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Posterior cortical atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913156/the-oral-spelling-profile-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-and-the-nature-of-the-graphemic-representation
#1
Silvia Primativo, Keir X X Yong, Timothy J Shakespeare, Sebastian J Crutch
Spelling is a complex cognitive task where central and peripheral components are involved in engaging resources from many different cognitive processes. The present paper aims to both characterize the oral spelling deficit in a population of patients affected by a neurodegenerative condition and to clarify the nature of the graphemic representation within the currently available spelling models. Indeed, the nature of graphemic representation as a linear or multi-componential structure is still debated. Different hypotheses have been raised about its nature in the orthographic lexicon, with one positing that graphemes are complex objects whereby quantity and identity are separately represented in orthographic representations and can thus be selectively impaired...
November 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896492/hemianopic-line-bisection-error-in-a-patient-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Heeyoung Kang, Soo-Kyoung Kim, Ki-Jong Park, Nack-Cheon Choi, Oh-Young Kwon, Byeong Hoon Lim
Visual symptoms are frequently observed in posterior cortical atrophy compared to typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report the case of a patient with amnestic AD with long-lasting homonymous hemianopia. A 62-year-old woman, who was diagnosed in amnestic AD, complained of visual disturbance. She had left homonymous hemianopia in the perimetry test and left tactile extinction. Regardless of posture, retinotopically leftward error was observed on 21 cm line bisection test. Brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) showed bilateral temporoparietal hypoperfusion, which was more severe to the right than left side...
November 28, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834777/the-road-less-traveled-alternative-pathways-for-action-verb-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Sofía Abrevaya, Lucas Sedeño, Sol Fitipaldi, David Pineda, Francisco Lopera, Omar Buritica, Andrés Villegas, Catalina Bustamante, Diana Gomez, Natalia Trujillo, Ricardo Pautassi, Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García
Action verbs are critically embodied in motor brain networks. In Parkinson's disease (PD), damage to the latter compromises access to such words. However, patients are not fully incapable of processing them, as their performance is far from floor level. Here we tested the hypothesis that action-verb processing in PD may rely on alternative disembodied semantic circuits. Seventeen PD patients and 15 healthy controls listened to action verbs and nouns during functional MRI scanning. Using cluster-mass analysis with a permutation test, we assessed task-related functional connectivity considering seeds differentially engaged by action and non-action words (namely, putamen and M1 versus posterior superior temporal lobe, respectively)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781971/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#4
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771044/the-self-reference-effect-in-dementia-differential-involvement-of-cortical-midline-structures-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#5
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Eric D Leshikar, Audrey Duarte, Maxime Bertoux, Greg Savage, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
Encoding information in reference to the self enhances subsequent memory for the source of this information. In healthy adults, self-referential processing has been proposed to be mediated by the cortical midline structures (CMS), with functional differentiation between anterior-ventral, anterior-dorsal and posterior regions. While both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients show source memory impairment, it remains unclear whether they show a typical memory advantage for self-referenced materials...
October 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771043/tracking-the-development-of-agrammatic-aphasia-a-tensor-based-morphometry-study
#6
Jennifer L Whitwell, Joseph R Duffy, Mary M Machulda, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Matthew L Senjem, Jeffrey L Gunter, Anthony J Spychalla, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs
Agrammatic aphasia can be observed in neurodegenerative disorders and has been traditionally linked with damage to Broca's area, although there have been disagreements concerning whether damage to Broca's area is necessary or sufficient for the development of agrammatism. We aimed to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of the emergence of agrammatic aphasia utilizing a unique cohort of patients with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) that did not have agrammatism at baseline but developed agrammatic aphasia over time...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757821/distinct-effects-of-late-adulthood-cognitive-and-physical-activities-on-gray-matter-volume
#7
Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo, Robin de Flores, Julie Gonneaud, Miranka Wirth, Valentin Ourry, William Callewaert, Brigitte Landeau, Stéphanie Egret, Florence Mézenge, Béatrice Desgranges, Gaël Chételat
Engagement in cognitive activity (CA) and physical activity (PA) during the lifespan may counteract brain atrophy later in life. Here, we investigated engagement in CA and PA during late adulthood in association with gray matter volume (GM) in normal older adults, with special focus on the hippocampus. Forty-five cognitively normal older individuals (mean age: 72) underwent T1-weighted MRI and self-reported CA and PA assessment. Whole brain voxel-wise multiple regression models were carried out to assess the relationships between CA, PA and GM volume adjusted by age and sex...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702740/neuro-cognitive-mechanisms-of-simultanagnosia-in-patients-with-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#8
Julia Neitzel, Marion Ortner, Marleen Haupt, Petra Redel, Timo Grimmer, Igor Yakushev, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Bublak, Christoph Preul, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Finke
Posterior cortical atrophy is dominated by progressive degradation of parieto-occipital grey and white matter, and represents in most cases a variant of Alzheimer's disease. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy are characterized by increasing higher visual and visuo-spatial impairments. In particular, a key symptom of posterior cortical atrophy is simultanagnosia i.e. the inability to perceive multiple visual objects at the same time. Two neuro-cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to underlie simultanagnosia, either reduced visual short-term memory capacity or decreased visual processing speed possibly resulting from white matter impairments over and above damage to cortical brain areas...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688479/18f-fdg-pet-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#9
Jennifer Whitwell, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Tarun Singh, Daniel Drubach, Matthew Senjem, Anthony Spychalla, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Val J Lowe, Keith Josephs
: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have both been associated with occipital lobe hypometabolism on (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), while relative sparing of posterior cingulate metabolism compared to precuneus/cuneus (i.e. cingulate island sign) is a feature of DLB. We aimed to determine whether patterns of hypometabolism or the cingulate island sign differed between PCA and DLB. METHODS: Sixteen clinically diagnosed PCA and 13 probable DLB subjects underwent (18)F-FDG PET...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687870/neuro-visual-rehabilitation
#10
Noa Raz, Netta Levin
Despite the fact that almost one-third of patients suffer from visual deficits following brain damage; neuro-visual rehabilitation to compensate for visual field deficits is relatively neglected in the clinical setting. This is in contrast to physio and speech therapies, which are the bread and butter of rehabilitative programs. Likewise, programs that address coping with dementia usually concentrate on language, memory and cognitive skills, but often fail to address the deficits experienced by the subset of patients suffering from progressive cortico-visual dysfunction...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673741/regional-grey-matter-volume-loss-is-associated-with-gait-impairments-in-young-brain-injured-individuals
#11
David Drijkoningen, Sima Chalavi, Stefan Sunaert, Jacques Duysens, Stephan P Swinnen, Karen Caeyenberghs
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leads to impairments in gait performance. However, the underlying neurostructural pathology of these gait deficits is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate regional grey matter (GM) volume in young moderate-to-severe TBI participants (n=18, age 13y11m ± 3y1m) as compared to typically developing participants (TD; n=30, 14y10m ± 2y2m) and assess whether reduced volume was related to impaired gait performance in TBI participants. Cortical and subcortical GM structures, involved in the neural control of gait, were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) and their volume was extracted using Freesurfer...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574605/non-pharmacological-intervention-for-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#12
Agnès Weill-Chounlamountry, Jorge Alves, Pascale Pradat-Diehl
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive visual-perceptual deficits. Although the neurocognitive profile of PCA is a growing and relatively well-established field, non-pharmacological care remains understudied and to be widely established in clinical practice. In the present work we review the available literature on non-pharmacological approaches for PCA, such as cognitive rehabilitation including individual cognitive exercises and compensatory techniques to improve autonomy in daily life, and psycho-education aiming to inform people with PCA about the nature of their visual deficits and limits of cognitive rehabilitation...
August 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567843/atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and%C3%A2-semantic-dementia-an-ale-meta-analysis-of-voxel-based-morphometry-studies
#13
Marianne Chapleau, Joséphine Aldebert, Maxime Montembeault, Simona M Brambati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) have distinct episodic memory profiles despite the hippocampal atrophy that characterizes both diseases. The aim of this study was to delineate the pattern of gray matter (GM) atrophy associated with AD and SD as well as any differences in these patterns by pooling together the results of previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies.Methods/Overview: We conducted a meta-analysis of VBM studies that investigated GM atrophy in AD patients versus controls (CTRLs) and in SD patients versus CTRLs using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554388/variable-disruption-of-a-syntactic-processing-network-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#14
Stephen M Wilson, Andrew T DeMarco, Maya L Henry, Benno Gesierich, Miranda Babiak, Bruce L Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
Syntactic processing deficits are highly variable in individuals with primary progressive aphasia. Damage to left inferior frontal cortex has been associated with syntactic deficits in primary progressive aphasia in a number of structural and functional neuroimaging studies. However, a contrasting picture of a broader syntactic network has emerged from neuropsychological studies in other aphasic cohorts, and functional imaging studies in healthy controls. To reconcile these findings, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of syntactic comprehension in 51 individuals with primary progressive aphasia, composed of all clinical variants and a range of degrees of syntactic processing impairment...
August 23, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546195/atrophy-of-amygdala-and-abnormal-memory-related-alpha-oscillations-over-posterior-cingulate-predict-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Laura Prieto Del Val, Jose L Cantero, Mercedes Atienza
Synaptic dysfunction, a key pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), may account for abnormal memory-related EEG patterns in prodromal AD. Here, we investigate to what extent oscillatory EEG changes during memory encoding and/or retrieval enhance the accuracy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in predicting conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to AD. As expected, aMCI individuals that, within a 2-year follow-up period, developed dementia (N = 16) compared to healthy older (HO) (N = 26) and stable aMCI (N = 18) showed poorer associative memory, greater MTL atrophy, and lower capacity to recruit alpha oscillatory cortical networks...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528441/laquinimod-rescues-striatal-cortical-and-white-matter-pathology-and-results-in-modest-behavioural-improvements-in-the-yac128-model-of-huntington-disease
#16
Marta Garcia-Miralles, Xin Hong, Liang Juin Tan, Nicholas S Caron, Yihui Huang, Xuan Vinh To, Rachel Yanping Lin, Sonia Franciosi, Spyros Papapetropoulos, Liat Hayardeny, Michael R Hayden, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Mahmoud A Pouladi
Increasing evidence supports a role for abnormal immune activation and inflammatory responses in Huntington disease (HD). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of laquinimod (1 and 10 mg/kg), a novel immunomodulatory agent shown to be protective in a number of neuroinflammatory conditions, in the YAC128 mouse model of HD. Treatment with laquinimod for 6 months rescued atrophy in the striatum, in certain cortical regions, and in the corpus callosum of YAC128 HD mice. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that white matter microstructural abnormalities in the posterior corpus callosum were improved following treatment with low dose (1 mg/kg) laquinimod, and were paralleled by reduced levels of interleukin-6 in the periphery of YAC128 HD mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522354/cerebral-and-cerebellar-grey%C3%A2-matter-atrophy-in-friedreich-ataxia-the-image-frda-study
#17
Louisa P Selvadurai, Ian H Harding, Louise A Corben, Monique R Stagnitti, Elsdon Storey, Gary F Egan, Martin B Delatycki, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is traditionally associated with neuropathology in the cerebellar dentate nucleus and spinal cord. Growing evidence also suggests involvement of the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, although reports of structural abnormalities remain mixed. This study assessed the structural integrity of cortical grey matter in FRDA, focussing on regions in which pathology may underlie the motor deficits characteristic of this disorder. T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 31 individuals with FRDA and 37 healthy controls...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509365/atrophy-and-structural-covariance-of-the-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#18
Stefan Teipel, Theresa Raiser, Lina Riedl, Isabelle Riederer, Matthias L Schroeter, Sandrine Bisenius, Anja Schneider, Johannes Kornhuber, Klaus Fliessbach, Annika Spottke, Michel J Grothe, Johannes Prudlo, Jan Kassubek, Albert Ludolph, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Sarah Straub, Markus Otto, Adrian Danek
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472694/altered-directional-connectivity-between-emotion-network-and-motor-network-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-depression
#19
Peipeng Liang, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Sinan Zhao, Jiangtao Liu, Xiaoping Hu, Kuncheng Li
Depression is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which can make all the other symptoms of PD much worse. It is thus urgent to differentiate depressed PD (DPD) patients from non-depressed PD (NDPD).The purpose of the present study was to characterize alterations in directional brain connectivity unique to Parkinson's disease with depression, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).Sixteen DPD patients, 20 NDPD patients, 17 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 21 healthy control subjects (normal controls [NC]) underwent structural MRI and rs-fMRI scanning...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445249/case-studies-illustrating-focal-alzheimer-s-fluent-aphasia-late-onset-memory-loss-and-rapid-dementia
#20
REVIEW
Gamze Balci Camsari, Melissa E Murray, Neill R Graff-Radford
Many dementia subtypes have more shared signs and symptoms than defining ones. We review 8 cases with 4 overlapping syndromes and demonstrate how to distinguish the cases. These include focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD; posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), fluent aphasia (semantic dementia and logopenic aphasia), late-onset slowly progressive dementia (hippocampal sclerosis and limbic predominant AD) and rapidly progressive dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and limbic encephalitis)...
August 2016: Neurologic Clinics
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