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Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Eun Seon Kang, Da Sol Kim, Sunmin Park
Red mulberry (Morus alba) fruit is rich in anthocyanins, and mulberry leaves are used by silk worms to make silk protein. We determined that the water and ethanol extract of mulberry fruit and silk amino acids accelerated ethanol degradation and suppressed temporal cognitive dysfunction in acute alcohol administered rats. The mechanism was explored in rats with acute oral administration of silk protein and mulberry fruit extracts. Rats were given 0.3 g of dextrin (control) and water extract (WMB) and ethanol extract of mulberry (EMB), silk protein hydrolysates (SKA), and a commercial product (positive‑control) based on body weight...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zeou Dou, Christy M Dykstra, Spyros G Pavlostathis
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofilm and external voltage on the performance and microbial community composition of batch-fed, combined anaerobic digestion-bioelectrochemical cell (AD-BEC) systems under different operational conditions. A dextrin/peptone mixture was fed at a range of organic loading rates (0.34 to 1.37g COD/L-d). The hybrid system with both suspended biomass and biofilm without any external potential application achieved a substantially higher initial soluble COD consumption (53...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elisabet Martí Coma-Cros, Arnau Biosca, Elena Lantero, Maria Letizia Manca, Carla Caddeo, Lucía Gutiérrez, Miriam Ramírez, Livia Neves Borgheti-Cardoso, Maria Manconi, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets
Curcumin is an antimalarial compound easy to obtain and inexpensive, having shown little toxicity across a diverse population. However, the clinical use of this interesting polyphenol has been hampered by its poor oral absorption, extremely low aqueous solubility and rapid metabolism. In this study, we have used the anionic copolymer Eudragit® S100 to assemble liposomes incorporating curcumin and containing either hyaluronan (Eudragit-hyaluronan liposomes) or the water-soluble dextrin Nutriose® FM06 (Eudragit-nutriosomes)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuta Fujii, Yasushi Makino, Masaaki Sato
It is widely known that sulfate ion at high concentration serves like an allosteric activator of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Based on the crystallographic studies on GP, it has been assumed that the sulfate ion is bound close to the phosphorylatable Ser14 site of nonactivated GP, causing a conformational change to catalytically-active GP. However, there are also reports that sulfate ion inhibits allosterically-activated GP by preventing the phosphate substrate from attaching to the catalytic site. In the present study, using a high concentration of sulfate ion, significant enhancement of GP activity was observed when macromolecular glycogen was used as substrate but not when smaller maltohexaose was used...
May 4, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Marina Arredondo-Santoyo, Ma Soledad Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo
The isolation and characterization of fungal strains from poorly described taxa allows undercover attributes of their basic biology useful for biotechnology. Here, a wild fungal strain (CMU-196) from recently described Paraconiothyrium genus was analyzed. CMU-196 was identified as Paraconiothyrium brasiliense by phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). CMU-196 metabolized 57 out of 95 substrates of the Biolog FF microplates. Efficient assimilation of dextrins and glycogen indicates that CMU-196 is a good producer of amylolytic enzymes...
April 30, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Bo-Young Kim, Ji-Wook Yoon, Jin Koo Kim, Yun Chan Kang, Jong-Heun Lee
Sn-doped NiO multiroom spheres with a unique microreactor morphology were prepared by facile ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of solution containing tin oxalate, nickel nitrate, and dextrin, and subsequent heat treatment. The multiroom structure was formed by phase segregation between the molten metal source and liquid-like dextrin and sequent removal of dextrin during spray pyrolysis, which played the dual roles of enhancing gas response and selectivity. The response (resistance ratio) of the Sn-doped NiO multiroom spheres to 1 ppm p-xylene was as high as 65...
April 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shodai Takahashi, Yu Kagami, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Takuya Terai, Toru Komatsu, Tasuku Ueno, Masanobu Uchiyama, Ikuko Koyama-Honda, Noboru Mizushima, Tomohiko Taguchi, Hiroyuki Arai, Tetsuo Nagano, Yasuteru Urano
In biological systems, the pH in intracellular organelles or tissues is strictly regulated, and differences of pH are deeply related to key biological events such as protein degradation, intracellular trafficking, renal failure, and cancer. Ratiometric fluorescence imaging is useful for determination of precise pH values, but existing fluorescence probes have substantial limitations, such as inappropriate p Ka for imaging in the physiological pH range, inadequate photobleaching resistance, and insufficiently long excitation and emission wavelengths...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jinxia Xu, Zhangjun Bai, Fanlin Zu, Fanyong Yan, Junfu Wei, Saihui Zhang, Yunmei Luo
A convenient, highly sensitive and reliable assay for 2,4,6‑trinitrophenol (TNP) and Fe (III) ion (Fe3+ ) in the dual spectroscopic manner is developed based on novel carbon dots (CDs). The CDs with highly blue emitting fluorescent were easily prepared via the one-step potassium hydroxide-assisted reflux method from dextrin. The as-synthesized CDs exhibited the high crystalline quality, the excellent fluorescence characteristics with a high quantum yield of ~13.1%, and the narrow size distribution with an average diameter of 6...
April 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Leann Lerie Matta, Saranraj Karuppuswami, Premjeet Chahal, Evangelyn C Alocilja
Rapid detection techniques of pathogenic bacteria in the liquid food supply chain are of significant research interest due to their pivotal role in preventing foodborne outbreaks, and in maintaining high standards of public health and safety. Milk and dairy products are of particular interest due to their widespread consumption across the globe. In this paper, a biosensor for detecting pathogenic bacteria in milk using dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (d-AuNP) as labels decoded at microwave frequencies is presented...
April 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Gi Dae Park, Yun Chan Kang
Novel three-dimensional (3D) multiroom-structured multicomponent metal (NiFe) selenide-graphitic carbon (GC)-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid microspheres were prepared by spray pyrolysis and a subsequent selenization process. Phase segregation and the decomposition of dextrin resulted in multiroom-structured microspheres with uniformly distributed empty nanovoids in the spray pyrolysis process. Metal nanocrystals of iron and nickel components that formed as intermediate products during the selenization process transformed amorphous carbon into GC by acting as nanocatalysts...
April 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Meng Zhao, Xiangqun Xu, Shaolong Yang, Tianming Liu, Bo Liu
The maltooligosyl trehalose synthase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 was cloned and the recombinant peotein was expressed in E. coli. The protein was purified to homogeneity by nickel column chromatography. The archaeal enzyme could catalyze an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction and convert the glycosidic bond at the reducing end of dextrins from α-1, 4 (reducing end) into α-1, 1 (non-reducing end). The most suitable temperature was 75°C and the optimal pH was 5...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gregory Arnal, Darrell W Cockburn, Harry Brumer, Nicole M Koropatkin
Bacteria that reside in the mammalian intestinal tract efficiently hydrolyze dietary carbohydrates, including starch, that escape digestion in the small intestine. Starch is an abundant dietary carbohydrate comprised of α1,4 and α1,6 linked glucose, yet mammalian intestinal glucoamylases cannot effectively hydrolyze starch that has frequent α1,6 branching as these structures hinder recognition and processing by α1,4-specific amylases. Here we present the structure of the cell surface amylase SusG from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron complexed with a mixed linkage amylosaccharide generated from transglycosylation during crystallization...
March 30, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Xue Li, Jun Cao, Xinpeng Bai, Zefang Jiang, Xuanri Shen
Human milk fat substitutes (HMFS) are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids which upon microencapsulation, can be used as a source of high quality lipids in infant formula. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the microencapsulation condition of HMFS as a functional product. The microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) of microencapsulated HMFS was investigated with respect to four variables including concentration of soy lecithin (A), ratio of demineralized whey powder to malt dextrin (B), HFMS concentration (C), and homogenizing pressure (D)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Tim Meier-Dörnberg, Oliver Ingo Kory, Fritz Jacob, Maximilian Michel, Mathias Hutzler
Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus is generally considered to be an obligatory spoilage microorganism and spoilage yeast in beer and beer-mixed beverages. Their super-attenuating ability causes increased carbon dioxide concentrations, beer gushing and potential bottle explosion along with changes in flavor, sedimentation and increased turbidity. This research shows clear differences in the super-attenuating properties of S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus yeast strains and their potential for industrial brewing applications...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Kyuya Nakagawa, Shinri Tamiya, Gabsoo Do, Shinji Kono, Takaaki Ochiai
Glassy phase formation in a frozen product determines various properties of the freeze-dried products. When an aqueous solution is subjected to freezing, a glassy phase forms as a consequence of freeze-concentration. During post-freezing annealing, the relaxation of the glassy phase and the ripening of ice crystals (i.e. Ostwald ripening) spontaneously occur, where the kinetics are controlled by the annealing and glass transition temperatures. This study was motivated to observe the progress of glassy state relaxation separate from ice coarsening during annealing...
June 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Huipeng Li, Xue Yang, Fang Gao, Chenggen Qian, Chenzi Li, David Oupicky, Minjie Sun
In present study, gene concentrated as well as bioreduction-ruptured nanogel with local enrichment positive charge while low cytotoxicity was developed for Bcl2 siRNA delivery featured in intracellular switch on/off controlled release. Dynamic covalent bond crosslinked nanogel was formed by thiolated PEI of 1.8 kDa(PEI-1.8 kDa)and biodegradable dextrin. Once nanogel was uptake by tumor cells, high concentration of glutathione (GSH) in cytosol could bioreducible -degrade and rupture the crosslink of this dextrin nanogel (DSP) into hypotoxic PEI-1...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Hiroko Maruki-Uchida, Minoru Morita, Yoshikazu Yonei, Masahiko Sai
Piceatannol has been reported to have a wide variety of effects on the skin, including promoting collagen production, inhibiting melanin synthesis, inducing the antioxidant glutathione, and eliminating reactive oxygen species. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effects of piceatannol-rich passion fruit seed extract on the skin of healthy Japanese women (age, 35-54 y). Thirty-two women with dry skin received either passion fruit seed extract (5 mg piceatannol) or a placebo (dextrin) for 8 wk...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Nazli Namazi, Bagher Larijani, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: Previous trials have reported beneficial effects of isolated and complex fiber supplements in obesity treatment. However, recommending fiber supplements in obese subjects remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review has updated the data on the effects of fiber supplements on obesity since 2010 and the need exists for a systematic review on this topic. Accordingly, a systematic review was undertaken to summarize the efficacy of different types of fiber supplements as a complementary treatment for weight management...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Sevda Gholizadeh Shamasbi, Parvin Dehgan, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Akbar Aliasgarzadeh, Mojgan Mirghafourvand
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common abnormalities in women of reproductive age that can lead to a variety of metabolic and reproductive disorders. Studies reveal that a healthy diet is the most effective way for treating the risk factors associated with metabolic disorders and place greater emphasis on the consumption of prebiotic foods. The present study aims to determine the effect of resistant Dextrin on metabolic parameters, including lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBS) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and androgen levels, including serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and free testosterone, as the primary outcomes, and manifestations of PCOS including menstrual cycle irregularity and hirsutism, as the secondary outcomes...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Christine H Emilien, Yong Zhu, Walter H Hsu, Patricia Williamson, James H Hollis
OBJECTIVES: This crossover study investigated the effect of consuming a beverage that contains soluble fiber dextrin (SFD) on appetite and food intake in adults to test the hypothesis that beverages that contain 10 or 20 g of fiber from SFD would be more satiating than the control beverage. METHODS: Forty-one participants consumed lunch with a beverage that contained 0 g, 10 g, or 20 g of fiber from SFD. Appetite questionnaires were completed and blood samples collected immediately before lunch and at regular intervals over the following 150 min...
March 2018: Nutrition
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