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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345400/combination-of-aerobic-exercise-and-an-arginine-alanine-and-phenylalanine-mixture-increases-fat-mobilization-and-ketone-body-synthesis
#1
Keisuke Ueda, Chiaki Sanbongi, Shoko Takai, Shuji Ikegami, Satoshi Fujita
During exercise, blood levels of several hormones increase acutely. We hypothesized that consumption of a specific combination of amino acids (arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine; A-mix) may be involved in secretion of glucagon, and when combined with exercise may promote fat catabolism. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomized in a crossover study to ingest either A-mix (3 g/dose) or placebo (3 g of dextrin/dose). Thirty minutes after ingesting, each condition subsequently performed workload trials on a cycle ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption for 1 h...
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288378/preparation-of-a-stable-aqueous-suspension-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-by-a-green-method-for-applications-in-biomaterials
#2
Xiang Ji, Yahui Song, Jing Han, Lin Ge, Xiaoxiang Zhao, Chen Xu, Yongqiang Wang, Di Wu, Haixia Qiu
A green approach for the preparation of a stable reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspension from graphene oxide (GO) has been developed. This method uses l-serine (l-Ser) as the reductant and yellow dextrin (YD) as the stabilizing agent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses showed that l-Ser can efficiently reduce GO at a comparatively low temperature, and that the YD adsorbed onto the RGO facilitating the formation of a stable RGO aqueous suspension...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267073/improved-starch-digestion-of-sucrase-deficient-shrews-treated-with-oral-glucoamylase-enzyme-supplements
#3
Buford L Nichols, Stephen E Avery, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Shadi B Kilani, Amy Hui-Mei Lin, Douglas G Burrin, Benjamin E Hodges, Shaji K Chacko, Antone R Opekun, Marwa El Hindawy, Bruce R Hamaker, Sen-Ichi Oda
Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with Congenital Sucrase-isomaltase Deficiency (CSID). BACKGROUND: Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, two α-amylases (Amy) and four mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241734/tetragonia-tetragonioides-pall-kuntze-protects-estrogen-deficient-rats-against-disturbances-of-energy-and-glucose-metabolism-and-decreases-proinflammatory-cytokines
#4
Jin Ah Ryuk, Byoung-Seob Ko, Hye Won Lee, Da Sol Kim, Suna Kang, Yong Hyen Lee, Sunmin Park
Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.) Kuntze (TTK) and JakYakGamCho-Tang (JGT) have been used for improving women's health and treating inflammatory diseases. We determined that the long-term consumption of these herbal extracts alleviates the progression of postmenopausal symptoms in high-fat-diet fed ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and further explored the mechanisms involved. Five groups of OVX rats were fed high fat diets that were supplemented with either 2% dextrin (control), 2% TTK (70% ethanol extract), 2% JGT (water extract), 1% JGT + 1% TTK (JGTT), or 30 µg/kg body weight/day of 17β-estradiol (positive control)...
March 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228158/flaxseed-oil-ameliorates-alcoholic-liver-disease-via-anti-inflammation-and-modulating-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#5
Xiaoxia Zhang, Hao Wang, Peipei Yin, Hang Fan, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a chronic wide-spectrum of liver injury caused by consistently excessive alcohol intake. Few satisfactory advances have been made in management of ALD. Thus, novel and more practical treatment options are urgently needed. Flaxseed oil (FO) is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, the impact of dietary FO on chronic alcohol consumption remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we assessed possible effects of dietary FO on attenuation of ALD and associated mechanisms in mice...
February 22, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115383/mechanistic-study-of-water-insoluble-yeast-glucans-utilization-in-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-jcm1192
#6
Hoi Yee Keung, Tsz Kai Li, Lok To Sham, Man Kit Cheung, Peter Chi Keung Cheung, Hoi Shan Kwan
Bifidobacteria exert beneficial effects on hosts and are extensively used as probiotics. However, due to their genetic inaccessibility, little is known about their mechanism of carbohydrate utilization and regulation. Bifidobacterium breve strain JCM1192 can grow on water insoluble yeast cell wall glucans (YCWG), which are recently considered as potential prebiotics. From the result of (1)H NMR spectrometry, the YCWG were composed of highly branched (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucan and (1→4)(1→6)-α-glucan. Although the YCWG composed of 78...
January 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100603/digestion-resistant-dextrin-derivatives-are-moderately-digested-in-the-small-intestine-and-contribute-more-to-energy-production-than-predicted-from-large-bowel-fermentation-in-rats
#7
Takashi Kondo, Kei Handa, Tomomi Genda, Shingo Hino, Norihisa Hamaguchi, Tatsuya Morita
BACKGROUND: Digestion-resistant dextrin derivatives (DRDDs), including resistant maltodextrin (RM), polydextrose, and resistant glucan (RG), have been developed as low-energy foods. However, data on the resistance of DRDDs to small-intestinal digestion are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the site and extent of DRDD breakdown in the rat intestine and to predict its energy contributions. METHODS: In vitro small-intestinal resistance of DRDDs was evaluated by the AOAC method for dietary fiber measurement and by artificial digestion with the use of pancreatic α-amylase and brush-boarder membrane vesicles...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087985/prophylactic-tributyrin-treatment-mitigates-chronic-binge-alcohol-induced-intestinal-barrier-and-liver-injury
#8
Gail A Cresci, Bryan Glueck, Megan R McMullen, Wei Xin, Danielle Allende, Laura E Nagy
BACKGROUND/AIM: Impaired gut-liver axis is a potential factor contributing to alcoholic liver disease. Ethanol depletes intestinal integrity and causes gut dysbiosis. Butyrate, a fermentation byproduct of gut microbiota, is altered negatively following chronic ethanol exposure. This study aimed to determine whether prophylactic tributyrin could protect the intestinal barrier and liver in mice during combined chronic-binge ethanol exposure. METHODS: C57BL/6 J mice exposed to 5% v/v ethanol-containing diet for 10 days received a single ethanol gavage (5 g/kg) 9 hrs prior to euthanasia...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044439/hs-afm-and-sers-analysis-of-murine-norovirus-infection-involvement-of-the-lipid-rafts
#9
Ece N Aybeke, Gaël Belliot, Stéphanie Lemaire-Ewing, Marie Estienney, Yvon Lacroute, Pierre Pothier, Eric Bourillot, Eric Lesniewska
Studies on human norovirus are severely hampered by the absence of a cell culture system until the discovery of murine norovirus (MNV). The cell membrane domains called lipid rafts have been defined as a port of entry for viruses. This study is conducted to investigate murine norovirus binding on the mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line. Lipid raft related structures are extracted from cells by detergent treatment resulting detergent-resistant membrane (DRMs) domains. The real-time polymerase chain reaction technique is performed to detect the viral genome, thereby the MNV binding on the DRMs...
January 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024535/molecular-structure-of-quinoa-starch
#10
Guantian Li, Fan Zhu
Quinoa starch has very small granules with unique properties. However, the molecular structure of quinoa starch remains largely unknown. In this study, composition and amylopectin molecular structure of 9 quinoa starch samples were characterised by chromatographic techniques. In particular, the amylopectin internal molecular structure, represented by φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs), was explored. Great variations in the composition and molecular structures were recorded among samples. Compared with other amylopectins, quinoa amylopectin showed a high ratio of short chain to long chains (mean:14...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987919/number-of-branch-points-in-%C3%AE-limit-dextrins-impact-glucose-generation-rates-by-mammalian-mucosal-%C3%AE-glucosidases
#11
Byung-Hoo Lee, Bruce R Hamaker
α-Amylase first hydrolyzes starch structures to linear maltooligosaccharides and branched α-limit dextrins, then complete hydrolysis to glucose takes place through the mucosal α-glucosidases. In this study, we hydrolyzed waxy corn starch (WCS) by human pancreatic α-amylase to determine the digestion and structural properties of different size fractions of the branched α-limit dextrins. The α-amylolyzed WCS was separated by size exclusion chromatography, and the analyzed chromatograms showed four main hydrolyzate fractions...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974087/anaeromicrobium-sediminis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-fermentative-bacterium-isolated-from-deep-sea-sediment
#12
Xiaobo Zhang, Xiang Zeng, Xi Li, Karine Alain, Mohamed Jebbar, Zongze Shao
A novel anaerobic, mesophilic,heterotrophic bacterium, designated strain DY2726DT, was isolated from West Pacific Ocean sediments. Cells were long rods (0.5-0.8 μm wide,4-15 μm long),Gram-positive and motile by means of flagella. The temperature and pH ranges for growth were 25-40 °C and pH 6.5-9.0,while optimal growth occurred at 37 °C and pH 7.5, with a generation time 76 minutes. The strain required sea salts for growth from 10 to 30 g L-1 (optimum at 20 g L-1). Substrates used as carbon sources were yeast extract, tryptone, glucose, cellobiose, starch, gelatin, dextrin, fructose, fucose, galactose, galacturonic acid, gentiobiose, glucosaminic acid, mannose, melibiose, palatinose and rhamnose...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965407/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-dextrin-iodinated-casein-in-broilers-ii-hatch-window-and-growth-performance
#13
S Abousaad, K Lassiter, A Piekarski, P Chary, K Striplin, K Christensen, L R Bielke, B M Hargis, S Dridi, W G Bottje
Studies were conducted using a commercial Inovoject(TM) system to determine effects of in ovo feeding of dextrin and iodinated casein (IC) on hatch and posthatch growth in broilers. At ∼18.5 d embryonic development, eggs were treated with 0, 240, or 480 μg IC/mL in saline (Cont, IC240, and IC480) or dextrin (Dext, DextIC240 and DextIC480). The Dext solution consisted of 18% maltodextrin and 10% potato starch dextrin; saline was the vehicle used by the company for in ovo vaccination. The volume for all in ovo treatments was 50 μL/injection...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965406/effects-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-dextrin-iodinated-casein-in-broilers-i-hatch-weights-and-early-growth-performance
#14
S Abousaad, K Lassiter, A Piekarski, P Chary, K Striplin, K Christensen, L R Bielke, B M Hargis, S Dridi, W G Bottje
This study was conducted to determine the effect of in ovo feeding of dextrin (Dext) and iodinated casein (IC) on hatch and early growth in broilers. Three experiments were conducted at a commercial hatchery using a commercial Inovoject™ system with treatments occurring in conjunction with vaccination at transfer from incubator to hatcher units (18.5 to 19 d embryonic development). In all 3 experiments, approximately 15,000 eggs (2,500 eggs per group) were treated and transferred to a single hatcher unit...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913241/evaluation-of-highly-branched-cyclic-dextrin-in-inhalable-particles-of-combined-antibiotics-for-the-pulmonary-delivery-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#15
Kazunori Kadota, Arisa Senda, Hideaki Tagishi, John Oluwasogo Ayorinde, Yuichi Tozuka
This work aims to identify a suitable formulation for the pulmonary delivery of combinations of inhalational drugs using highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) macromolecules. We compared the effectiveness between powders prepared from HBCD with those prepared from five alternative excipients (lactose, maltose, sucrose, β-cyclodextrin and methyl β-cyclodextrin) in the pulmonary delivery of a single-dosage form of two anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin). Fine particles of untreated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and combination products using excipients were prepared by spray drying...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863994/understanding-the-physics-of-functional-fibers-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-an-evidence-based-approach-to-resolving-enduring-misconceptions-about-insoluble-and-soluble-fiber
#16
Johnson W McRorie, Nicola M McKeown
Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readily assessed in well-controlled clinical studies. This review will also focus on three health benefits (cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control, and normalizing stool form [constipation and diarrhea]) for which reproducible evidence of clinical efficacy has been published...
February 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859576/ccr5-deficiency-exacerbates-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-chemokines-induced-hepatic-inflammation
#17
Ju Ho Park, Dong Hun Lee, Mork Soon Park, Young Suk Jung, Jin Tae Hong
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chemokines and chemokine receptors implicated with alcoholic liver disease. Studies have shown that inflammation and oxidative stress induce fat molecules aggregation in liver. We evaluated the relationship between alcoholic fatty liver disease and c-c chemokine receptor 5 and impact of inflammation and oxidative stress in fat molecule deposition. METHODS: Lieber-DeCarli diet containing ethanol or isocaloric control diets were fed to wildtype and CCR5 knockout mice for 10 days, and gavaged with a single dose of ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin at 11 day...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819076/o2-selective-membranes-based-on-a-dextrin-nanosponge-ns-in-a-pvdf-hfp-polymer-matrix-for-li-air-cells
#18
J Amici, M Alidoost, C Francia, S Bodoardo, S Martinez Crespiera, D Amantia, M Biasizzo, F Caldera, F Trotta
A novel oxygen selective highly hydrophobic membrane is prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation in which a dextrin-based nanosponge is incorporated into a poly(vinylidene fluoride co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) matrix. The membrane presents high capability to entrap moisture from air as well as good hydrophobic behaviour. The membrane was assembled in a pouch type Li-air cell, which was cycled in a galvanostatic mode at curtailed capacity, in air with 17% relative humidity (RH). Owing to the protection of the membrane, the Li-air cell was able to discharge and re-charge for approximately 145 cycles, which correspond to about 1450 h of cell operation...
November 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786165/inflammatory-response-to-dextrin-based-hydrogel-associated-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-urinary-bladder-matrix-and-bonelike-%C3%A2-granules-in-rat-subcutaneous-implants
#19
Dina M Silva, Ana Rita Caseiro, Irina Amorim, Isabel Pereira, Fátima Faria, Tiago Pereira, José Domingos Santos, Francisco Miguel Gama, Ana Colette Maurício
Increasing relevance has been attributed to hydrogels due to their ability to provide an extracellular matrix (ECM)-like environment for cellular adhesion and proliferation, acting as mechanical scaffolds for tissue remodeling or as delivery matrices. In vivo biocompatibility of a hybrid dextrin hydrogel produced from oxidized dextrin and adipic acid dihydrazide and its combinations with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), ECM from a porcine bladder (urinary bladder matrix) and ceramic granules (Bonelike(®)), was evaluated following ISO 10993 after subcutaneous implantation in a rat model...
October 27, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770860/marine-microbial-amylases-properties-and-applications
#20
J Suriya, S Bharathiraja, M Krishnan, P Manivasagan, S-K Kim
Amylases are crucial enzymes which hydrolyze internal glycosidic linkages in starch and produce as primary products dextrins and oligosaccharides. Amylases are classified into α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase based on their three-dimensional structures, reaction mechanisms, and amino acid sequences. Amylases have innumerable applications in clinical, medical, and analytical chemistries as well as in food, detergent, textile, brewing, and distilling industries. Amylases can be produced from plants, animals, and microbial sources...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
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