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Choul Yong Park, Catherine M Marando, Jason A Liao, Jimmy K Lee, Jiwon Kwon, Roy S Chuck
Purpose: To investigate the architecture and distribution of collagen and elastin in human limbal conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, and sclera. Methods: The limbal conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, and sclera of human donor corneal buttons were imaged with an inverted two-photon excited fluorescence microscope. No fixation process was necessary. The laser (Ti:sapphire) was tuned at 850 nm for two-photon excitation. Backscatter signals of second harmonic generation (SHG) and autofluorescence (AF) were collected through a 425/30-nm and a 525/45-nm emission filter, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Georgios N Panagopoulos, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Peripheral nerve injury can have a potentially devastating impact on a patient's quality of life, resulting in severe disability with substantial social and personal cost. Refined microsurgical techniques, advances in peripheral nerve topography, and a better understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular basis of nerve injury have all led to a decisive leap forward in the field of translational neurophysiology. Nerve repair, nerve grafting, and nerve transfers have improved significantly with consistently better functional outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
Giovani Cavalheiro Nogueira, Soraia Dornelles Schoeller, Flávia Regina de Souza Ramos, Maria Itayra Padilha, Laura Cavalcanti de Farias Brehmer, Ana Maria Fernandes Borges Marques
This is a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, establishing the epidemiological profile of people with physical disabilities resident in the municipality of Florianópolis, in the Southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, and analyzing it in relation to the public policies related to that population. The minimum sample was determined by a statistical calculation, considering the population of the municipality with disabilities, according to data from the 2010 Population Census. The data were collected using an electronic form installed in mobile devices and stored at an online provider...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Katharine Kripke, Jason Reed, Catherine Hankins, Gregory Smiley, Catey Laube, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: The report of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for World AIDS Day 2014 highlighted a Fast-Track Strategy that sets ambitious treatment and prevention targets to reduce global HIV incidence to manageable levels by 2020 and end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The 90-90-90 treatment targets for 2020 call for 90% of people living with HIV to know their HIV status, 90% of people who know their status to receive treatment, and 90% of people on HIV treatment to be virally suppressed...
2016: PloS One
Yonghe Qi, Zhenchao Gao, Guangwei Xu, Bo Peng, Chenxuan Liu, Huan Yan, Qiyan Yao, Guoliang Sun, Yang Liu, Dingbin Tang, Zilin Song, Wenhui He, Yinyan Sun, Ju-Tao Guo, Wenhui Li
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection of hepatocytes begins by binding to its cellular receptor sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), followed by the internalization of viral nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. The viral relaxed circular (rc) DNA genome in nucleocapsid is transported into the nucleus and converted into covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA to serve as a viral persistence reservoir that is refractory to current antiviral therapies. Host DNA repair enzymes have been speculated to catalyze the conversion of rcDNA to cccDNA, however, the DNA polymerase(s) that fills the gap in the plus strand of rcDNA remains to be determined...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Zhida Zheng, Xiaocha Wang, Wenbo Mi
The strain and electric-field effects on the electronic structure of MoTe2/WTe2 van der Waals heterostructures are investigated by first-principles calculations. The MoTe2/WTe2 heterostructures are indirect band gap semiconductors under different strains except for 2%. At a strain from  -6% to 6% under a zero electric field, the band gap is 0.56, 0.62, 0.69, 0.62, 0.46, 0.37 and 0.29 eV, respectively. Meanwhile, spin splitting at the conduction band minimum (CBM) decreases monotonically from 76-1 meV, and that at the valance band maximum (VBM) is 232, 266, 292, 307, 319, 302 and 283 meV...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Joshua D Brown, Anand R Shewale, Jeffery C Talbert
BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used for prevention of stroke secondary to nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Increased use of NOACs is partially a result of simplified regimens compared with warfarin, which has been associated with poor adherence and persistence to therapy. Few studies have assessed adherence to NOACs, especially using contemporary data now that multiple NOACs are available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to NOACs in a cohort of newly diagnosed NVAF patients who are commercially insured...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
W Abel Wright, Jack M Gorman, Melissa Odorzynski, Mark J Peterson, Carol Clayton
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving psychiatric services at community mental health centers (CMHCs) are often prescribed medication that is critical to the treatment of behavioral health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Previous studies have shown correlation between rates of medication adherence and risk of hospitalization, but potential differences in medication adherence and other outcomes for patients of CMHCs by pharmacy type have not been widely studied...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Alex Peaslee, Marleen Wickizer, Julie Olson, Robert Topp
BACKGROUND: Value-based insurance design (VBID) waives or reduces prescription copayments in order to decrease member cost barriers to refilling medications. Medication therapy management (MTM) is a member clinical intervention designed to reinforce members' knowledge of their medications, which addresses barriers to medication adherence. Both methods have been shown to increase adherence in members, particularly when used in combination. To date, studies of such combined programs have often been completed within integrated health systems but have rarely included control populations...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Yue Yu, Changlei Wang, Corey R Grice, Niraj Shrestha, Jing Chen, Dewei Zhao, Weiqiang Liao, Alexander J Cimaroli, Paul J Roland, Randy J Ellingson, Yanfa Yan
Formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3 ) is considered as an alternative to methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3 ) because of its lower band gap and better thermal stability. However, owing to the large size of FA cations, it is difficult to synthesize high-quality FAPbI3 thin films without the formation of an undesirable yellow phase. Smaller sized cations, such as MA and Cs, have been successfully used to suppress the formation of the yellow phase. Whereas FA and MA lead triiodide perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) higher than 20 %, the PCEs of formamidinium and cesium lead triiodide (FA1-x Csx PbI3 ) PVSCs have been only approximately 16...
October 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
A V Babina, V A Lavrinenko
Ultrastructural changes in cells of the renal inner medulla involved in the realization of the antidiuretic effect of vasopressin under conditions of prostaglandin synthesis blockade were studied in the kidneys of Wistar rats and endogenous vasopressin-deficient homozygous Brattleboro rats. The results indicated uniform trend to an increase in the number of clathrincoated vesicles under conditions of hormone treatment combined with prostaglandin synthesis blockade in animals with different neurohypophyseal status...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ricardo Fernandes, Sasha Mazzarello, Carol Stober, Lisa Vandermeer, Shaan Dudani, Mohamed F K Ibrahim, Habeeb Majeed, Kirstin Perdrizet, Risa Shorr, Brian Hutton, Dean Fergusson, Mark Clemons
BACKGROUND: Due to the high rate of febrile neutropenia (FN) with docetaxel-cyclophosphamide (DC) chemotherapy, primary FN prophylaxis is recommended. However, the optimal choice of prophylaxis [i.e., granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) or antibiotics] is unknown. A systematic review was performed to address this knowledge gap. METHODS: Embase, Ovid Medline, Pubmed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, and Cochrane register of controlled trials were searched from 1946 to April 2016 for studies evaluating primary prophylactic FN treatments in breast cancer patients receiving DC chemotherapy...
October 25, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Qingqing Zhu, Minghui Zheng, Guorui Liu, Xian Zhang, Shujun Dong, Lirong Gao, Yong Liang
Size-fractionated samples of urban particulate matter (PM; ≤1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-10, and >10 μm) and gaseous samples were simultaneously obtained to study the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the atmosphere in Beijing, China. Most recent investigations focused on the analysis of gaseous PCBs, and much less attention has been paid to the occurrence of PCBs among different PM fractions. In the present study, the gas-particle partitioning and size-specific distribution of PCBs in atmosphere were investigated...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Debdutta Chakraborty, Pratim Kumar Chattaraj
The feasibility of having MF3 (where M = Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, Ag, Au) supported AlN nanoflakes (AlNF) was investigated through density functional theory based calculations. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that the superhalogen MF3 molecules can bind with the host AlNF in a thermodynamically favorable way. The nature of interaction in between the metal centers and the host is of partly covalent type whereas the F centers bind with the host in a non-covalent fashion as vindicated by natural bond orbital and atoms-in a-molecule analyses...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Lawrence Cai, Vinita Puri, Mohan Krishna Dangol, Iftekhar Ibne Mannan, Shafquat Hussain Khundkar, Trung-Hau Le Thua, Godfrey Muguti, Shankar Man Rai, Yvonne Karanas, James Chang
BACKGROUND: Burn contractures can cause significant disability, particularly in patients in resource-limited settings. However, a gap exists in our ability to measure outcomes in patients with burn contractures of the neck. The objective of this study was to develop and validate the Stanford-ReSurge Burn Scar Contracture Scale-Neck to longitudinally assess functional status and measure functional improvement following contracture release of the neck. METHODS: A literature review was performed to identify scales used in neck assessment and burn assessment...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Carlo Setacci, Gianmarco de Donato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Aliki Thomas, Stuart Lubarsky, Steven J Durning, Meredith E Young
An unprecedented rise in health professions education (HPE) research has led to increasing attention and interest in knowledge syntheses. There are many different types of knowledge syntheses in common use, including systematic reviews, meta-ethnography, rapid reviews, narrative reviews, and realist reviews. In this Perspective, the authors examine the nature, purpose, value, and appropriate use of one particular method: scoping reviews. Scoping reviews are iterative and flexible and can serve multiple main purposes: to examine the extent, range, and nature of research activity in a given field; to determine the value and appropriateness of undertaking a full systematic review; to summarize and disseminate research findings; and to identify research gaps in the existing literature...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Beatrice Setnik, Carl L Roland, Glenn C Pixton, Kenneth W Sommerville
OBJECTIVES: To compare the results of two open-label primary care-based studies that examined investigator assessment of patient risk for prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion relative to patient self-reports and urine drug tests (UDTs). METHODS: Risk assessment data from two open-label, multicenter, primary care-based US studies in patients with chronic pain were compared. RESULTS: In one study (n = 1487), 54.4% of patients were at moderate, 24...
October 26, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
O Šeda, F Liška, M Pravenec, Z Vernerová, L Kazdová, D Křenová, V Zídek, L Šedová, M Krupková, V Křen
We assessed the effect of the previously uncovered gap junction protein alpha 8 (Gja8) mutation present in spontaneously hypertensive rat - dominant cataract (SHR-Dca) strain on blood pressure, metabolic profile, and heart and renal transcriptomes. Adult, standard chow-fed male rats of SHR and SHR-Dca strains were used. We found a significant, consistent 10-15 mmHg decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in SHR-Dca compared with SHR (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively; repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA))...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Antonella Fogliata, Francesca Lobefalo, Giacomo Reggiori, Antonella Stravato, Stefano Tomatis, Marta Scorsetti, Luca Cozzi
PURPOSE: Small field measurements are challenging, due to the physical characteristics coming from the lack of charged particle equilibrium, the partial occlusion of the finite radiation source, and to the detector response. These characteristics can be modeled in the dose calculations in the treatment planning systems. Aim of the present work is to evaluate the MU calculation accuracy for small fields, defined by jaw or MLC, for anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB algorithms, relative to output measurements on the beam central axis...
October 2016: Medical Physics
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