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Posterior cortical atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914902/case-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-pca-evolved-to-pca-cbs
#1
Nicola Salvadori, Mirella Russo, Leonardo Biscetti, Katia D' Andrea, Massimo Eugenio Dottorini, Lucilla Parnetti
A 68-year-old lawyer developed insidious disturbances in topographic orientation and apraxia. He underwent a geriatric evaluation, only documenting slight cognitive disturbances, and a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), showing mild right-lateralised frontoparietal hypometabolism. After 1 year, because of worsening in spatial orientation and the onset of dressing apraxia, he was referred to our memory clinic. The neuropsychological evaluation documented proeminent visuospatial, praxis deficits and dysgraphia...
June 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902728/do-all-visual-deficits-cause-pure-alexia-dissociations-between-visual-processing-and-reading-suggest-no
#2
Tobias Bormann, Lars Frings, Andrea Dreßing, Volkmar Glauche, Cornelius Weiller
Pure alexia is a deficit of reading affecting the ability to process a word's letters in parallel. Instead, a slow, effortful letter-by-letter reading strategy is employed. It has been claimed that a visual impairment caused the reading impairment. The present study compares visual processing and word reading of a patient with severe visuospatial deficits due to probable posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) to two patients with pure alexia. A double dissociation emerged between visual processing and word reading: The participant with PCA was severely impaired in all visual tasks but read fluently while the patients with pure alexia read slowly but exhibited better preserved visual processing...
June 11, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876268/association-between-precuneus-volume-and-autobiographical-memory-impairment-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-beyond-the-visual-syndrome
#3
Samrah Ahmed, Muireann Irish, Clare Loane, Ian Baker, Masud Husain, Sian Thompson, Cristina Blanco-Duque, Clare Mackay, Giovanna Zamboni, David Foxe, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Christopher Butler
Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterised by progressive disruption of visual and perceptual processing, associated with atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex. Current diagnostic criteria describe relative sparing of episodic memory function, but recent findings suggest that anterograde memory is often impaired. Whether these deficits extend to remote memory has not been addressed. A large body of evidence suggests that the recollection of an autobiographical event from the remote past coincides with the successful retrieval of visual images...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864594/executive-dysfunction-contributes-to-verbal-encoding-and-retrieval-deficits-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#4
Deepti Putcha, Scott M McGinnis, Michael Brickhouse, Bonnie Wong, Janet C Sherman, Bradford C Dickerson
Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that typically presents with predominant visual and spatial impairments. The early diagnostic criteria specify a relative sparing of functioning in other cognitive domains, including executive functions, language, and episodic memory, yet little is known of the cognitive profile of PCA as the disease progresses. Studies of healthy adults and other posterior cortical lesion patients implicate posterior parietal and temporal regions in executive functions of working memory and verbal fluency, both of which may impact episodic memory...
May 10, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851873/bedside-approach-to-the-mental-status-assessment
#5
David F Tang-Wai, Morris Freedman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents a clinically useful approach to obtaining the history and performing the mental status examination of patients with cognitive, language, or behavioral problems. RECENT FINDINGS: Laboratory and imaging biomarkers are being developed for accurate diagnosis of neurobehavioral disorders, yet few are currently available for clinical use. Moreover, not all centers have access to these potential tools. Practicing clinicians are therefore left primarily with their skills of history taking and examination...
June 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793546/distinct-patterns-of-brain-atrophy-in-genetic-frontotemporal-dementia-initiative-genfi-cohort-revealed-by-visual-rating-scales
#6
Giorgio G Fumagalli, Paola Basilico, Andrea Arighi, Martina Bocchetta, Katrina M Dick, David M Cash, Sophie Harding, Matteo Mercurio, Chiara Fenoglio, Anna M Pietroboni, Laura Ghezzi, John van Swieten, Barbara Borroni, Alexandre de Mendonça, Mario Masellis, Maria C Tartaglia, James B Rowe, Caroline Graff, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Giovanni B Frisoni, Robert Laforce, Elizabeth Finger, Sandro Sorbi, Elio Scarpini, Jonathan D Rohrer, Daniela Galimberti
BACKGROUND: In patients with frontotemporal dementia, it has been shown that brain atrophy occurs earliest in the anterior cingulate, insula and frontal lobes. We used visual rating scales to investigate whether identifying atrophy in these areas may be helpful in distinguishing symptomatic patients carrying different causal mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (GRN) and chromosome 9 open reading frame (C9ORF72) genes. We also analysed asymptomatic carriers to see whether it was possible to visually identify brain atrophy before the appearance of symptoms...
May 24, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792890/the-visual-cortex-and-visual-cognition-in-huntington-s-disease-an-overview-of-current-literature
#7
REVIEW
Emma M Coppen, Jeroen van der Grond, Ellen P Hart, Egbert A J F Lakke, Raymund A C Roos
The processing of visual stimuli from retina to higher cortical areas has been extensively studied in the human brain. In Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, it is suggested that visual processing deficits are present in addition to more characteristic signs such as motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. Visual deficits are clinically important because they influence overall cognitive performance and have implications for daily functioning. The aim of this review is to summarize current literature on clinical visual deficits, visual cognitive impairment, and underlying visual cortical changes in HD patients...
May 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786489/determinants-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-with-and-without-atrophy
#8
Anand J C Eijlers, Kim A Meijer, Quinten van Geest, Jeroen J G Geurts, Menno M Schoonheim
Purpose To investigate the discrepancy between patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) without atrophy who have already developed cognitive impairment and patients with MS with atrophy who have preserved cognitive function. Materials and Methods This retrospective imaging study, with imaging acquired between 2008 and 2012, included 332 patients with MS (106 men and 226 women; mean age, 48.1 years; range, 23.0-72.5 years) and 96 healthy control participants. Cognitive impairment was defined as cognitive performance of z less than -1...
May 18, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777819/7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-caudal-anterior-cingulate-and-posterior-cingulate-cortex-atrophy-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#9
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Chan-A Park, Yeong-Jae Jeon, Soon Tae You, Hyun Man Baek, Youn Joo Lee, Chul Beom Cho, Chae Joon Cheong, Young Seok Park
The cingulate cortex (CC) is a brain region that plays a key role in pain processing, but CC abnormalities are not unclear in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The purpose of this study was to determine the central causal mechanisms of TN and the surrounding brain structure in healthy controls and patients with TN using 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-brain parcellation in gray matter volume and thickness was assessed in 15 patients with TN and 16 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and regional variability using T1-weighted imaging...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747584/differentiation-of-neuropsychological-features-between-posterior-cortical-atrophy-and-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Jieying Li, Liyong Wu, Yi Tang, Aihong Zhou, Fen Wang, Yi Xing, Jianping Jia
BACKGROUND: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a group of clinical syndromes characterized by visuospatial and visuoperceptual impairment, with memory relatively preserved. Although PCA is pathologically almost identical to Alzheimer's disease (AD), they have different cognitive features. Those differences have only rarely been reported in any Chinese population. The purpose of the study is to establish neuropsychological tests that distinguish the clinical features of PCA from early onset AD (EOAD)...
May 10, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716655/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-clinical-trial-of-donepezil-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-due-to-underlying-alzheimer-s-disease-donipad-study
#11
Basil H Ridha, Sebastian Crutch, Dawn Cutler, Christopher Frost, William Knight, Suzie Barker, Norah Epie, Elizabeth K Warrington, Riitta Kukkastenvehmas, Jane Douglas, Martin N Rossor
BACKGROUND: The study investigated whether donepezil exerts symptomatic benefit in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), an atypical variant of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: A single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial was performed to assess the efficacy of donepezil in patients with PCA. Each patient received either donepezil (5 mg once daily in the first 6 weeks and 10 mg once daily in the second 6 weeks) or placebo for 12 weeks...
May 1, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710718/the-progressive-acalculia-presentation-of-parietal-variant-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Mario F Mendez, Negar Moheb, Randy E Desarzant, Edmond H Teng
BACKGROUND: Many patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD; age of onset <65 years) have non-amnestic presentations involving language (logopenic primary progressive aphasia, lvPPA), visuospatial abilities (posterior cortical atrophy, PCA), and even asymmetric symptoms consistent with corticobasal syndrome (CBS). An inferior parietal lobule variant of EOAD commonly presents with progressive difficulty with calculations. METHODS: We reviewed 276 EOAD patients for presentations with predominant acalculia...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685063/methylphenidate-treatment-for-patients-with-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#13
Mario F Mendez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678935/atrophy-patterns-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-with-and-without-cortical-superficial-siderosis
#14
Joonho Kim, Han Kyu Na, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Hee Jin Kim, Sang Won Seo, Joon-Kyung Seong, Duk L Na
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differential atrophy patterns based on the presence of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) and the role of cSS in predicting amyloid positivity in memory clinic patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 44 cognitively impaired patients with probable CAA who underwent 3-dimensional, T1-weighted MRIs (cSS+, n = 27; cSS-, n = 17). Amyloid-positive patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 56) and amyloid-negative cognitively normal participants (n = 34) were recruited as controls...
May 15, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665606/-organic-anxiety-disorder-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#15
Denise Linsmayer, Christoph Kindler, Wiebke Anheier, Julia Reiff, Per Suppa, Dieter F Braus
We report on a 54-year-old patient who described a progressive anxiety disorder additionally recurrent sight disorders associated with room-tilt illusions and subjective visual field defects. She also reported disturbances of concentration and attention and of a modified typeface accompanied by difficulty in writing with an increase of grammatical errors. Based on the case, the relevant anamnestic and clinical data, the neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings and also differential diagnosis of the posterior cortical atrophy, a rare neurodegenerative disease, will be discussed...
April 17, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660812/tremor-severity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-cortical-changes-of-areas-controlling-movement-sequencing-a-preliminary-study
#16
Julián Benito-León, J Ignacio Serrano, Elan D Louis, Ales Holobar, Juan P Romero, P Povalej-Bržan, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, M Dolores Del Castillo, Ignacio J Posada, Eduardo Rocon
There remains much to learn about the changes in cortical anatomy that are associated with tremor severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). For this reason, we used a combination of structural neuroimaging to measure cortical thickness and neurophysiological studies to analyze whether PD tremor was associated with cortex integrity. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological assessment were performed in 13 nondemented PD patients (9 women, 69.2%) with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis software...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614676/regional-distribution-asymmetry-and-clinical-correlates-of-tau-uptake-on-18f-av-1451-pet-in-atypical-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Katerina A Tetzloff, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Peter R Martin, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Mary M Machulda, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Matthew L Senjem, Christopher G Schwarz, Anthony J Spychalla, Daniel A Drubach, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
BACKGROUND: Despite common pathology, Alzheimer's disease (AD) can have multiple clinical presentations which pathological studies suggest result from differences in the regional distribution of tau pathology. Positron emission tomography (PET) ligands are now available that can detect tau proteins in vivo and hence can be used to investigate the biological mechanisms underlying atypical AD. OBJECTIVE: To assess regional patterns of tau uptake on PET imaging in two atypical AD variants, posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and logopenic progressive aphasia (lvPPA)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610105/cortical-thinning-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-without-dementia
#18
Lijun Zhang, Ming Wang, Nicholas W Sterling, Eun-Young Lee, Paul J Eslinger, Daymond Wagner, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Young Truong, F DuBois Bowman, Xuemei Huang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by motor dysfunction (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability), and pathologically by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Growing literature supports that cognitive deficits may also be present in PD, even in non-demented patients. Gray matter (GM) atrophy has been reported in PD and may be related to cognitive decline. This study investigated cortical thickness in non-demented PD subjects and elucidated its relationship to cognitive impairment using high-resolution T1-weighted brain MRI and comprehensive cognitive function scores from 71 non-demented PD and 48 control subjects matched for age, gender, and education...
March 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574441/lifestyle-and-vascular-risk-effects-on-mri-based-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-study-of-middle-aged-adults-from-the-broader-new-york-city-area
#19
Lisa Mosconi, Michelle Walters, Joanna Sterling, Crystal Quinn, Pauline McHugh, Randolph E Andrews, Dawn C Matthews, Christine Ganzer, Ricardo S Osorio, Richard S Isaacson, Mony J De Leon, Antonio Convit
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of lifestyle and vascular-related risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on in vivo MRI-based brain atrophy in asymptomatic young to middle-aged adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational. SETTING: Broader New York City area. Two research centres affiliated with the Alzheimer's disease Core Center at New York University School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 116 cognitively normal healthy research participants aged 30-60 years, who completed a three-dimensional T1-weighted volumetric MRI and had lifestyle (diet, physical activity and intellectual enrichment), vascular risk (overweight, hypertension, insulin resistance, elevated cholesterol and homocysteine) and cognition (memory, executive function, language) data...
March 23, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570898/novel-connectivity-map-normalization-procedure-for-improved-quantitative-investigation-of-structural-thalamic-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#20
Brendan G Santyr, Jonathan C Lau, Seyed M Mirsattari, Jorge G Burneo, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Keith MacDougall, Ali R Khan
BACKGROUND: Connectivity studies targeting the thalamus have revealed patterns of atrophy and deafferentiation in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The thalamus can be parcellated using probabilistic tractography to demonstrate regions of cortical connectivity; however, sensitivity to smaller or less connected regions is low. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate thalamic structural connectivity in a wider range of cortical and limbic structures in TLE patients using a novel connectivity map normalization procedure...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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