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canadian light source

Sven Achenbach, Garth Wells, Chen Shen
In deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), synchrotron radiation is applied to pattern polymer microstructures. At the Synchrotron Laboratory for Micro and Nano Devices (SyLMAND), Canadian Light Source, a chromium-coated grazing-incidence X-ray double-mirror system is applied as a tunable low-pass filter. In a systematic study, the surface conditions of the two mirrors are analyzed to determine the mirror reflectivity for DXRL process optimization, without the need for spectral analysis or surface probing: PMMA resist foils were homogeneously exposed and developed to determine development rates for mirror angles between 6 mrad and 12 mrad as well as for white light in the absence of the mirrors...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Yusuf Saibu, Ankur Jamwal, Renfei Feng, Derek Peak, Som Niyogi
We utilized micro X-ray fluorescence imaging (μ-XFI) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES), which are both synchrotron-based techniques to investigate Zn distribution profile, its co-localization patterns with Ca, S, and Fe and speciation in the gills of rainbow trout (RBT). Fish (~100 g) were exposed to acutely toxic levels of waterborne Zn alone and in combination with waterborne Cd or Cu for 24 h (each at 1 × 96 h LC50 ). Gill sections were prepared and analyzed at the VESPERS beamline of the Canadian Light Source...
April 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
R-M Guillermic, F Koksel, X Sun, D W Hatcher, M T Nickerson, G S Belev, M A Webb, J H Page, M G Scanlon
Bubbles, found in a huge variety of food products, are known to afford desirable quality attributes, especially those related to texture, mouthfeel and taste. However, the presence of bubbles and their effects on wheat flour noodles is an aspect that has been, until now, largely overlooked, despite the positive and negative connotations of bubbly inclusions on Asian noodle quality. X-rays from a synchrotron source (Biomedical Imaging and Therapy facility at the Canadian Light Source) were used to rapidly and non-destructively acquire tomographic images of noodle dough...
March 2018: Food Research International
G K Aulakh, A Mann, G Belev, S Wiebe, W M Kuebler, B Singh, D Chapman
Detection and visualization of lung tissue structures is impaired by predominance of air. However, by using synchrotron x-rays, refraction of x-rays at the interface of tissue and air can be utilized to generate contrast which may in turn enable quantification of lung optical properties. We utilized multiple image radiography, a variant of diffraction enhanced imaging, at the Canadian light source to quantify changes in unique x-ray optical properties of lungs, namely attenuation, refraction and ultra small-angle scatter (USAXS or width) contrast ratios as a function of lung orientation in free-breathing or respiratory-gated mice before and after intra-nasal bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) instillation...
December 14, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mercedes Martinson, Nazanin Samadi, Xianbo Shi, Zunping Liu, Lahsen Assoufid, Dean Chapman
A bent Laue double-crystal monochromator system has been designed for vertically expanding the X-ray beam at the Canadian Light Source's BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines. Expansion by a factor of 12 has been achieved without deteriorating the transverse coherence of the beam, allowing phase-based imaging techniques to be performed with high flux and a large field of view. However, preliminary studies revealed a lack of uniformity in the beam, presumed to be caused by imperfect bending of the silicon crystal wafers used in the system...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Stefano Uccella, Alessandro Buda, Chiara Morosi, Giampaolo Di Martino, Martina Delle Marchette, Claudio Reato, Jvan Casarin, Fabio Ghezzi
OBJECTIVE: To compare 3-mm minilaparoscopy and standard 5-mm laparoscopy for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in apparent early-stage endometrial cancer (EC). DESIGN: Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). SETTING: Two academic research centers. PATIENTS: Consecutive women with apparent early-stage EC who underwent surgical staging with SLN detection between November 2015 and April 2016. INTERVENTIONS: The surgical approach was a total laparoscopic extrafascial hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and SLN detection...
March 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Janna M Andronowski, Isaac V Pratt, David M L Cooper
OBJECTIVES: Differentiating human from nonhuman fragmented bone is often accomplished using histological methods if the observation of gross morphology proves insufficient. Linearly oriented primary and/or secondary osteonal systems, commonly referred to as osteon bands, are described as a strong indicator of nonhuman bone, particularly the occurrence of multiple bands. This phenomenon has been conventionally documented using two-dimensional (2D) histology, but such analyses are destructive and typically limited to a single cross-section...
November 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Matthew G Nosworthy, Jason Neufeld, Peter Frohlich, Gina Young, Linda Malcolmson, James D House
A study to determine the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were determined using the appropriate rodent models...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Sabina Lachowicz, Jan Oszmiański, Łukasz Seliga, Stanisław Pluta
The basic chemical composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity of fruits of three new Polish breeding clones (No. 5/6, type S, and type N) and four Canadian cultivars (cvs.) ("Martin", "Smoky", "Pembina", and "Honeywood") grown in Poland in 2016 were investigated. Fruits were analyzed for their contents of triterpenoids, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and polyphenolics with the ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode detector-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS) method, sugar with the high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method, and antioxidant capacity with the ability to reduce free radical (ABTS) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method...
May 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
R Rahal, J Chadder, K DeCaria, G Lockwood, H Bryant
Meaningful performance measures are an important part of the toolkit for health system improvement. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer has been reporting on pan-Canadian cancer system performance indicators since 2009-work that has led to the availability of standardized measures that can help to shed light on the extent of variation and opportunities for quality improvement across the country. Those measures include a core set of system indicators ranging from prevention and screening, through diagnosis and treatment, to survivorship and end-of-life care...
April 2017: Current Oncology
P Deman, S Tan, G Belev, N Samadi, M Martinson, D Chapman, N L Ford
In this study, contrast-enhanced X-ray tomographic imaging for monitoring and quantifying respiratory disease in preclinical rodent models is proposed. A K-edge imaging method has been developed at the Canadian Light Source to very accurately obtain measurements of the concentration of iodinated contrast agent in the pulmonary vasculature and inhaled xenon in the airspaces of rats. To compare the iodine and xenon concentration maps, a scout projection image was acquired to define the region of interest within the thorax for imaging and to ensure the same locations were imaged in each K-edge subtraction (KES) acquisition...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
P E Rasmussen, C Levesque, M Chénier, H D Gardner
Nationally representative baseline data are presented for rare earth elements (REE), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in house dust sampled from 1025 urban homes, in units of concentrations (μg g(-1) ), loadings (μg m(-2) ), and loading rates (ng m(-2)  d(-1) ). Spearman rank correlations indicate that, in addition to outdoor sources, consumer products and building materials can influence indoor dust concentrations of REE, Th, and U. Correlations (P<.01) with numbers of occupants, dogs, and cats suggest soil track-in...
September 2017: Indoor Air
Stephanie L Gora, Susan A Andrews
Titanium dioxide is a photocatalyst that can remove organic contaminants of interest to the drinking water treatment industry, including natural organic matter (NOM) and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors. The photocatalytic reaction occurs in two steps: adsorption of the contaminant followed by degradation of the adsorbed contaminant upon irradiation with UV light. The second part of this process can lead to the formation of reactive intermediates and negative impacts on treated water quality, such as increased DBP formation potential (DBPfp)...
May 2017: Chemosphere
S Ali Melli, Khan A Wahid, Paul Babyn, David M L Cooper, Varun P Gopi
Synchrotron X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) is an imaging technique which is increasingly used for non-invasive in vivo preclinical imaging. However, it often requires a large number of projections from many different angles to reconstruct high-quality images leading to significantly high radiation doses and long scan times. To utilize this imaging technique further for in vivo imaging, we need to design reconstruction algorithms that reduce the radiation dose and scan time without reduction of reconstructed image quality...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Qunfeng Xiao, Aimee Maclennan, Yongfeng Hu, Mark Hackett, Peter Leinweber, Tsun Kong Sham
Micro-XAFS and chemical imaging techniques have been widely applied for studies of heterogeneously distributed systems, mostly in hard X-ray (>5 keV) or in soft X-ray (<1.5 keV) energies. The microprobe endstation of the SXRMB (soft X-ray microcharacterization beamline) at the Canadian Light Source is optimized at the medium energy (1.7-5 keV), and it has been recently commissioned and is available for general users. The technical design and the performance (energy range, beam size and flux) of the SXRMB microprobe are presented...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Claudia Sanmartin, Yves Decady, Richard Trudeau, Abel Dasylva, Michael Tjepkema, Philippe Finès, Rick Burnett, Nancy Ross, Douglas G Manuel
BACKGROUND: This study summarizes the linkage of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the Canadian Mortality Database (CMDB), which was performed to examine relationships between social determinants, health behaviours and mortality in the household population. DATA AND METHODS: The 2000/2001-to-2011 Canadian Community Health Surveys were linked to the 2000-to-2011 CMDB using probabilistic methods based on common identifiers (names, date of birth, postal code and sex) for eligible respondents (85%; n = 614,774)...
December 21, 2016: Health Reports
B Bassey, M Martinson, N Samadi, G Belev, C Karanfil, P Qi, D Chapman
A multiple energy imaging system that can extract multiple endogenous or induced contrast materials as well as water and bone images would be ideal for imaging of biological subjects. The continuous spectrum available from synchrotron light facilities provides a nearly perfect source for multiple energy x-ray imaging. A novel multiple energy x-ray imaging system, which prepares a horizontally focused polychromatic x-ray beam, has been developed at the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy bend magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source...
December 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mercedes Martinson, Dean Chapman
It has been established that for cylindrically bent crystals the optimal beam characteristics occur when the geometric and single-ray foci are matched. In the beam-expanding monochromator developed for the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source, it was unclear how critical this `magic condition' was for preserving the transverse coherence of the beam. A study was conducted to determine whether misalignments away from the ideal conditions would severely affect the transverse coherence of the beam, thereby limiting phase-based imaging techniques...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Mayilee Canizares, Monique Gignac, Sheilah Hogg-Johnson, Richard H Glazier, Elizabeth M Badley
OBJECTIVE: In light of concerns for meeting the provision of healthcare services given the large numbers of ageing baby boomers, we compared the trajectories of primary care and specialist services use across the lifecourse of 5 birth cohorts and examined factors associated with birth cohort differences. DESIGN: Longitudinal panel. SETTING: Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994-2011). POPULATION: Sample of 10 186 individuals aged 20-69 years in 1994-1995 and who were from 5 birth cohorts: Generation X (Gen X; born: 1965-1974), Younger Baby Boomers (born: 1955-1964), Older Baby Boomers (born: 1945-1954), World War II (born: 1935-1944) and pre-World War II (born: 1925-1934)...
2016: BMJ Open
T W Wysokinski, J P Ianowski, X Luan, G Belev, D Miller, M A Webb, N Zhu, D Chapman
The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility [1,2] located at the Canadian Light Source, provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities. There are two separate beamlines used for experiments: the bending magnet (05B1-1) and the insertion device (05ID-2) beamline. The bending magnet beamline provides access to monochromatic beam spanning a spectral range of 15-40keV, and the beam is 240mm wide in the POE-2 experimental hutch. Users can also perform experiments with polychromatic (pink) beam...
December 2016: Physica Medica: PM
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