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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915588/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome
#1
Michael Perdices, Geoffrey Herkes
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a relatively rare, non-progressive angiopathy frequently heralded by severe thunderclap headache. It is characterised by vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries which usually resolves within three months of onset. Transient focal neurological signs may occur, and persistent deficits associated with haemorrhagic comorbidities have been reported in a small percentage of individuals. In this paper we report the case of RH, a 36-year-old woman who presented at a university teaching hospital in Sydney with a clinical history and radiological evidence consistent with RCVS...
December 5, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899710/quantifying-and-exploring-camouflaging-in-men-and-women-with-autism
#2
Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Amber Nv Ruigrok, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Bonnie Auyeung, Peter Szatmari, Francesca Happé, Simon Baron-Cohen
Autobiographical descriptions and clinician observations suggest that some individuals with autism, particularly females, 'camouflage' their social communication difficulties, which may require considerable cognitive effort and lead to increased stress, anxiety and depression. Using data from 60 age- and IQ-matched men and women with autism (without intellectual disability), we operationalized camouflaging in adults with autism for the first time as the quantitative discrepancy between the person's 'external' behavioural presentation in social-interpersonal contexts (measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) and the person's 'internal' status (dispositional traits measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient and social cognitive capability measured by the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test)...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886629/transient-epileptic-amnesia-over-twenty-years-long-term-follow-up-of-a-case-series-with-three-detailed-reports
#3
Sharon A Savage, Christopher R Butler, John R Hodges, Adam Z Zeman
PURPOSE: Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA) is a form of adult onset temporal lobe epilepsy characterised by ictal amnesia. The amnesic seizures are often accompanied by interical memory disturbance, involving autobiographical amnesia and accelerated long-term forgetting. Short-term follow-up studies suggest a relatively stable cognitive profile once treated, but recent case reports raise concerns regarding the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study reports clinical and cognitive outcome in TEA patients over a 20-year period...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886529/autobiographical-and-episodic-memory-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Jeffrey D Wammes, Tyler J Good, Myra A Fernandes
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI...
November 22, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867366/the-impact-of-perspective-change-as-a-cognitive-reappraisal-strategy-on-affect-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Sophie M A Wallace-Hadrill, Sunjeev K Kamboj
The strategic or deliberate adoption of a cognitively distanced, third-person perspective is proposed to adaptively regulate emotions. However, studies of psychological disorders suggest spontaneous adoption of a third-person perspective reflects counter-productive avoidance. Here, we review studies that investigate the deliberate adoption of a third- or first-person vantage perspective and its impact on affect in healthy people, "sub-clinical" populations and those with psychological disorders. A systematic search was conducted across four databases...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846438/mapping-autobiographical-memory-in-schizophrenia-clinical-implications
#6
REVIEW
J J Ricarte, L Ros, J M Latorre, E Watkins
Increasing evidence suggests that impaired autobiographical memory (AM) mechanisms may be associated with the onset and maintenance of psychopathology. However, there is not yet a comprehensive review of the components of autobiographical memory in schizophrenic patients. The first aim of this review is a synthesis of evidence about the functioning of AM in schizophrenic patients. The main autobiographical elements reviewed in schizophrenic patients include the study of overgeneral memory (form); self-defining memories (contents); consciousness during the process of retrieval (awareness), and the abnormal early reminiscence bump (distribution)...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842736/-multidimensionality-of-inner-speech-and-its-relationship-with-abnormal-perceptions
#7
William Tamayo-Agudelo, Juan David Vélez-Urrego, Gilberto Gaviria-Castaño, Salvador Perona-Garcelán
BACKGROUND: Inner speech is a common human experience. Recently, there have been studies linking this experience with cognitive functions, such as problem solving, reading, writing, autobiographical memory, and some disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In addition, inner speech is recognised as the main source of auditory hallucinations. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study is to establish the factor structure of Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ) in a sample of the Colombian population...
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829693/practicing-emotionally-biased-retrieval-affects-mood-and-establishes-biased-recall-a-week-later
#8
Janna N Vrijsen, Paula T Hertel, Eni S Becker
Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) can yield clinically relevant results. Only few studies have directly manipulated memory bias, which is prominent in depression. In a new approach to CBM, we sought to simulate or oppose ruminative processes by training the retrieval of negative or positive words. Participants studied positive and negative word pairs (Swahili cues with Dutch translations). In the positive and negative conditions, each of the three study trials was followed by a cued-recall test of training-congruent translations; a no-practice condition merely studied the pairs...
2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829317/personal-semantic-and-episodic-autobiographical-memories-in-korsakoff-syndrome-a-comparison-of-interview-methods
#9
Yvonne C M Rensen, Roy P C Kessels, Ellen M Migo, Arie J Wester, Paul A T M Eling, Michael D Kopelman
OBJECTIVE: The temporal gradient in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome has been of particular interest in the literature, as many studies have found evidence for a steep temporal gradient, but others have observed more uniform remote memory impairment across all past time periods. Inconsistencies might be the result of the nature of remote memory impairment under study (i.e., nonpersonal or autobiographical memory) and of methodological differences in the examination of remote memory loss...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823805/the-effect-of-emotion-on-movement-smoothness-during-gait-in-healthy-young-adults
#10
Gu Eon Kang, M Melissa Gross
This study aimed to investigate the effect of emotion on movement smoothness during gait. We followed an autobiographical memories paradigm to induce four target emotions, neutral emotion, sadness, anger and joy, in eighteen healthy young adults. Participants performed gait trials while feeling the target emotions. We collected gait data using an eight-camera optoelectronic motion capture system. We measured spatiotemporal gait parameters, smoothness of linear movements for the whole body center-of-mass (COM), head, thorax and pelvis in the anterior-posterior (AP), vertical (VT) and mediolateral (ML) directions, and smoothness of angular movements in the sagittal plane for the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821761/learning-and-remembering-real-world-events-after-medial-temporal-lobe-damage
#11
Adam J O Dede, Jennifer C Frascino, John T Wixted, Larry R Squire
The hippocampus is important for autobiographical memory, but its role is unclear. In the study, patients with hippocampal damage and controls were taken on a 25-min walk on the University of California, San Diego, campus during which 11 planned events occurred. Memory was tested directly after the walk. In addition, a second group of controls took the same walk and were tested after 1 mo. Patients with hippocampal damage remembered fewer details than controls tested directly after the walk but remembered a similar number of details as controls tested after 1 mo...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821735/autobiographical-memory-future-imagining-and-the-medial-temporal-lobe
#12
Adam J O Dede, John T Wixted, Ramona O Hopkins, Larry R Squire
In two experiments, patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and healthy controls produced detailed autobiographical narratives as they remembered past events (recent and remote) and imagined future events (near and distant). All recent events occurred after the onset of memory impairment. The first experiment aimed to replicate the methods of Race et al. [Race E, Keane MM, Verfaellie M (2011) J Neurosci 31(28):10262-10269]. Transcripts from that study were kindly made available for independent analysis, which largely reproduced the findings from that study...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821365/self-defining-memories-in-recently-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients
#13
Christine Cuervo-Lombard, Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Sarah Barrière, Martial Van der Linden, Arthur Kaladjian
Patients with alcohol dependence have been shown to be impaired in recalling specific autobiographical events, yet little is known on how changes in the memory of these events may impact their self-representation. In this study, we examined Self-Defining Memories (SDMs), a specific type of autobiographical memory that plays a key role in the construction of personal identity, in 25 patients with alcohol dependence, abstinent from alcohol from 10 days to 6 months, compared to 28 control subjects. We observed that SDMs in patients were significantly less specific and included more reference to alcohol than those of controls...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816776/mental-imagery-of-positive-and-neutral-memories-a-fmri-study-comparing-field-perspective-imagery-to-observer-perspective-imagery
#14
Maud Grol, Guy Vingerhoets, Rudi De Raedt
Imagery perspective can influence what information is recalled, processing style, and emotionality; however, the understanding of possible mechanisms mediating these observed differences is still limited. We aimed to examine differences between memory recall from a field perspective and observer perspective at the neurobiological level, in order to improve our understanding of what is underlying the observed differences at the behavioral level. We conducted a fMRI study in healthy individuals, comparing imagery perspectives during recall of neutral and positive autobiographical memories...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813234/differential-neural-correlates-of-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-depression
#15
Kymberly D Young, Jerzy Bodurka, Wayne C Drevets
OBJECTIVES: Autobiographical memory (AM) recall is impaired in both bipolar depression (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate differences between healthy controls (HCs) and depressed participants with either BD or MDD as they recalled AMs that varied in emotional valence. METHODS: Unmedicated adults in a current major depressive episode who met criteria for either MDD or BD and HCs (n=16/group) underwent fMRI while recalling AMs in response to emotionally valenced cue words...
November 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788629/intentionally-fabricated-autobiographical-memories
#16
Lucy V Justice, Catriona M Morrison, Martin A Conway
Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs...
November 17, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780482/bitemporal-v-high-dose-right-unilateral-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
E Kolshus, A Jelovac, D M McLoughlin
BACKGROUND: Brief-pulse electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most acutely effective treatment for severe depression though concerns persist about cognitive side-effects. While bitemporal electrode placement is the most commonly used form worldwide, right unilateral ECT causes less cognitive side-effects though historically it has been deemed less effective. Several randomized trials have now compared high-dose (>5× seizure threshold) unilateral ECT with moderate-dose (1.0-2.5× seizure threshold) bitemporal ECT to investigate if it is as effective as bitemporal ECT but still has less cognitive side-effects...
October 26, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770748/trauma-related-self-defining-memories-and-future-goals-in-dissociative-identity-disorder
#18
Rafaële J C Huntjens, Ineke Wessel, Brian D Ostafin, Paul A Boelen, Friederike Behrens, Agnes van Minnen
This study examined the content of self-defining autobiographical memories in different identities in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and comparison groups of patients with PTSD, healthy controls, and DID simulators. Consistent with the DID trauma model, analyses of objective ratings showed that DID patients in trauma identities retrieved more negative and trauma-related self-defining memories than DID patients in avoidant identities. Inconsistent with the DID trauma model, DID patients' self-rated trauma-relatedness of self-defining memories and future life goals did not differ between trauma identities and trauma avoidant identities...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748156/recollection-belief-and-metacognition-a-reality-check
#19
Hartmut Blank
Non-believed autobiographical memories [e.g. Mazzoni, G., Scoboria, A., & Harvey, L. (2010). Nonbelieved memories. Psychological Science, 21, 1334-1340] are striking examples of divergences between recollective experiences and beliefs in their correspondence to real events. After reviewing a broader range of similar phenomena, I argue that recollection-belief divergences can arise from normal, "healthy" metacognitive monitoring and control processes that balance memory recollections and reality constraints...
October 15, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748150/bridging-naturalistic-and-laboratory-assessment-of-memory-the-baycrest-mask-fit-test
#20
Michael J Armson, Hervé Abdi, Brian Levine
Autobiographical memory tests provide a naturalistic counterpoint to the artificiality of laboratory research methods, yet autobiographical events are uncontrolled and, in most cases, unverifiable. In this study, we capitalised on a scripted, complex naturalistic event - the mask fit test (MFT), a standardised procedure required of hospital employees - to bridge the gap between naturalistic and laboratory memory assessment. We created a test of recognition memory for the MFT and administered it to 135 hospital employees who had undertaken the MFT at various points over the past five years...
October 17, 2016: Memory
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