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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666262/spatial-and-temporal-heterogeneity-of-neural-responses-in-human-posteromedial-cortex
#1
Amy L Daitch, Josef Parvizi
Neuroimaging evidence supports a role of the default mode network (DMN) in spontaneous thought and goal-driven internally oriented processes, such as recalling an autobiographical event, and has demonstrated its deactivation during focused, externally oriented attention. Recent work suggests that the DMN is not a homogeneous network but rather is composed of at least several subnetworks, which are engaged in distinct functions; however, it is still unclear if these different functions rely on the same neuronal populations...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628068/negative-autobiographical-memory-in-depression-reflects-elevated-amygdala-hippocampal-reactivity-and-hippocampally-associated-emotion-regulation
#2
Bruce P Doré, Odile Rodrik, Chelsea Boccagno, Alexa Hubbard, Jochen Weber, Barbara Stanley, Maria A Oquendo, Jeffrey M Miller, M Elizabeth Sublette, J John Mann, Kevin N Ochsner
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated autobiographical recall is observed in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown whether people with MDD show abnormalities in memory-, emotion-, and control-related brain systems during reactivity to and regulation of negative autobiographical memories. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural mechanisms underlying MDD-related emotional responses to negative autobiographical memories and the ability to downregulate these responses using a cognitive regulatory strategy known as reappraisal...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628004/the-signs-and-significance-of-personality-coherence-in-personal-stories-and-strivings
#3
Marc A Fournier, Mengxi Dong, Matthew N Quitasol, Nic M Weststrate, Stefano I Di Domenico
The concept of personality coherence refers to the extent of psychological unity and wholeness embodied within each individual. In the present research, we examined the extent to which the narrative, functional, and organismic conceptualizations of personality coherence interrelate, as well as their associations with psychological abilities and personal adjustment. College students ( N = 391) narrated accounts of three personal memories; listed five personal strivings that they subsequently compared and evaluated; completed performance measures of their intelligence, wisdom, and creativity; and rated their hedonic and eudaimonic well-being...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624749/sleep-deprivation-and-autobiographical-memory-evidence-from-sleep-deprived-nurses
#4
Hasan Zare Khormizi, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche, Vahid Nejati
Negative effects of sleep deprivation on different types of memory are well documented, but the specific effects on autobiographical memory performance are not well studied. In this study, we investigated performance on the autobiographical memory test in a group of sleep-deprived and well-rested nurses. One-hundred participants divided into sleep-deprived (N = 50, 25 females) and well-rested (N = 50, 25 females) groups took part in the study. The sleep-deprived group included night-shift nurses with 8-12 hr sleep deprivation, while the well-rested group had the usual night sleep before performance assessment...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604457/lateral-prefrontal-cortex-lesion-impairs-regulation-of-internally-and-externally-directed-attention
#5
Julia W Y Kam, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Tor Endestad, Torstein R Meling, Robert T Knighta
Our capacity to flexibly shift between internally and externally directed attention is crucial for successful performance of activities in our daily lives. Neuroimaging studies have implicated the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) in both internally directed processes, including autobiographical memory retrieval and future planning, and externally directed processes, including cognitive control and selective attention. However, the causal involvement of the LPFC in regulating internally directed attention states is unknown...
March 28, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599732/functions-of-autobiographical-memory-in-younger-and-older-adults
#6
Andrea Vranić, Margareta Jelić, Mirjana Tonković
Functional approach to autobiographical memory (AM) posits its three broad functions: directive, self, and social. Although these functions are probably universal, life stage and gender variations are expected. This research builds on previous studies investigating the validity of Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck and Alea, 2011). A sample of 365 adults (56% female, mean age 43.3 years), divided in 2 age cohorts (young: 18-45 years, old: 46-90 years), used TALE, to rate their tendency of using AM for three different purposes, and measures of self-concept clarity, attachment in close relationships and time perspective...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588954/frequent-sleep-related-bitemporal-focal-seizures-in-transient-epileptic-amnesia-syndrome-evidence-from-ictal-video-eeg
#7
David B Burkholder, Amy L Jones, David T Jones, Rachel R Fabris, Jeffrey W Britton, Terrence D Lagerlund, Elson L So, Gregory D Cascino, Gregory A Worrell, Cheolsu Shin, Erik K St Louis
Two patients who shared similar presenting clinical features of anterograde and retrograde autobiographical amnesia typical of transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) underwent prolonged video electroencephalogram (VEEG) monitoring and were found to have sleep-activated epileptiform activity and frequent subclinical bitemporal seizures predominantly during sleep. Case 1 is a 59-year-old woman whose presenting complaint was memory impairment. Over 18 months, she had three distinct 8-h-long episodes of confusion and disorientation with persistent anterograde and retrograde autobiographical amnesia...
June 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587159/a-cluster-randomized-controlled-platform-trial-comparing-group-memory-specificity-training-mest-to-group-psychoeducation-and-supportive-counselling-psc-in-the-treatment-of-recurrent-depression
#8
Aliza Werner-Seidler, Caitlin Hitchcock, Anna Bevan, Anna McKinnon, Julia Gillard, Theresa Dahm, Isobel Chadwick, Inderpal Panesar, Lauren Breakwell, Viola Mueller, Evangeline Rodrigues, Catrin Rees, Siobhan Gormley, Susanne Schweizer, Peter Watson, Filip Raes, Laura Jobson, Tim Dalgleish
Impaired ability to recall specific autobiographical memories is characteristic of depression, which when reversed, may have therapeutic benefits. This cluster-randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and aspects of acceptability, and feasibility of MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) relative to Psychoeducation and Supportive Counselling (PSC) for Major Depressive Disorder (N = 62). A key aim of this study was to determine a range of effect size estimates to inform a later phase trial. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up...
March 15, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578741/dysregulated-behavioral-responses-to-hedonic-probes-among-youth-with-depression-histories-and-their-high-risk-siblings
#9
Vanessa Panaite, Lauren M Bylsma, Maria Kovacs, Kimberly O'Leary, Charles J George, Ildikó Baji, István Benák, Roberta Dochnal, Enikő Kiss, Ágnes Vetró, Krisztina Kapornai, Jonathan Rottenberg
Affect dysregulation in response to rewarding stimuli has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear how affective behavioral dynamics may be altered among individuals who are at high risk for depression but not currently depressed. We examined the dynamics of affective facial behavior during hedonic probes among 3 groups of adolescents: remitted probands who had histories of childhood-onset MDD (n = 187), never-depressed siblings of probands (high familial risk; n = 207), and healthy controls (n = 166)...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575976/the-effects-of-autobiographical-memory-and-visual-perspective-on-working-memory
#10
Zenghu Cheng, Yugui She
The present research aims to explore whether recalling and writing about autobiographical memory from different perspectives (first-person perspective vs. third-person perspective) could affect cognitive function. The participants first performed a working memory task to evaluate their working memory capacity as a baseline and then were instructed to recall (Study 1) or write about (Study 2) personal events (failures vs. successes) from the first-person perspective or the third-person perspective. Finally, they performed the working memory task again...
March 24, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572886/impact-of-culture-on-autobiographical-life-structure-in-depression
#11
Laura Jobson, Nazleen Miskon, Tim Dalgleish, Caitlin Hitchcock, Emma Hill, Ann-Marie Golden, Nor Sheereen Zulkefly, Firdaus Mukhtar
OBJECTIVES: Distortions in autobiographical memory have been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Those with MDD demonstrate a 'depressogenic' autobiographical life structure. Research has not examined how culture influences this process. We investigated whether Malay individuals (members of an interdependent culture) with MDD demonstrated a 'depressogenic' autobiographical life structure similar to that of British individuals (members of an independent culture) with MDD. DESIGN: A 2 (Culture; Malay, British) × 2 (Mood; depressed, control) cross-sectional design using a card sort task and self-report measures was used...
March 23, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558768/using-story-based-interventions-to-improve-episodic-memory-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549877/reduced-specificity-of-autobiographical-memories-in-young-people-with-tic-disorders
#13
Victoria Pile, Sally Robinson, Elystan Roberts, Marta Topor, Tammy Hedderly, Jennifer Y F Lau
OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders (TS/CTD) and contributes to significant impairment. The specificity of autobiographical memories is implicated in an individual's sense of self and their daily functioning but also in the onset and development of depression in the general population. Here, we examined whether memory specificity is reduced in young people with TS/CTD, relative to control participants, and whether memory specificity is associated with depression...
March 6, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548510/self-regulation-and-the-specificity-of-autobiographical-memory-in-offenders
#14
Daniela Neves, Maria S Pinho
Certain clinical populations exhibit an Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory (OAM), characterized by difficulty remembering specific events. One study has observed OAM for positive events in a group of offenders. This study analyzed the stability of the valence effect in the OAM of offenders, the executive control impairments facilitating OAM in offenders, and the relationship of self-esteem and social desirability with AM specificity. The specificity (Autobiographical Memory Test) and emotional properties of the AMs of 59 prisoners (30 men, 29 women) and a control group (29 men, 30 women) were compared...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540103/effect-of-cognitive-bias-modification-memory-on-depressive-symptoms-and-autobiographical-memory-bias-two-independent-studies-in-high-ruminating-and-dysphoric-samples
#15
Janna N Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G Beevers, Eni S Becker, Jasper A J Smits
Memory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral (control) CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals (N = 101) and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 100). In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study-test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations...
March 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536827/overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-bias-in-clinical-and-non-clinical-voice-hearers
#16
Pamela Jacobsen, Emmanuelle Peters, Thomas Ward, Philippa A Garety, Mike Jackson, Paul Chadwick
BACKGROUND: Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions...
March 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519470/memory-deficits
#17
Costanza Papagno
In this chapter, the neuropsychologic literature concerning memory deficits following parietal lesions is reviewed. Left inferior parietal lobule lesions definitely cause verbal short-term memory impairments, while right parietal lesions disrupt visuospatial short-term memory. Episodic memory, as well as autobiographic memory, does not seem to be impaired after both unilateral and bilateral parietal lesions, in contrast with neuroimaging studies reporting activation of the lateral parietal cortex during memory tasks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515473/the-persistence-of-the-self-over-time-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Lynette J Tippett, Sally C Prebble, Donna Rose Addis
Diachronic unity is the belief that, despite changes, we are the same person across the lifespan. We propose that diachronic unity is supported by the experience of remembering the self over time during episodic recall (i.e., phenomenological continuity). However, we also predict that diachronic unity is also possible when episodic memory is impaired, as long as the ability to construct life narratives from semantic memory (i.e., semantic continuity) is intact. To examine this prediction, we investigated diachronic unity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), two conditions characterised by disrupted phenomenological continuity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513912/meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-autobiographical-memory-specificity-and-exposure-to-trauma
#19
Tom J Barry, Bert Lenaert, Dirk Hermans, Filip Raes, James W Griffith
Cognitive models of emotional disorders suggest that reduced autobiographical memory specificity that results from exposure to traumatic events may play an important role in the aetiology and maintenance of these disorders. However, there has yet to be a comprehensive meta-analysis of the association between trauma exposure and memory specificity, and the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms on this association. We searched PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases and extracted data from studies regarding the mean number or proportion of specific memories that participants with and without trauma exposure recalled on the Autobiographical Memory Test...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501971/seeing-life-through-rose-colored-spectacles-autobiographical-memory-as-experienced-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#20
Mohamad El Haj, Jean Louis Nandrino
We investigated whether patients with Korsakjoff's Sybdrome (KS) would demonstrate a discrepancy between (low) autobiographical specificity and (high) sense of reliving. We invited 20 KS patients and 24 controls to retrieve personal memories. After memory retrieval, they were invited to rate subjective characteristics of their recall (e.g., reliving, travel in time, remembering, realness). Besides this rating, we analyzed memories objectively with regard to specificity. Analysis demonstrated poorer sense of reliving and memory specificity in KS patients than in controls...
March 1, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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