was hydrolyzed and extensively branched with new glycosidic linkages...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Joanna Le Thanh-Blicharz, Wioletta Błaszczak, Artur Szwengiel, Dominik Paukszta, Grażyna Lewandowicz
Size exclusion chromatography with triple detection as well as infrared spectroscopy studies of commercially available pyrodextrins proved that these molecules are characterized not only by significantly lower molecular mass, in comparison to that of native starch, but also by increased branching. Therefore, pyrodextrins adopt a very compact structure in solution and show Newtonian behavior under shear in spite of their molecular masses of tens of thousands Daltons. The results also indicate that 50% reduction of digestibility of pyrodextrins is, to a minor extent, caused by formation of low-molecular color compounds containing carbonyl functional groups...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science
Ana Paula Aguero de Oliveira, Maria Alice Silvestre, Nayara Fernanda Lisboa Garcia, Heloíza Ferreira Alves-Prado, André Rodrigues, Marcelo Fossa da Paz, Gustavo Graciano Fonseca, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro Leite
The present study compared the production and the catalytic properties of amylolytic enzymes obtained from the fungi Lichtheimia ramosa (mesophilic) and Thermoascus aurantiacus (thermophilic). The highest amylase production in both fungi was observed in wheat bran supplemented with nutrient solution (pH 4.0) after 96 hours of cultivation, reaching 417.2 U/g of dry substrate (or 41.72 U/mL) and 144.5 U/g of dry substrate (or 14.45 U/mL) for L. ramosa and T. aurantiacus, respectively. The enzymes showed higher catalytic activity at pH 6...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
A'na Chen, Xiuxia Liu, Xiaofeng Dai, Jinling Zhan, Feng Peng, Lu Li, Fen Wang, Song Li, Yankun Yang, Zhonghu Bai
We constructed different N-terminal truncated variants based on Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase 3D structure (PDB code 2WAN), and studied the effects of truncated mutation on soluble expression, enzymatic properties, and application in saccharification. Upon expression, the variants of X45 domain deletion existed as inclusion bodies, whereas deletion of CBM41 domain had an effective effect on soluble expression level. The variants that lack of CBM41 (M1), lack of X25 (M3), and lack both of CBM41 and X25 (M5) had the same optimal pH (5...
March 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Polona Žigon, Katjuša Mrak-Poljšak, Katja Lakota, Matic Terčelj, Saša Čučnik, Matija Tomsic, Snezna Sodin-Semrl
INTRODUCTION: Human primary cells originating from different locations within the body could differ greatly in their metabolic phenotypes, influencing both how they act during physiological/pathological processes and how susceptible/resistant they are to a variety of disease risk factors. A novel way to monitor cellular metabolism is through cell energetics assays, so we explored this approach with human primary cell types, as models of sclerotic disorders. OBJECTIVES: In order to better understand pathophysiological processes at the cellular level, our goals were to measure metabolic pathway activities of endothelial cells and fibroblasts, and determine their metabolic phenotype profiles...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Ken Shirato, Jun Takanari, Junetsu Ogasawara, Takuya Sakurai, Kazuhiko Imaizumi, Hideki Ohno, Takako Kizaki
Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) exerts a wide variety of beneficial biological actions including facilitating anti-cortisol stress and neurological anti-aging responses. However, the anti-skin aging effects of ETAS remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in skin aging. Increased ROS levels in fibroblasts in response to ultraviolet irradiation activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), and the resultant gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) isoforms accelerates collagen breakdown in the dermis...
May 2016: Natural Product Communications
Ghazal Peymanpour, Massimo Marcone, Sanaa Ragaee, Ian Tetlow, Christopher C Lane, Koushik Seetharaman, Eric Bertoft
The amylopectin fractions from starch of a series of amylose-extender (ae) maize samples (HYLON(®) V, VII and VIII starches) were isolated and analysed for their molecular composition and structure. The fractions from all samples contained both a high and a low molecular weight fraction (HMF and LMF), of which LMF increased with the amylose content of the starch and appeared to have substantially more of long chains than HMF. A normal amylose-containing maize starch (NMS), which served as a reference sample, contained very little LMF, which suggested that LMF was the inherent result of the effect of the loss of starch branching enzyme IIb activity in the ae mutants...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sonia Jemli, Mouna Jaoua, Samir Bejar
The use of the cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) of the US132 strain, which is an effective anti-staling agent, has been hampered by its high cyclization activity. Since that random mutagenesis using error-prone PCR is nowadays a method of choice for enzymes engineering, we have optimized this method by adjusting manganese concentration in order to obtain a high percentage of active CGTase mutants. Therefore, the amplification of the gene encoding the US132 CGTase was performed using a MnCl2 concentration ranging between 0 and 0...
September 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Yan Gao, Shi-Feng Chu, Cong-Yuan Xia, Zhao Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Nai-Hong Chen
Rg1 has shown multiple pharmacological activities and been considered to be evaluated for hepatic protective activity, as Rg1 could modulate different pathways in various diseases. Herein we assessed its effect and potential mechanism in a newly modified ethanol model. C57BL/6 mice were fed with Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin as control diet with or without Rg1. Meanwhile, bicyclol was treated as positive drug to compare the efficacy of Rg1 against alcoholic hepatotoxicity...
August 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Dae Young Kwon, Bo Reum Moon, A Reum Kim, Suna Kang, Sunmin Park
BACKGROUND: Artemisia princeps Pamp (APP), Leonurus japonicas Houtt (LJH), and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit (GJE) have been traditionally used in East Asia to treat women's diseases related to reproductive system. They may attenuate the deterioration of energy, lipid, glucose and bone metabolism by estrogen deficiency. The present study explored the combination of APP, LJH, and GJE to overcome the symptoms of estrogen deficiency and the mechanism was explored. METHODS: Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into five groups and fed high-fat diets supplemented with 2 % dextrin (control), 2 % APP, 2 % APP + LJH (15:5), APP + LJH + GJE (10:5:5) or 17β-estradiol (30 μg/kg bw/day) for 8 weeks...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Joseph Gayin, El-Sayed M Abdel-Aal, Massimo Marcone, John Manful, Eric Bertoft
Enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with gel-permeation and anion-exchange chromatography techniques were employed to characterise the composition of clusters and building blocks of amylopectin from two African rice (Oryza glaberrima) accessions-IRGC 103759 and TOG 12440. The samples were compared with one Asian rice (Oryza sativa) sample (cv WITA 4) and one O. sativa×O. glaberrima cross (NERICA 4). The average DP of clusters from the African rice accessions (ARAs) was marginally larger (DP=83) than in WITA 4 (DP=81)...
September 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vicky A Solah, Babette O'Mara-Wallace, Xingqiong Meng, Roland J Gahler, Deborah A Kerr, Anthony P James, Haelee K Fenton, Stuart K Johnson, Simon Wood
The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX(®) (PGX(®)) was compared to wheat dextrin (WD) in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD...
2016: Nutrients
Renata Barczynska, Janusz Kapusniak, Mieczyslaw Litwin, Katarzyna Slizewska, Mieczyslaw Szalecki
Unarguably, diet has a significant impact on human intestinal microbiota. The role of prebiotics as substances supporting the maintenance of appropriate body weight and reducing the demand for energy via stimulation of the growth of beneficial microbiota of the gut and formation products such as short-chain fatty acids, is more and more often highlighted. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dextrins from maize starch resistant to enzymatic digestion stimulate the growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains representing a majority of the population of colon microbiota in lean individuals and limit the growth of Firmicutes bacterial strains representing a majority of the population of colon microbiota in obese individuals...
June 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Hancheng Wang, Jin Wang, Qingyuan Chen, Maosheng Wang, Tom Hsiang, Shenghua Shang, Zhihe Yu
Azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl are strobilurin fungicides, and are effective in controlling many plant diseases, including Fusarium wilt. The mode of action of this kind of chemical is inhibition of respiration. This research investigated the sensitivities of Fusarium kyushuense to azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl, and to the alternative oxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). The Biolog FF MicroPlate is designed to examine substrate utilization and metabolic profiling of micro-organisms, and was used here to study the activity of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and SHAM against F...
June 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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