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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645046/a-paradigm-shift-for-socioeconomic-justice-and%C3%A2-health-from-focusing-on-inequalities-to%C3%A2-aiming%C3%A2-at-sustainable-equity
#1
Juan E Garay, David E Chiriboga
OBJECTIVES: To measure the 'best possible health for all', incorporating sustainability, and to establish the magnitude of global health inequity. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, retrospective. METHODS: We identified countries with three criteria: (1) a healthy population-life expectancy above world average; (2) living conditions feasible to replicate worldwide-per-capita gross domestic product (GDP-pc) below the world average; and (3) sustainability-per-capita carbon dioxide emissions lower than the planetary pollution boundary...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645042/the-changing-health-priorities-of-earthquake-response-and-implications-for-preparedness-a-scoping-review
#2
REVIEW
C Cartwright, M Hall, A C K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes have substantial impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The academic evidence base to support Disaster Risk Reduction activities in LMIC settings is, however, limited. We sought to address this gap by identifying the health and healthcare impacts of earthquakes in LMICs and to identify the implications of these findings for future earthquake preparedness. STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken with systematic searches of indexed databases to identify relevant literature...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645033/acetic-acid-assisted-fabrication-of-hierarchical-flower-like-bi2o3-for-photocatalytic-degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-and-rhodamine-b-under-solar-irradiation
#3
Yueping Bao, Teik-Thye Lim, Ziyi Zhong, Rong Wang, Xiao Hu
With the assistance of acetic acid (CH3COOH), a novel 3D flower-like Bi2O3 was synthesized via hydrothermal process followed by calcination. For the first time, the role of CH3COOH as a capping agent in the formation of flower-like structure was investigated. The as-prepared flower-like Bi2O3 had a high activity on the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under simulated solar light irradiation due to the narrow band gap of 2.69eV, high percentage of β-Bi2O3 as well as high intensity of polar facets (120) and (200)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644724/modeling-long-term-effects-attributed-to-nitrogen-dioxide-no2-and-sulfur-dioxide-so2-exposure-on-asthma-morbidity-in-a-nationwide-cohort-in-israel
#4
N Greenberg, R S Carel, E Derazne, A Tiktinsky, D Tzur, B A Portnov
Studies have provided extensive documentation that acutely elevated environmental exposures contribute to chronic health problems. However, only attention has been paid to the effects of modificate of exposure assessment methods in environmental health investigations, leading to uncertainty and gaps in our understanding of exposure- and dose-response relationships. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether average or peak concentration exerts a greater influence on asthma outcome, and which of the exposure models may better explain various physiological responses generated by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollutants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644653/dielectric-anisotropy-of-the-gap-si-001-interface-from-first-principles-theory
#5
Pankaj Kumar, Charles H Patterson
First-principles calculations of the dielectric anisotropy of the GaP/Si(001) interface are compared to the anisotropy extracted from reflectance measurements on GaP thin films on Si(001) [O. Supplie et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 035308 (2012)PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.86.035308]. Optical excitations from two states localized in several Si layers adjacent to the interface result in the observed anisotropy of the interface. The calculations show excellent agreement with experiment only for a gapped interface with a P layer in contact with Si and show that a combination of theory and experiment can reveal localized electronic states and the atomic structure at buried interfaces...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644652/topological-insulators-in-amorphous-systems
#6
Adhip Agarwala, Vijay B Shenoy
Much of the current understanding of topological insulators, which informs the experimental search for topological materials and systems, is based on crystalline band theory, where local electronic degrees of freedom at different crystal sites hybridize with each other in ways that produce nontrivial topology. Here we provide a novel theoretical demonstration of realizing topological phases in amorphous systems, as exemplified by a set of sites randomly located in space. We show this by constructing hopping models on such random lattices whose gapped ground states are shown to possess nontrivial topological nature (characterized by Bott indices) that manifests as quantized conductances in systems with a boundary...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644650/nature-of-the-spin-liquid-ground-state-in-a-breathing-kagome-compound-studied-by-nmr-and-series-expansion
#7
J-C Orain, B Bernu, P Mendels, L Clark, F H Aidoudi, P Lightfoot, R E Morris, F Bert
In the vanadium oxyfluoride compound (NH_{4})_{2}[C_{7}H_{14}N][V_{7}O_{6}F_{18}] (DQVOF), the V^{4+} (3d^{1}, S=1/2) ions realize a unique, highly frustrated breathing kagome lattice composed of alternately sized, corner-sharing equilateral triangles. Here we present an ^{17}O NMR study of DQVOF, which isolates the local susceptibility of the breathing kagome network. By a fit to series expansion, we extract the ratio of the interactions within the breathing kagome plane, J_{∇}/J_{Δ}=0.55(4), and the mean antiferromagnetic interaction J[over ¯]=60(7)  K...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644491/mastering-high-resolution-tip-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-towards-a-shift-of-perception
#8
REVIEW
Marie Richard-Lacroix, Yao Zhang, Zhenchao Dong, Volker Deckert
Recent years have seen tremendous improvement of our understanding of high resolution reachable in TERS experiments, forcing us to re-evaluate our understanding of the intrinsic limits of this field, but also exposing several inconsistencies. On the one hand, more and more recent experimental results have provided us with clear indications of spatial resolutions down to a few nanometres or even on the subnanometre scale. Moreover, lessons learned from recent theoretical investigations clearly support such high resolutions, and vice versa the obvious theoretical impossibility to evade high resolution from a purely plasmonic point of view...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644474/%C3%AF-electron-s%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-quantum-spin-liquid-state-in-an-ionic-polyaromatic-hydrocarbon
#9
Yasuhiro Takabayashi, Melita Menelaou, Hiroyuki Tamura, Nayuta Takemori, Takashi Koretsune, Aleš Štefančič, Gyöngyi Klupp, A Johan C Buurma, Yusuke Nomura, Ryotaro Arita, Denis Arčon, Matthew J Rosseinsky, Kosmas Prassides
Molecular solids with cooperative electronic properties based purely on π electrons from carbon atoms offer a fertile ground in the search for exotic states of matter, including unconventional superconductivity and quantum magnetism. The field was ignited by reports of high-temperature superconductivity in materials obtained by the reaction of alkali metals with polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and picene, but the composition and structure of any compound in this family remained unknown. Here we isolate the binary caesium salts of phenanthrene, Cs(C14H10) and Cs2(C14H10), to show that they are multiorbital strongly correlated Mott insulators...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644463/hypersensitive-dual-function-luminescence-switching-of-a-silver-chalcogenolate-cluster-based-metal-organic-framework
#10
Ren-Wu Huang, Yong-Sheng Wei, Xi-Yan Dong, Xiao-Hui Wu, Chen-Xia Du, Shuang-Quan Zang, Thomas C W Mak
Silver(i) chalcogenide/chalcogenolate clusters are promising photofunctional materials for sensing, optoelectronics and solar energy harvesting applications. However, their instability and poor room-temperature luminescent quantum yields have hampered more extensive study. Here, we graft such clusters to adaptable bridging ligands, enabling their interconnection and the formation of rigid metal-organic frameworks. By controlling the spatial separation and orientation of the clusters, they then exhibit enhanced stability (over one year) and quantum yield (12...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644336/practice-bulletin-no-180-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
(no author information available yet)
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. However, debate continues to surround the diagnosis and treatment of GDM despite several recent large-scale studies addressing these issues. The purposes of this document are the following: 1) provide a brief overview of the understanding of GDM, 2) review management guidelines that have been validated by appropriately conducted clinical research, and 3) identify gaps in current knowledge toward which future research can be directed...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644329/practice-bulletin-no-180-summary-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#12
(no author information available yet)
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. However, debate continues to surround the diagnosis and treatment of GDM despite several recent large-scale studies addressing these issues. The purposes of this document are the following: 1) provide a brief overview of the understanding of GDM, 2) review management guidelines that have been validated by appropriately conducted clinical research, and 3) identify gaps in current knowledge toward which future research can be directed...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644302/the-role-of-bone-targeted-therapies-for-prostate-cancer-in-2017
#13
Samer L Traboulsi, Fred Saad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone-targeted agents (BTAs), such as zoledronic acid and denosumab, delay the occurrence of skeletal-related events (SREs) in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Recently, several agents, such as abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide and radium-223, were approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC). These agents resulted in improved overall survival (OS), pain control and had positive effects on bone health. Combining BTAs to the newly approved agents demonstrates additional benefits that warrant a review of available evidence looking at appropriate combination therapies and timing of BTAs for optimizing the management of advanced and metastatic PCa...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644188/surgical-techniques-for-total-knee-arthroplasty-measured-resection-gap-balancing-and-hybrid
#14
Neil P Sheth, Adeel Husain, Charles Lenwood Nelson
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is effective in managing end-stage degenerative joint disease. Achieving favorable clinical outcomes is predicated on proper implant alignment, sizing, and rotation as well as adequate soft-tissue balancing. Modern TKA implants are designed to address the fundamental needs of attaining stability in both flexion and extension and of optimizing patellar tracking. Measured resection and gap balancing are the two different techniques used to implant the TKA components used today. Both techniques have been validated as durable and successful, and each has unique advantages and disadvantages...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644149/thermal-transport-in-monolayer-inse
#15
Arun Nissimagoudar, Jinlong Ma, Yani Chen, Wu Li
Two-dimensional InSe, a recently synthesized semiconductor having a moderate band gap, has gained attention due to its ultra high mobility and high photo-responsivity. In this work, we calculate the lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of monolayer InSe by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) with first-principles calculated inter atomic force constants. κ of monolayer InSe is isotropic and found to be around 27.6 W/m-K at room temperature along the in-plane direction. The size dependence of κ shows the size effect can persist up-to 20 μm...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644095/impact-of-adherence-to-antidepressants-on-healthcare-outcomes-and-costs-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-comorbid-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Charles Vega, Russell V Becker, Lisa Mucha, Betty H Lorenz, Michael T Eaddy, Augustina O Ogbonnaya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adherence to antidepressants and an effect on clinical outcomes and healthcare costs in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This retrospective study used MarketScan claims data from January 2012 to March 2014. Study entry was the first claim for an antidepressant and a diagnosis code for MDD and T2D in the prior 6 months. Adherence and persistence to antidepressant therapy in the first 180 days were defined as medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥80% and length of therapy (LOT), with no treatment gap of >15 days, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644026/pb0-65mn2-85ga3s8-and-pb0-72mn2-84ga2-95se8-two-quaternary-metal-chalcognides-with-open-tunnel-framework-structures-displaying-intense-second-harmonic-generation-responses-and-interesting-magnetic-properties
#17
Molin Zhou, Xingxing Jiang, Yangwu Guo, Zheshuai Lin, Jiyong Yao, Yicheng Wu
By combining different nonlinear optical-active structural chromophores with transition metal Mn into a crystal structure, two novel quaternary metal chalcogenides Pb0.65Mn2.85Ga3S8 (1) and Pb0.72Mn2.84Ga2.95Se8 (2) were successfully synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, and they represent a new structure type that crystallizes in the space group P6̅ (No. 174) in the hexagonal system. Their structures feature an interesting three-dimensional open-tunnel framework composed of bridged infinite chains with Pb(2+) cations filling in the biggest tunnels...
June 23, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644021/synthesis-of-11-o-debenzoyltashironin-neurotrophic-sesquiterpenes-cause-hyperexcitation
#18
Masaki Ohtawa, Michael J Krambis, Rok Cerne, Jeffrey M Schkeryantz, Jeffrey Witkin, Ryan A Shenvi
11-O-Debenzoyltashironin (1) is a member of the neurotrophic sesquiterpenes, trace plant metabolites that enhance neurite outgrowth in cultured neurons. Here we report its synthesis in six steps from a butenolide heterodimer via its likely biosynthetic precursor, 3,6-dideoxy-10-hydroxypseudoanisatin, here identified as the chain tautomer of 1. Access to the tashironin chemotype fills a gap in a comparison set of convulsive and neurotrophic sesquiterpenes, which we hypothesized to share a common target. Here we show that both classes mutually hyperexcite rat cortical neurons, consistent with antagonism of inhibitory channels...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643855/support-surfaces-in-the-prevention-of-pressure-ulcers-in-surgical-patients-an-integrative-review
#19
Karoline Faria de Oliveira, Kleiton Gonçalves Nascimento, Adriana Cristina Nicolussi, Suzel Regina Ribeiro Chavaglia, Cleudmar Amaral de Araújo, Maria Helena Barbosa
AIM: To assess the scientific evidence about the types of support surfaces used in intraoperative surgical practice in the prevention of pressure ulcers due to surgical positioning. METHOD: This is an integrative literature review. The electronic databases Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and CINAHL were used. The descriptors surgical patients, support surfaces, perioperative care, patient positioning, and pressure ulcer were used in the search strategy...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643838/organics-filled-one-dimensional-tio2-nanowires-array-ultraviolet-detector-with-enhanced-photo-conductivity-and-dark-resistivity
#20
Dezhong Zhang, Chunyu Liu, Bo Yin, Ruiliang Xu, Jingran Zhou, Xindong Zhang, Shengping Ruan
A heterojunction photo-conductive ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed based on TiO2 nanowires array (NWA) surrounded by N,N'-bis-(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N'-bis-phenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB). The novel and effective two-step method of static infusion and dynamic solution-cleaning was employed to fill NPB into TiO2 NWA gaps and simultaneously remove the unwelcomed top NPB layer. The device fabricated via the two-step method exhibited optimal performance compared to TiO2/NPB device with top NPB layer and TiO2 NWA device...
June 23, 2017: Nanoscale
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