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Florence Gunawan, Elizabeth George, Adam Roberts
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment for advanced melanoma, and their use is being increasingly implicated in the development of autoimmune endocrinopathies. We present a case of a 52-year-old man with metastatic melanoma on combination nivolumab and ipilumimab therapy who developed concurrent hypophysitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and diabetes insipidus. He presented prior to third cycle of combination treatment with a headache, myalgias and fatigue. Biochemistry and MRI pituitary confirmed anterior pituitary dysfunction with a TSH: 0...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
C Oelkrug, J M Ramage
Studies have documented that cancer patients with tumours which are highly infiltrated with cytotoxic T lymphocytes show enhanced survival rates. The ultimate goal of cancer immunotherapy is to elicit high-avidity tumour-specific T cells to migrate and kill malignant tumours. Novel antibody therapies such as ipilumimab (a cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 blocking antibody) show enhanced T cell infiltration into the tumour tissue and increased survival. More conventional therapies such as chemotherapy or anti-angiogenic therapy and recent therapies with oncolytic viruses have been shown to alter the tumour microenvironment and thereby lead to enhanced T cell infiltration...
October 2014: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Nancy U Lin
Brain metastases are a major clinical problem in patients with advanced breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. Initial treatment for patients with brain metastases typically includes radiotherapy, either whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or both. Surgical resection is generally reserved for good prognosis patients with limited/controlled extracranial metastases and a single brain lesion. Once patients progress through upfront treatment, the treatment approach is quite variable and there is no clearly defined standard-of-care...
January 2014: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Eli Gilboa, James McNamara, Fernando Pastor
The paucity of costimulation at the tumor site compromises the ability of tumor-specific T cells to eliminate the tumor. The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of ipilumimab, an antibody that blocks the inhibitory action of CTLA-4, and clinical trials targeting 4-1BB and PD-1 or PD-L1, have underscored the therapeutic potential of using immunomodulatory antibodies to stimulate protective immunity in human patients. Nonetheless, systemic administration of immunomodulatory antibodies has been associated with dose-limiting autoimmune pathologies, conceivably reflecting also the activation of resident autoreactive T cells...
March 1, 2013: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Rebecca Waitz, Stephen B Solomon, Elena N Petre, Anne E Trumble, Marcella Fassò, Larry Norton, James P Allison
Thermal ablation to destroy tumor tissue may help activate tumor-specific T cells by elevating the presentation of tumor antigens to the immune system. However, the antitumor activity of these T cells may be restrained by their expression of the inhibitory T-cell coreceptor CTLA-4, the target of the recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved antibody drug ipilumimab. By relieving this restraint, CTLA-4-blocking antibodies such as ipilumimab can promote tumor rejection, but the full scope of their most suitable applications has yet to be fully determined...
January 15, 2012: Cancer Research
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