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Christian Herff, Tanja Schultz
Speech interfaces have become widely accepted and are nowadays integrated in various real-life applications and devices. They have become a part of our daily life. However, speech interfaces presume the ability to produce intelligible speech, which might be impossible due to either loud environments, bothering bystanders or incapabilities to produce speech (i.e., patients suffering from locked-in syndrome). For these reasons it would be highly desirable to not speak but to simply envision oneself to say words or sentences...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
OBJECTIVE: Fast ripples (FR, 250-500Hz) are proposed biomarkers of the epileptogenic zone on the basis of several retrospective reports linking postoperative seizure freedom to their complete resection. There are no clinical trials or prospective reports validating the use of FR as characterized by electrocorticography (ECoG), to guide the scope of epilepsy surgery, and to inform prognosis thereafter. We set out to prospectively evaluate the utility of FR resection to predict postoperative epilepsy outcomes, and examine the feasibility of "live" intraoperative FR ascertainment...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Irene Rembado, Elisa Castagnola, Luca Turella, Tamara Ius, Riccardo Budai, Alberto Ansaldo, Gian Nicola Angotzi, Francesco Debertoldi, Davide Ricci, Miran Skrap, Luciano Fadiga
High-density surface microelectrodes for electrocorticography (ECoG) have become more common in recent years for recording electrical signals from the cortex. With an acceptable invasiveness/signal fidelity trade-off and high spatial resolution, micro-ECoG is a promising tool to resolve fine task-related spatial-temporal dynamics. However, volume conduction - not a negligible phenomenon - is likely to frustrate efforts to obtain reliable and resolved signals from a sub-millimeter electrode array. To address this issue, we performed an independent component analysis (ICA) on micro-ECoG recordings of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) elicited by median nerve stimulation in three human patients undergoing brain surgery for tumor resection...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Marcus C Ng, Ronan Kilbride, Mirela Simon, Emad Eskandar, Andrew J Cole
Background. The optimal surgery in lesional neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy is unknown. Hippocampal electrocorticography maximizes seizure freedom by identifying normal-appearing epileptogenic tissue for resection and minimizes neuropsychological deficit by limiting resection to demonstrably epileptogenic tissue. We examined whether standardized hippocampal electrocorticography (hippocampography) guides resection for more consistent hippocampectomy than unguided resection in conventional electrocorticography focused on the lesion...
2016: Epilepsy Research and Treatment
Vivek Tandon, Sumit Bansal, P Sarat Chandra, Ashish Suri, Manjari Tripathi, Mehar C Sharma, Avijit Sarkari, Ashok K Mahapatra
BACKGROUND: Ganglioglioma is a common seizure associated tumor. The goal of this study was to observe the postoperative outcome in patients with gangliogliomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total 24 patients with gangliogliomas who underwent surgery at our institute from 2008 to 2011 were included. There were 13 males (54%) in our study. A retrospective analysis for the demographic profile, surgery and outcome was performed using STATA software. Literature on this subject was also reviewed, MEDLINE and PUBMED databases were searched...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Ogawa H, Kamada K, Kapeller C, Pruckle R, Takeuchi F, Hiroshima S, Anei R, Guger G
BACKGROUND: We developed a functional brain analysis system that enabled us to perform real-time task-related electrocorticography (ECoG) and evaluated its potential in clinical practice. We hypothesized that high gamma activity (HGA) mapping would provide better spatial and temporal resolution with high signal-to-noise ratios. METHODS: Seven awake craniotomy patients were evaluated. ECoG was recorded during language tasks using subdural grids, and HGA (60-170 Hz) maps were obtained in real time...
September 26, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Michael Johannes Schöll, Edgar Santos, Renan Sanchez-Porras, Modar Kentar, Markus Gramer, Humberto Silos, Zelong Zheng, Yuan Gang, Anthony John Strong, Rudolf Graf, Andreas Unterberg, Oliver W Sakowitz, Hartmut Dickhaus
Haemodynamic responses to spreading depolarizations (SDs) have an important role during the development of secondary brain damage. Characterization of the haemodynamic responses in larger brains, however, is difficult due to movement artefacts. Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging, laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) and electrocorticography were performed in different configurations in three groups of in total 18 swine. SDs were elicited by topical application of KCl or occurred spontaneously after middle cerebral artery occlusion...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Prasanna Jayakar, Jean Gotman, A Simon Harvey, André Palmini, Laura Tassi, Donald Schomer, Francois Dubeau, Fabrice Bartolomei, Alice Yu, Pavel Kršek, Demetrios Velis, Philippe Kahane
Many patients with medically refractory epilepsy now undergo successful surgery based on noninvasive diagnostic information, but intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) continues to be used as increasingly complex cases are considered surgical candidates. The indications for IEEG and the modalities employed vary across epilepsy surgical centers; each modality has its advantages and limitations. IEEG can be performed in the same intraoperative setting, that is, intraoperative electrocorticography, or through an independent implantation procedure with chronic extraoperative recordings; the latter are not only resource intensive but also carry risk...
September 28, 2016: Epilepsia
A G Rouse, J J Williams, J J Wheeler, D W Moran
OBJECTIVE: Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been used for a range of applications including electrophysiological mapping, epilepsy monitoring, and more recently as a recording modality for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Studies that examine ECoG electrodes designed and implanted chronically solely for BCI applications remain limited. The present study explored how two key factors influence chronic, closed-loop ECoG BCI: (i) the effect of inter-electrode distance on BCI performance and (ii) the differences in neural adaptation and performance when fixed versus adaptive BCI decoding weights are used...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Anna Gaglianese, Ben M Harvey, Mariska J Vansteensel, Serge O Dumoulin, Nick F Ramsey, Natalia Petridou
The human middle temporal complex (hMT+) has a crucial biological relevance for the processing and detection of direction and speed of motion in visual stimuli. Here, we characterized how neuronal populations in hMT+ encode the speed of moving visual stimuli. We evaluated human intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) responses elicited by square-wave dartboard moving stimuli with different spatial and temporal frequency to investigate whether hMT+ neuronal populations encode the stimulus speed directly, or whether they separate motion into its spatial and temporal components...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Ahmad Alhourani, Thomas A Wozny, R Mark Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neurosurgery
Kanokwan Limnuson, Raj K Narayan, Amrit Chiluwal, Eugene V Golanov, Chad E Bouton, Chunyan Li
Multimodal monitoring of brain activity, physiology, and neurochemistry is an important approach to gain insight into brain function, modulation, and pathology. With recent progress in micro- and nanotechnology, micro-nano-implants have become important catalysts in advancing brain research. However, to date, only a limited number of brain parameters have been measured simultaneously in awake animals in spite of significant recent progress in sensor technology. Here we have provided a cost and time effective approach to designing a headstage to conduct a multimodality brain monitoring in freely moving animals...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Philippe Metellus, Salah Boussen, Maxime Guye, Agnes Trebuchon
BACKGROUND: Resection of tumors located within the insula of the dominant hemisphere represents a technical challenge due to complex anatomy including surrounding vasculature and the relationship to functional (motor and language) structures. We report here the case of a successful resection of a left insular glioma in a native deaf signer during an awake craniotomy. CASE DESCRIPTION: Subject A.G., a congenitally deaf right-handed patient who is a native user of Sign Language, presented a seizure one week before he was referred to our department...
September 1, 2016: World Neurosurgery
U Chaudhary, N Birbaumer, A Ramos-Murguialday
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) use brain activity to control external devices, facilitating paralyzed patients to interact with the environment. In this chapter, we discuss the historical perspective of development of BCIs and the current advances of noninvasive BCIs for communication in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and for restoration of motor impairment after severe stroke. Distinct techniques have been explored to control a BCI in patient population especially electroencephalography (EEG) and more recently near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) because of their noninvasive nature and low cost...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Tina Sartorius, Anita M Hennige, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring
AIMS: Recent studies have identified unique brain effects of insulin detemir (Levemir®). Due to its pharmacologic properties, insulin detemir may reach higher concentrations in the brain than regular insulin. This might explain the observed increased brain stimulation after acute insulin detemir application but it remained unclear whether chronic insulin detemir treatment causes alterations in brain activity as a consequence of overstimulation. METHODS: In mice, we examined insulin detemir's prolonged brain exposure by continuous subcutaneous (s...
2016: PloS One
Leah Muller, Liberty S Hamilton, Erik Edwards, Kristofer E Bouchard, Edward F Chang
OBJECTIVE: Electrocorticography (ECoG) has become an important tool in human neuroscience and has tremendous potential for emerging applications in neural interface technology. Electrode array design parameters are outstanding issues for both research and clinical applications, and these parameters depend critically on the nature of the neural signals to be recorded. Here, we investigate the functional spatial resolution of neural signals recorded at the human cortical surface. We empirically derive spatial spread functions to quantify the shared neural activity for each frequency band of the electrocorticogram...
October 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Christian Meisel, Dietmar Plenz, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Heinz Reichmann
Pathologic increases in excitability levels of cortical tissue commonly underlie the initiation and spread of seizure activity in patients with epilepsy. By reducing the excitability levels in neural tissue, antiepileptic drug (AED) pharmacotherapy aims to reduce seizure severity and frequency. However, AEDs may also bring about adverse effects, which have been reported to increase with higher AED load. Measures that monitor the dose-dependent effects of AEDs on cortical tissue and quantify its excitability level are therefore of prime importance for efficient clinical care and treatment but have been difficult to identify...
August 26, 2016: Epilepsia
Carrie R Muh
The use of epilepsy surgery in various medically resistant epilepsies is well established. For patients with intractable pediatric epilepsy, the role of intracranial electrodes, resective surgery, hemispherectomy, corpus callosotomy, neurostimulation, and multiple subpial transections continues to be very effective in select cases. Newer treatment and diagnostic methods include laser thermal ablation, minimally invasive surgeries, stereo electroencephalography, electrocorticography, and other emerging techniques...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Elissa M Aminoff, Yuanning Li, John A Pyles, Michael J Ward, R Mark Richardson, Avniel S Ghuman
Visual recognition requires connecting perceptual information with contextual information and existing knowledge. The ventromedial temporal cortex (VTC), including the medial fusiform, has been linked with object recognition, paired associate learning, contextual processing, and episodic memory, suggesting that this area may be critical in connecting visual processing, context, knowledge and experience. However, evidence for the link between associative processing, episodic memory, and visual recognition in VTC is currently lacking...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Fengpeng Wang, Honghua Zheng, Xiaobin Zhang, Yanfang Li, Zhiying Gao, Yuanqing Wang, Xiaowei Liu, Yi Yao
The present study reports, for the first time, a rare case of benign childhood focal epilepsy(BCFE) coexisting with lesional epilepsy secondary to parietooccipital ulegyria. The patient underwent right parietooccipital lobe disconnection plus tailored resection of temporooccipitoparietal junction cortex under electrocorticography (ECoG) monitoring. Post-operatively, there was no impairment of neurological function and the patient only experiences a few breakthrough benign partial seizures during sleep.
October 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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