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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633886/remembering-and-imagining-alternative-versions-of-the-personal-past
#1
Peggy L St Jacques, Alexis C Carpenter, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although autobiographical memory and episodic simulations recruit similar core brain regions, episodic simulations engage additional neural recruitment in the frontoparietal control network due to greater demands on constructive processes. However, previous functional neuroimaging studies showing differences in remembering and episodic simulation have focused on veridical retrieval of past experiences, and thus have not fully considered how retrieving the past in different ways from how it was originally experienced may also place similar demands on constructive processes...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624521/semanticized-autobiographical-memory-and-the-default-executive-coupling-hypothesis-of-aging
#2
R Nathan Spreng, Amber W Lockrow, Elizabeth DuPre, Roni Setton, Karen A P Spreng, Gary R Turner
As we age, the architecture of cognition undergoes a fundamental transition. Fluid intellectual abilities decline while crystalized abilities remain stable or increase. This shift has a profound impact across myriad cognitive and functional domains, yet the neural mechanisms remain under-specified. We have proposed that greater connectivity between the default network and executive control regions in lateral prefrontal cortex may underlie this shift, as older adults increasingly rely upon accumulated knowledge to support goal-directed behavior...
June 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611690/rethinking-a-negative-event-the-affective-impact-of-ruminative-versus-imagery-based-processing-of-aversive-autobiographical-memories
#3
Christien Slofstra, Maarten C Eisma, Emily A Holmes, Claudi L H Bockting, Maaike H Nauta
INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606629/neural-substrates-underlying-balanced-time-perspective-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study
#4
Yiqun Guo, Zhiyi Chen, Tingyong Feng
Balanced time perspective (BTP), which is defined as a mental ability to switch flexibly among different time perspectives Zimbardo and Boyd (1999), has been suggested to be a central component of positive psychology Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004). BTP reflects individual's cognitive flexibility towards different time frames, which leads to many positive outcomes, including positive mood, subjective wellbeing, emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and executive control. However, the neural basis of BTP is still unclear...
June 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594191/overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-in-healthy-young-and-older-adults-differential-age-effects-on-components-of-the-capture-and-rumination-functional-avoidance-and-impaired-executive-control-carfax-model
#5
Laura Ros, Jose M Latorre, Juan P Serrano, Jorge J Ricarte
The CaRFAX model (Williams et al., 2007) has been used to explain the causes of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM; the difficulty to retrieve specific autobiographical memories), a cognitive phenomenon generally related with different psychopathologies. This model proposes 3 different mechanisms to explain OGM: capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA) and impaired executive functions (X). However, the complete CaRFAX model has not been tested in nonclinical populations. This study aims to assess the usefulness of the CaRFAX model to explain OGM in 2 healthy samples: a young sample and an older sample, to test for possible age-related differences in the underlying causes of OGM...
June 8, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588514/pathways-from-trauma-to-psychotic-experiences-a-theoretically-informed-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-in-psychosis
#6
Amy Hardy
In recent years, empirical data and theoretical accounts relating to the relationship between childhood victimization and psychotic experiences have accumulated. Much of this work has focused on co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or putative causal mechanisms in isolation from each other. The complexity of posttraumatic stress reactions experienced in psychosis remains poorly understood. This paper therefore attempts to synthesize the current evidence base into a theoretically informed, multifactorial model of posttraumatic stress in psychosis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586778/autobiographical-memory-in-bipolar-disorder-and-its-link-to-neuropsychological-functioning
#7
Esther Quinlivan, Mattea Dallacker, Babette Renneberg, Elisa Strasser, Jana Fiebig, Thomas J Stamm
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the specificity of autobiographical memory (AM) in bipolar disorder (BD) and to investigate the association between AM and neuropsychological functions. METHOD: Twenty bipolar patients and 22 matched healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. AM was assessed with an extended version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) including rejection cue words. A neuropsychological test battery was used to examine verbal memory, executive functions, and attention...
June 7, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585461/age-differences-in-autobiographical-memory-across-the-adult-lifespan-older-adults-report-stronger-phenomenology
#8
Martina Luchetti, Angelina R Sutin
As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory...
June 6, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575483/that-s-me-in-the-spotlight-neural-basis-of-individual-differences-in-self-consciousness
#9
Irene de Caso, Giulia Poerio, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
A long-standing literature implicates activity within the default mode network (DMN) to processes linked to the self. However, contemporary work suggests that other large-scale networks networks might also be involved. For instance, goal-directed autobiographical planning requires positive functional connectivity (FC) between DMN and frontoparietal control (FPCN) networks. The present study examined the inter-relationship between trait self-focus (measured via a self-consciousness scale; SCS), incidental memory in a self-reference paradigm, and resting state FC of large-scale networks...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566056/the-impact-of-depression-and-ptsd-symptom-severity-on-trauma-memory
#10
Andrea R Ashbaugh, Julia Marinos, Brad Bujaki
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression frequently co-occur following a traumatic event. Differences in the processing of autobiographical memory have been observed in both disorders in the form of overgeneralised memories and negative intrusive memories. The current study examined how symptoms of PTSD and depression influence the phenomenological characteristics of trauma memories. Undergraduate students who had experienced a traumatic event (n = 696) completed questionnaires online including measures of PTSD and depressive symptom severity...
May 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558637/the-cognitive-effects-of-wearable-cameras-in-mild-alzheimer-disease-an-experimental-study
#11
Ana Rita Silva, Maria Salomé Pinho, Luís Macedo, Christopher J A Moulin
BACKGROUND: Wearable cameras are a new type of intervention aimed at stimulating memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such passive external memory aids have started to be considered as alternatives to both more active external aids (such as writing in diaries, journals, and timetables) and to internal cognitive strategies (such as spaced retrieval, errorless learning). OBJECTIVE: In order to understand the benefits of these innovative devices for memory compensation, the present experiment examined the effectiveness of two memory training strategies: SenseCam, a wearable camera, a passive external memory aid and a memory training programme (MEMO+) created from tasks known to stimulate memory, in comparison with a control condition, a personal written diary...
May 30, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556207/characterization-of-self-defining-memories-in-individuals-with-severe-alcohol-use-disorders-after-mid-term-abstinence-the-impact-of-the-emotional-valence-of-memories
#12
Jean-Louis Nandrino, Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe
BACKGROUND: Self-defining memories (SDM) are distinguished from other autobiographical memory (AM) processes to delineate those associated with the sense of personal identity and continuity in one's individual history. With chronic alcohol consumption, the construction of such memories may be modified in terms of specificity, valence, meaning-making and evoked topics. The present study sought to characterize SDM in a population of 27 patients with AUD who had been abstinent for at least 2 months compared with 28 control participants...
May 28, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548462/neurocognitive-mechanisms-of-real-world-autobiographical-memory-retrieval-insights-from-studies-using-wearable-camera-technology
#13
REVIEW
Tiffany E Chow, Jesse Rissman
In recent years, investigation into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of autobiographical memory has been aided by the use of experimental paradigms incorporating wearable camera technology. By effortlessly capturing first-person images of one's life events, these cameras provide a rich set of naturalistic stimuli that can later be used to trigger the recall of specific episodes. Here, we chronicle the development and progression of such studies in behavioral and neuroimaging examinations of both clinical and nonclinical adult populations...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547677/episodic-and-semantic-content-of-memory-and-imagination-a-multilevel-analysis
#14
Aleea L Devitt, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Autobiographical memories of past events and imaginations of future scenarios comprise both episodic and semantic content. Correlating the amount of "internal" (episodic) and "external" (semantic) details generated when describing autobiographical events can illuminate the relationship between the processes supporting these constructs. Yet previous studies performing such correlations were limited by aggregating data across all events generated by an individual, potentially obscuring the underlying relationship within the events themselves...
May 25, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543280/positive-autobiographical-memory-deficits-in-youth-with-depression-histories-and-their-never-depressed-siblings
#15
Ena Begovic, Vanessa Panaite, Lauren M Bylsma, Charles George, Maria Kovacs, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Ildikó Baji, István Benák, Roberta Dochnal, Enikő Kiss, Ágnes Vetró, Krisztina Kapornai, Jonathan Rottenberg
OBJECTIVES: Impaired positive autobiographical memory (AM) is closely linked to emotional disorders. AM impairments are often found in depressed adults and may be related to the difficulties such persons have in regulating their dysphoric mood. By contrast, less is known about AM disturbances among adolescents, or about the functional relationship of AM disturbances to early-onset depression. DESIGN: A high-risk family design served to compare four groups of youth who differed in depression histories and familial depression risk...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542248/the-detection-of-faked-identity-using-unexpected-questions-and-mouse-dynamics
#16
Merylin Monaro, Luciano Gamberini, Giuseppe Sartori
The detection of faked identities is a major problem in security. Current memory-detection techniques cannot be used as they require prior knowledge of the respondent's true identity. Here, we report a novel technique for detecting faked identities based on the use of unexpected questions that may be used to check the respondent identity without any prior autobiographical information. While truth-tellers respond automatically to unexpected questions, liars have to "build" and verify their responses. This lack of automaticity is reflected in the mouse movements used to record the responses as well as in the number of errors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541754/overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-and-depression-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#17
F C L Wilson, J D Gregory
OBJECTIVES: Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a well-researched phenomenon in working age adults with depression. However, the relevance and importance of OGM in older adult depression is not well established. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing literature on OGM and depressive symptoms in older adults under the framework of the Capture and Rumination, Functional Avoidance and Impaired Executive Control (CaR-FA-X) model. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using PsychINFO, PubMed and Web of Knowledge...
May 25, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539906/guilt-as-a-motivator-for-moral-judgment-an-autobiographical-memory-study
#18
Igor Knez, Ola Nordhall
The aim was to investigate the phenomenology of self-defining moral memory and its relations to self-conscious feelings of guilt and willingness to do wrong (moral intention) in social and economic moral situations. We found that people use guilt as a moral motivator for their moral intention. The reparative function of guilt varied, however, with type of situation; that is, participants felt guiltier and were less willing to do wrong in economic compared to social moral situations. The self-defining moral memory was shown to be relatively more easy to access (accessibility), logically structured (coherence), vivid, seen from the first-person perspective (visual perspective), real (sensory detail); but was relatively less positive (valence), emotionally intense, chronologically clear (time perspective), in agreement with the present self (distancing), and shared...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530344/-suppression-of-a-non-trauma-related-threatening-thought-as-an-avoidance-strategy-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients
#19
Lilach Abramsky-Arazi, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: Our goal was to examine how suppression of nontrauma- related thoughts differs between PTSD patients and patients with non-PTSD anxiety disorder compared to a group of matched controls. BACKGROUND: Intrusive recollections of aspects of the traumatic event and its sequelae are at the core of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). People who have suffered a traumatic event may implement some form of avoidance coping strategies in order to deal with the unwanted memories that accompany them...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527311/challenging-assumptions-from-emotion-dysregulation-psychological-treatments
#20
REVIEW
Andrada D Neacsiu, Megan Smith, Caitlin M Fang
BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatments assume that the inability to downregulate negative emotional arousal is a key problem in the development and maintenance of psychopathology and that lack of effective regulation efforts and a preference to use maladaptive regulation strategies is a primary mechanism. Though ubiquitous, there is limited empirical evidence to support this assumption. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether self-reported emotion dysregulation equated to difficulties reducing emotional arousal during a behavioral task and to primary use of maladaptive strategies to manage negative emotions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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