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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224218/researchers-supporting-schools-to-improve-health-influential-factors-and-outcomes-of-knowledge-brokering-in-the-compass-study
#1
Kristin M Brown, Susan J Elliott, Scott T Leatherdale
BACKGROUND: Although schools are considered opportune settings for youth health interventions, a gap between school health research and practice exists. COMPASS, a longitudinal study of Ontario and Alberta secondary students and schools (2012-2021), used integrated knowledge translation to enhance schools' uptake of research findings. Schools received annual summaries of their students' health behaviors and suggestions for action, and were linked with COMPASS knowledge brokers to support them in making changes to improve student health...
January 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224137/considerations-for-design-and-analysis-of-dna-methylation-studies
#2
Karin B Michels, Alexandra M Binder
The number of epigenetic studies is exponentially increasing. There is anticipation that DNA methylation may close gaps in our understanding of disease etiology, and how certain risk factors affect health and disease, but also that it has potential as a biomarker for disease. Human DNA methylation studies require careful considerations for design and analysis including population and tissue selection, population stratification, cell heterogeneity, confounding, temporality, sample size, appropriate statistical analysis, and validation of results...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224113/sex-gender-and-transgender-metabolic-impact-of-cross-hormone-therapy
#3
Roberta de Souza Santos, Aaron P Frank, Michael Douglas Nelson, Maurice M Garcia, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Most preclinical and clinical, animal, and human research has been biased with respect to sex and even more so with respect to gender. In fact, little is known about the impact of sex and even less about the influence of gender on overall metabolic processes. The National Institutes of Health has recognized this gap in scientific knowledge and now mandates that studies be conducted in both sexes and to include gender as variables influencing physiological processes such as metabolism. It is therefore critical to understand and appreciate how to incorporate sex and gender in preclinical and clinical research in order to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which metabolic processes differ by sex and gender...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#4
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224100/estrogens-and-body-weight-regulation-in-men
#5
Katya B Rubinow
Our understanding of the metabolic roles of sex steroids in men has evolved substantially over recent decades. Whereas testosterone once was believed to contribute to metabolic risk in men, the importance of adequate androgen exposure for the maintenance of metabolic health has been demonstrated unequivocally. A growing body of evidence now also supports a critical role for estrogens in metabolic regulation in men. Recent data from clinical intervention studies indicate that estradiol may be a stronger determinant of adiposity than testosterone in men, and even short-term estradiol deprivation contributes to fat mass accrual...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223983/ensuring-patient-safety-and-access-in-cancer-care
#6
Katy Winckworth-Prejsnar, Elizabeth A Nardi, James McCanney, F Marc Stewart, Terry Langbaum, Bruce J Gould, C Lyn Fitzgerald, Robert W Carlson
The inability to obtain the right high-quality cancer care in a timely and safe manner can have devastating results for patients. As cancer care becomes inundated with cutting edge and novel treatments, such as personalized medicine, oral chemotherapy, biosimilars, and immunotherapy, new safety challenges are emerging at increasing speed and complexity. Moreover, shifting federal healthcare policies could have significant implications for the safety and access to high-quality and effective cancer care for millions of patients with cancer...
December 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223923/plant-defenses-against-herbivory-closing-the-fitness-gap
#7
REVIEW
Matthias Erb
Many morphological and chemical features of plants are classified as plant defenses against herbivores. By definition, plant defenses should increase a plant's fitness (i.e., its contribution to the gene pool of the next generation) as a function of herbivory. Over the past years, substantial progress has been made in understanding and manipulating the mechanistic basis of many putative plant defense traits. However, most plant defenses are still characterized by proximate variables such as herbivore performance or plant damage rather than actual fitness...
December 6, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223776/impact-of-edaphic-factors-and-nutrient-management-on-the-hepatoprotective-efficiency-of-carlinoside-purified-from-pigeon-pea-leaves-an-evaluation-of-ugt1a1-activity-in-hepatitis-induced-organelles
#8
Subhasish Das, K Charan Teja, Sandip Mukherjee, Soma Seal, Rajesh Kumar Sah, Buddhadeb Duary, Ki-Hyun Kim, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
Carlinoside is a unique compound well-known for its excellent curative potential in hepatitis. There is a substantial research gap regarding the medicinal use of carlinoside, as its concentrations are greatly variable (depending on locality). We cultivated Cajanus cajan using vermicompost as a major organic amendment at two locations (Sonitpur and Birbhum) with different soil types, but identical climate conditions. Sonitpur soils were richer in soil organic C (SOC), enzyme activation, and N/P content than Birbhum...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223767/evaluation-of-a-national-pediatric-subinternship-curriculum-implemented-through-individual-learning-plans
#9
Linda R Tewksbury, Cristina Carter, Lyuba Konopasek, Sandra M Sanguino, Janice L Hanson
OBJECTIVE: The Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics and Association of Pediatric Program Directors developed a Pediatric Subinternship (CAPS) Curriculum for use with an individualized learning plan (ILP). The authors determined which learning objectives (LOs) pediatric subinterns selected when provided the CAPS Curriculum, summarized students' self-reported progress, and determined feasibility of ILPs in subinternship. METHODS: Students from 10 medical schools completed a standardized ILP during pediatric subinternship...
December 6, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223596/presence-and-persistence-of-the-amnesic-shellfish-poisoning-toxin-domoic-acid-in-octopus-and-cuttlefish-brains
#10
Vanessa M Lopes, Rui Rosa, Pedro R Costa
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that causes degenerative damage to brain cells and induces permanent short-term memory loss in mammals. In cephalopod mollusks, although DA is known to accumulate primarily in the digestive gland, there is no knowledge whether DA reaches their central nervous system. Here we report, for the first time, the presence of DA in brain tissue of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), and its absence in the brains of several squid species (Loligo vulgaris, L...
December 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223529/corticosterone-impairs-gap-junctions-in-the-prefrontal-cortical-and-hippocampal-astrocytes-via-different-mechanisms
#11
Cong-Yuan Xia, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Zhao Zhang, Jiao Chen, Ying-Ying Wang, Yu-Xia Lou, Yan Gao, Piao Luo, Qian Ren, Guo-Hua Du, Nai-Hong Chen
Increasing evidence has implicated astrocyte pathology in the etiopathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, dysfunction of gap junctions in astrocytes is a potential target for MDD treatment. However, the mechanism underlying stress-induced dysfunction of gap junctions is still unknown. We therefore studied the mechanism of stress-induced dysfunction of gap junctions in prefrontal cortical and hippocampal astrocytes. Corticosterone (CORT) was used to induce stress conditions; CORT damaged the function of gap junctions, which resulted from less distribution of connexin43 (Cx43) on membranes and the enhanced phosphorylation of Cx43 at S368...
December 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223433/contemporary-rates-and-correlates-of-statin-use-and-adherence-in-nondiabetic-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-the-kp-champ-study
#12
Alan S Go, Dongjie Fan, Sue Hee Sung, Alda I Inveiss, Victoria Romo-LeTourneau, Usha G Mallya, Susan Boklage, Joan C Lo
BACKGROUND: Statin therapy is highly efficacious in the prevention of fatal and nonfatal atherosclerotic events in persons at increased cardiovascular risk. However, its long-term effectiveness in practice depends on a high level of medication adherence by patients. METHODS: We identified nondiabetic adults with cardiovascular risk factors between 2008 and 2010 within a large integrated health care delivery system in Northern California. Through 2013, we examined the use and adherence of newly initiated statin therapy based on data from dispensed prescriptions from outpatient pharmacy databases...
December 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223187/children-s-comprehension-of-contrastive-connectives
#13
Jennifer Spenader
Production studies show connective acquisition by age 3;0, but comprehension studies show errors until 9;0 or older. To further investigate this gap, two comprehension tasks were carried out with 78 Dutch children between the ages of 7;0 and 10;1, testing contrastive maar 'but' and causal want 'because' connectives for comparison. An existing context choice task and a task that tested children's ability to interpret pronouns dependent on the connective were used. Children did well on the context choice task for want 'because', but performed far below chance with maar 'but'...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223132/homelessness-and-emergency-medicine-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Bisan A Salhi, Melissa H White, Stephen R Pitts, David W Wright
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the demographics, prevalence, and clinical characteristics, and evidence-based management of homeless persons in the Emergency Department (ED). Where appropriate, we highlight knowledge gaps and suggest directions for future research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search following databases: PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar for articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2016...
December 9, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223122/a-comprehensive-review-of-spatial-allocation-of-lid-bmp-gi-practices-strategies-and-optimization-tools
#15
REVIEW
Kun Zhang, Ting Fong May Chui
Low-impact development (LID), best management practice (BMP), and green infrastructure (GI) are semi-engineered stormwater management practices that have been widely studied and implemented worldwide. Implemented in the complex environment of urban areas, LID-BMP-GI practices often intertwine with a very large number of hydro-environmental and socio-economic considerations and constraints. Therefore, they need to be carefully selected, designed, and allocated within an urban area. Both planning and optimization can lead to more systematic and strategic approaches to address this multi-scale, multi-parameter problem of practice allocation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223090/oxidation-of-iopamidol-with-ferrate-fe-vi-kinetics-and-formation-of-toxic-iodinated-disinfection-by-products
#16
Huiyu Dong, Zhimin Qiang, Shaogang Liu, Jin Li, Jianwei Yu, Jiuhui Qu
Presence of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs) in source water is of high concern, because of their potential to form highly toxic iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs). This study investigated kinetics, mechanisms and products for oxidation of one ICMs, iopamidol (IPM) by ferrate (Fe(VI)). The obtained apparent second-order rate constants for oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) ranged from 0.7 M-1 s-1 to 74.6 M-1 s-1 at pH 6.0-10.0, which were highly dependent on pH. It was found that the oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) led to the formation of highly toxic I-DBPs...
December 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223086/perceived-versus-actual-water-quality-community-studies-in-rural-oaxaca-mexico
#17
Lewis Stetson Rowles, Reinaldo Alcalde, Francisca Bogolasky, Soyoon Kum, Farith A Diaz-Arriaga, Craig Ayres, Anne M Mikelonis, Luis Javier Toledo-Flores, Manuel Gerardo Alonso-Gutiérrez, Maria Eufemia Pérez-Flores, Desmond F Lawler, Peter M Ward, Juana Yolanda Lopez-Cruz, Navid B Saleh
Compromised water quality risks public health, which becomes particularly acute in economically marginalized communities. Although the majority of the clean-water-deprived population resides in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, a significant portion (32 million) lives in Meso- and Latin-America. Oaxaca is one of the marginalized southern states of Mexico, which has experienced high morbidity from infectious diseases and also has suffered from a high rate of infant mortality. However, there has been a paucity of reports on the status of water quality of culturally diverse rural Oaxaca...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222959/development-of-depth-encoding-small-animal-pet-detectors-by-using-dual-ended-readout-of-pixelated-scintillator-arrays-with-sipms
#18
Zhonghua Kuang, Ziru Sang, Xiaohui Wang, Xin Fu, Ning Ren, Xianming Zhang, Yunfei Zheng, Qian Yang, Zhanli Hu, Junwei Du, Dong Liang, Xin Liu, Hairong Zheng, Yongfeng Yang
PURPOSE: The performance of current small animal PET scanners is mainly limited by the detector performance and depth encoding detectors are required to develop PET scanner to simultaneously achieve high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Among all depth encoding PET detector approaches, dual-ended readout detector has the advantage to achieve the highest depth of interaction (DOI) resolution and spatial resolution. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is believed to be the photodetector of the future for PET detector due to its excellent properties as compared to the traditional photodetectors such as photomultiplier tube (PMT) and avalanche photodiode (APD)...
December 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222909/an-emerging-role-of-astrocytes-in-vascular-contributions-to-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#19
REVIEW
Brittani R Price, Christopher M Norris, Pradoldej Sompol, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is understood to be the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is also a frequent co-morbidity with AD. While VCID is widely acknowledged as a key contributor to dementia, the mechanistic underpinnings of VCID remain poorly understood. In this review, we address the potential role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of VCID. The vast majority of the blood vessels in the brain are surrounded by astrocytic end-feet...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222737/differences-by-sexual-orientation-in-perceptions-of-neighborhood-cohesion-implications-for-health
#20
Carrie Henning-Smith, Gilbert Gonzales
A large body of research documents the relationship between health and place, including the positive association between neighborhood cohesion and health. However, very little research has examined neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. This paper addresses that gap by examining differences in perceived neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. We use data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (n = 28,164 respondents aged 18 years and older) to examine bivariate differences by sexual orientation in four measures of neighborhood cohesion...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Community Health
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