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Johnson W McRorie, Nicola M McKeown
Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readily assessed in well-controlled clinical studies. This review will also focus on three health benefits (cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control, and normalizing stool form [constipation and diarrhea]) for which reproducible evidence of clinical efficacy has been published...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Ju Ho Park, Dong Hun Lee, Mork Soon Park, Young Suk Jung, Jin Tae Hong
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chemokines and chemokine receptors implicated with alcoholic liver disease. Studies have shown that inflammation and oxidative stress induce fat molecules aggregation in liver. We evaluated the relationship between alcoholic fatty liver disease and c-c chemokine receptor 5 and impact of inflammation and oxidative stress in fat molecule deposition. METHODS: Lieber-DeCarli diet containing ethanol or isocaloric control diets were fed to wildtype and CCR5 knockout mice for 10 days, and gavaged with a single dose of ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin at 11 day...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
J Amici, M Alidoost, C Francia, S Bodoardo, S Martinez Crespiera, D Amantia, M Biasizzo, F Caldera, F Trotta
A novel oxygen selective highly hydrophobic membrane is prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation in which a dextrin-based nanosponge is incorporated into a poly(vinylidene fluoride co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) matrix. The membrane presents high capability to entrap moisture from air as well as good hydrophobic behaviour. The membrane was assembled in a pouch type Li-air cell, which was cycled in a galvanostatic mode at curtailed capacity, in air with 17% relative humidity (RH). Owing to the protection of the membrane, the Li-air cell was able to discharge and re-charge for approximately 145 cycles, which correspond to about 1450 h of cell operation...
November 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Dina M Silva, Ana Rita Caseiro, Irina Amorim, Isabel Pereira, Fátima Faria, Tiago Pereira, José Domingos Santos, Francisco Miguel Gama, Ana Colette Maurício
Increasing relevance has been attributed to hydrogels due to their ability to provide an extracellular matrix (ECM)-like environment for cellular adhesion and proliferation, acting as mechanical scaffolds for tissue remodeling or as delivery matrices. In vivo biocompatibility of a hybrid dextrin hydrogel produced from oxidized dextrin and adipic acid dihydrazide and its combinations with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), ECM from a porcine bladder (urinary bladder matrix) and ceramic granules (Bonelike(®)), was evaluated following ISO 10993 after subcutaneous implantation in a rat model...
October 27, 2016: Biomedical Materials
J Suriya, S Bharathiraja, M Krishnan, P Manivasagan, S-K Kim
Amylases are crucial enzymes which hydrolyze internal glycosidic linkages in starch and produce as primary products dextrins and oligosaccharides. Amylases are classified into α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase based on their three-dimensional structures, reaction mechanisms, and amino acid sequences. Amylases have innumerable applications in clinical, medical, and analytical chemistries as well as in food, detergent, textile, brewing, and distilling industries. Amylases can be produced from plants, animals, and microbial sources...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Kamelia Afshinnia, Mithun Sikder, Bo Cai, Mohammed Baalousha
Nanomaterial (NM) aggregation is a key process determining their environmental, fate behavior and effects. Nanomaterials are typically engineered to remain kinetically stable; however, in environmental and toxicological media, NMs are prone to aggregation. The aggregation kinetics of NM is typically quantified by measuring their attachment efficiency (α) and critical coagulation concentration (CCC). Several studies measured α and CCC for Ag NMs with a major focus on investigating the effects of ionic strength, ion valency and natural organic matter, with few studies investigating other environmental factors such as light and dissolved oxygen and none investigating the effect of particle size, buffer type and concentration, or surface coverage by capping agent...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mario Lebendiker, Tsafi Danieli
Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP) is one of the most popular fusion partners being used for producing recombinant proteins in bacterial cells. MBP allows the use of a simple capture affinity step on Amylose-Agarose or Dextrin-Sepharose columns, resulting in a protein that is often 70-90 % pure in a single step. In addition to protein isolation applications, MBP provides a high degree of translation, and facilitates the proper folding and solubility of the target protein. This paper describes efficient procedures for isolating highly purified MBP target proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Johnson W McRorie, William D Chey
BACKGROUND: Misconceptions about the effects of dietary fiber and 'functional' fiber on stool parameters and constipation persist in the literature. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted with the use of the Scopus and PubMed scientific databases to identify and objectively assess well-controlled clinical studies that evaluated the effects of fiber on stool parameters and constipation. RESULTS: The totality of well-controlled randomized clinical studies show that, to exert a laxative effect, fiber must: (1) resist fermentation to remain intact throughout the large bowel and present in stool, and (2) significantly increase stool water content and stool output, resulting in soft/bulky/easy-to-pass stools...
November 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Makoto Ogata, Seiichiro Umemura, Naohiro Sugiyama, Natsuki Kuwano, Ami Koizumi, Tadakazu Sawada, Michiyo Yanase, Takeshi Takaha, Jun-Ichi Kadokawa, Taichi Usui
A series of multivalent sialoglyco-conjugated nanoparticles were efficiently synthesized by using highly-branched α-glucuronic acid-linked cyclic dextrins (GlcA-HBCD) as a backbone. The sialoglycoside-moieties, with varying degrees of substitution, could be incorporated onto the preformed nanoparticles. These synthesized particles, which are highly soluble in aqueous solution, were shown to have a spherical nanostructure with a diameter of approximately 15nm. The interactions of the sialoglyco-nanoparticles (Neu5Acα2,6LacNAc-GlcA-HBCDs) with human influenza virus strain A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) were investigated using a hemagglutination inhibition assay...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Amalia Pérez-Jiménez, Emilia Abellán, Marta Arizcun, Gabriel Cardenete, Amalia E Morales, M Carmen Hidalgo
Common dentex (Dentex dentex) is an appreciated carnivorous fish with high growth rate and life cycle adaptable to existing farming techniques. Since the use of carbohydrates is an economic and sustainable alternative for a protein-sparing effect, the study of how this macronutrient affects the welfare of carnivorous species must be studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different types and levels of carbohydrates on common dentex oxidative status. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22MJkg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types (pregelatinized starch-PS, dextrin-Dx and maltodextrin-Mx) and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates...
August 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Deepika Mehta, Tulasi Satyanarayana
Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent, and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yayun Huang, Haixia Yu, Lou Li, Chenwu Zhang, Hongfen Zhang, Guangbin Zhang, Anjia Chen
This work reported that ionic liquid (IL) ([Bmim] [PF6 ]) and sulfobutylether-β-CD (SBE-β-CD) were used as electrolyte additives for the separation and determination of camptothecin (CPT) alkaloids by CZE. Separation parameters such as the buffer type, pH, and concentration of the running buffer, the concentration of SBE-β-CD and IL, temperature, and separation voltage were all investigated in order to achieve the maximum possible resolution. The four analytes were baseline separated within 10 min in capillary at the separation voltage of 15 kV with a running buffer consisting of 20 mM borate buffer, 20 mM IL, and 100 mM SBE-β-CD at pH 9...
November 2016: Electrophoresis
Yanjie Bai, Yong-Cheng Shi
Glycosidic linkages in a pyrodextrin were identified by NMR spectroscopy for the first time. Pyrodextrin was prepared by slurrying waxy maize starch at pH 3, filtering and drying at 40°C to 10-15% moisture content, then heating at 170°C for 4h. (1)H and (13)C NMR resonances of the pyrodextrin were assigned with the assistance of 2D techniques including COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC, all measured on a 500MHz instrument. During dextrinization, native waxy maize starch was hydrolyzed and extensively branched with new glycosidic linkages...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Joanna Le Thanh-Blicharz, Wioletta Błaszczak, Artur Szwengiel, Dominik Paukszta, Grażyna Lewandowicz
Size exclusion chromatography with triple detection as well as infrared spectroscopy studies of commercially available pyrodextrins proved that these molecules are characterized not only by significantly lower molecular mass, in comparison to that of native starch, but also by increased branching. Therefore, pyrodextrins adopt a very compact structure in solution and show Newtonian behavior under shear in spite of their molecular masses of tens of thousands Daltons. The results also indicate that 50% reduction of digestibility of pyrodextrins is, to a minor extent, caused by formation of low-molecular color compounds containing carbonyl functional groups...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science
Ana Paula Aguero de Oliveira, Maria Alice Silvestre, Nayara Fernanda Lisboa Garcia, Heloíza Ferreira Alves-Prado, André Rodrigues, Marcelo Fossa da Paz, Gustavo Graciano Fonseca, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro Leite
The present study compared the production and the catalytic properties of amylolytic enzymes obtained from the fungi Lichtheimia ramosa (mesophilic) and Thermoascus aurantiacus (thermophilic). The highest amylase production in both fungi was observed in wheat bran supplemented with nutrient solution (pH 4.0) after 96 hours of cultivation, reaching 417.2 U/g of dry substrate (or 41.72 U/mL) and 144.5 U/g of dry substrate (or 14.45 U/mL) for L. ramosa and T. aurantiacus, respectively. The enzymes showed higher catalytic activity at pH 6...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
A'na Chen, Xiuxia Liu, Xiaofeng Dai, Jinling Zhan, Feng Peng, Lu Li, Fen Wang, Song Li, Yankun Yang, Zhonghu Bai
We constructed different N-terminal truncated variants based on Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase 3D structure (PDB code 2WAN), and studied the effects of truncated mutation on soluble expression, enzymatic properties, and application in saccharification. Upon expression, the variants of X45 domain deletion existed as inclusion bodies, whereas deletion of CBM41 domain had an effective effect on soluble expression level. The variants that lack of CBM41 (M1), lack of X25 (M3), and lack both of CBM41 and X25 (M5) had the same optimal pH (5...
March 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Polona Žigon, Katjuša Mrak-Poljšak, Katja Lakota, Matic Terčelj, Saša Čučnik, Matija Tomsic, Snezna Sodin-Semrl
INTRODUCTION: Human primary cells originating from different locations within the body could differ greatly in their metabolic phenotypes, influencing both how they act during physiological/pathological processes and how susceptible/resistant they are to a variety of disease risk factors. A novel way to monitor cellular metabolism is through cell energetics assays, so we explored this approach with human primary cell types, as models of sclerotic disorders. OBJECTIVES: In order to better understand pathophysiological processes at the cellular level, our goals were to measure metabolic pathway activities of endothelial cells and fibroblasts, and determine their metabolic phenotype profiles...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Ken Shirato, Jun Takanari, Junetsu Ogasawara, Takuya Sakurai, Kazuhiko Imaizumi, Hideki Ohno, Takako Kizaki
Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) exerts a wide variety of beneficial biological actions including facilitating anti-cortisol stress and neurological anti-aging responses. However, the anti-skin aging effects of ETAS remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in skin aging. Increased ROS levels in fibroblasts in response to ultraviolet irradiation activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), and the resultant gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) isoforms accelerates collagen breakdown in the dermis...
May 2016: Natural Product Communications
Ghazal Peymanpour, Massimo Marcone, Sanaa Ragaee, Ian Tetlow, Christopher C Lane, Koushik Seetharaman, Eric Bertoft
The amylopectin fractions from starch of a series of amylose-extender (ae) maize samples (HYLON(®) V, VII and VIII starches) were isolated and analysed for their molecular composition and structure. The fractions from all samples contained both a high and a low molecular weight fraction (HMF and LMF), of which LMF increased with the amylose content of the starch and appeared to have substantially more of long chains than HMF. A normal amylose-containing maize starch (NMS), which served as a reference sample, contained very little LMF, which suggested that LMF was the inherent result of the effect of the loss of starch branching enzyme IIb activity in the ae mutants...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sonia Jemli, Mouna Jaoua, Samir Bejar
The use of the cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) of the US132 strain, which is an effective anti-staling agent, has been hampered by its high cyclization activity. Since that random mutagenesis using error-prone PCR is nowadays a method of choice for enzymes engineering, we have optimized this method by adjusting manganese concentration in order to obtain a high percentage of active CGTase mutants. Therefore, the amplification of the gene encoding the US132 CGTase was performed using a MnCl2 concentration ranging between 0 and 0...
September 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
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