Read by QxMD icon Read

Posterior cortical atrophy

Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo, Robin de Flores, Julie Gonneaud, Miranka Wirth, Valentin Ourry, William Callewaert, Brigitte Landeau, Stéphanie Egret, Florence Mézenge, Béatrice Desgranges, Gaël Chételat
Engagement in cognitive activity (CA) and physical activity (PA) during the lifespan may counteract brain atrophy later in life. Here, we investigated engagement in CA and PA during late adulthood in association with gray matter volume (GM) in normal older adults, with special focus on the hippocampus. Forty-five cognitively normal older individuals (mean age: 72) underwent T1-weighted MRI and self-reported CA and PA assessment. Whole brain voxel-wise multiple regression models were carried out to assess the relationships between CA, PA and GM volume adjusted by age and sex...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Julia Neitzel, Marion Ortner, Marleen Haupt, Petra Redel, Timo Grimmer, Igor Yakushev, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Bublak, Christoph Preul, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Finke
Posterior cortical atrophy is dominated by progressive degradation of parieto-occipital grey and white matter, and represents in most cases a variant of Alzheimer's disease. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy are characterized by increasing higher visual and visuo-spatial impairments. In particular, a key symptom of posterior cortical atrophy is simultanagnosia i.e. the inability to perceive multiple visual objects at the same time. Two neuro-cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to underlie simultanagnosia, either reduced visual short-term memory capacity or decreased visual processing speed possibly resulting from white matter impairments over and above damage to cortical brain areas...
October 3, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jennifer Whitwell, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Tarun Singh, Daniel Drubach, Matthew Senjem, Anthony Spychalla, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Val J Lowe, Keith Josephs
: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have both been associated with occipital lobe hypometabolism on (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), while relative sparing of posterior cingulate metabolism compared to precuneus/cuneus (i.e. cingulate island sign) is a feature of DLB. We aimed to determine whether patterns of hypometabolism or the cingulate island sign differed between PCA and DLB. METHODS: Sixteen clinically diagnosed PCA and 13 probable DLB subjects underwent (18)F-FDG PET...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Noa Raz, Netta Levin
Despite the fact that almost one-third of patients suffer from visual deficits following brain damage; neuro-visual rehabilitation to compensate for visual field deficits is relatively neglected in the clinical setting. This is in contrast to physio and speech therapies, which are the bread and butter of rehabilitative programs. Likewise, programs that address coping with dementia usually concentrate on language, memory and cognitive skills, but often fail to address the deficits experienced by the subset of patients suffering from progressive cortico-visual dysfunction...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neurology
David Drijkoningen, Sima Chalavi, Stefan Sunaert, Jacques Duysens, Stephan P Swinnen, Karen Caeyenberghs
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leads to impairments in gait performance. However, the underlying neurostructural pathology of these gait deficits is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate regional grey matter (GM) volume in young moderate-to-severe TBI participants (n=18, age 13y11m ± 3y1m) as compared to typically developing participants (TD; n=30, 14y10m ± 2y2m) and assess whether reduced volume was related to impaired gait performance in TBI participants. Cortical and subcortical GM structures, involved in the neural control of gait, were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) and their volume was extracted using Freesurfer...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Agnès Weill-Chounlamountry, Jorge Alves, Pascale Pradat-Diehl
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive visual-perceptual deficits. Although the neurocognitive profile of PCA is a growing and relatively well-established field, non-pharmacological care remains understudied and to be widely established in clinical practice. In the present work we review the available literature on non-pharmacological approaches for PCA, such as cognitive rehabilitation including individual cognitive exercises and compensatory techniques to improve autonomy in daily life, and psycho-education aiming to inform people with PCA about the nature of their visual deficits and limits of cognitive rehabilitation...
August 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Marianne Chapleau, Joséphine Aldebert, Maxime Montembeault, Simona M Brambati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) have distinct episodic memory profiles despite the hippocampal atrophy that characterizes both diseases. The aim of this study was to delineate the pattern of gray matter (GM) atrophy associated with AD and SD as well as any differences in these patterns by pooling together the results of previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies.Methods/Overview: We conducted a meta-analysis of VBM studies that investigated GM atrophy in AD patients versus controls (CTRLs) and in SD patients versus CTRLs using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Stephen M Wilson, Andrew T DeMarco, Maya L Henry, Benno Gesierich, Miranda Babiak, Bruce L Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
Syntactic processing deficits are highly variable in individuals with primary progressive aphasia. Damage to left inferior frontal cortex has been associated with syntactic deficits in primary progressive aphasia in a number of structural and functional neuroimaging studies. However, a contrasting picture of a broader syntactic network has emerged from neuropsychological studies in other aphasic cohorts, and functional imaging studies in healthy controls. To reconcile these findings, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of syntactic comprehension in 51 individuals with primary progressive aphasia, composed of all clinical variants and a range of degrees of syntactic processing impairment...
August 23, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Laura Prieto Del Val, Jose L Cantero, Mercedes Atienza
Synaptic dysfunction, a key pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), may account for abnormal memory-related EEG patterns in prodromal AD. Here, we investigate to what extent oscillatory EEG changes during memory encoding and/or retrieval enhance the accuracy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in predicting conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to AD. As expected, aMCI individuals that, within a 2-year follow-up period, developed dementia (N = 16) compared to healthy older (HO) (N = 26) and stable aMCI (N = 18) showed poorer associative memory, greater MTL atrophy, and lower capacity to recruit alpha oscillatory cortical networks...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marta Garcia-Miralles, Xin Hong, Liang Juin Tan, Nicholas S Caron, Yihui Huang, Xuan Vinh To, Rachel Yanping Lin, Sonia Franciosi, Spyros Papapetropoulos, Liat Hayardeny, Michael R Hayden, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Mahmoud A Pouladi
Increasing evidence supports a role for abnormal immune activation and inflammatory responses in Huntington disease (HD). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of laquinimod (1 and 10 mg/kg), a novel immunomodulatory agent shown to be protective in a number of neuroinflammatory conditions, in the YAC128 mouse model of HD. Treatment with laquinimod for 6 months rescued atrophy in the striatum, in certain cortical regions, and in the corpus callosum of YAC128 HD mice. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that white matter microstructural abnormalities in the posterior corpus callosum were improved following treatment with low dose (1 mg/kg) laquinimod, and were paralleled by reduced levels of interleukin-6 in the periphery of YAC128 HD mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Louisa P Selvadurai, Ian H Harding, Louise A Corben, Monique R Stagnitti, Elsdon Storey, Gary F Egan, Martin B Delatycki, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is traditionally associated with neuropathology in the cerebellar dentate nucleus and spinal cord. Growing evidence also suggests involvement of the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, although reports of structural abnormalities remain mixed. This study assessed the structural integrity of cortical grey matter in FRDA, focussing on regions in which pathology may underlie the motor deficits characteristic of this disorder. T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 31 individuals with FRDA and 37 healthy controls...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
Stefan Teipel, Theresa Raiser, Lina Riedl, Isabelle Riederer, Matthias L Schroeter, Sandrine Bisenius, Anja Schneider, Johannes Kornhuber, Klaus Fliessbach, Annika Spottke, Michel J Grothe, Johannes Prudlo, Jan Kassubek, Albert Ludolph, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Sarah Straub, Markus Otto, Adrian Danek
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Peipeng Liang, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Sinan Zhao, Jiangtao Liu, Xiaoping Hu, Kuncheng Li
Depression is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which can make all the other symptoms of PD much worse. It is thus urgent to differentiate depressed PD (DPD) patients from non-depressed PD (NDPD).The purpose of the present study was to characterize alterations in directional brain connectivity unique to Parkinson's disease with depression, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).Sixteen DPD patients, 20 NDPD patients, 17 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 21 healthy control subjects (normal controls [NC]) underwent structural MRI and rs-fMRI scanning...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gamze Balci Camsari, Melissa E Murray, Neill R Graff-Radford
Many dementia subtypes have more shared signs and symptoms than defining ones. We review 8 cases with 4 overlapping syndromes and demonstrate how to distinguish the cases. These include focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD; posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), fluent aphasia (semantic dementia and logopenic aphasia), late-onset slowly progressive dementia (hippocampal sclerosis and limbic predominant AD) and rapidly progressive dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and limbic encephalitis)...
August 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Carl Ellenberger
This chapter can guide the use of imaging in the evaluation of common visual syndromes: transient visual disturbance, including migraine and amaurosis fugax; acute optic neuropathy complicating multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and Susac syndrome; papilledema and pseudotumor cerebri syndrome; cerebral disturbances of vision, including posterior cerebral arterial occlusion, posterior reversible encephalopathy, hemianopia after anterior temporal lobe resection, posterior cortical atrophy, and conversion blindness...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A Suárez-González, S J Crutch, F Roldán Lora, E Franco-Macías, E Gil-Néciga
BACKGROUND: Early and progressive disabling visual impairment is a core feature for the diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However, some individuals that fulfil criteria over time might initially present with an onset of prominent posterior dysfunction other than visuoperceptual. METHODS: The clinical profile of five patients with a predominantly 'non-visual' posterior presentation (PCA2) was investigated and compared with sixteen individuals with visually predominant PCA (PCA1) and eighteen with typical amnestic Alzheimer disease (tAD)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
François-Laurent De Winter, Jan Van den Stock, Beatrice de Gelder, Ronald Peeters, Jan Jastorff, Stefan Sunaert, Wim Vanduffel, Rik Vandenberghe, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration...
September 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Shaik Afsar Pasha, Ravi Yadav, Mohan Ganeshan, Jitender Saini, Anupam Gupta, M Sandhya, Pramod Kumar Pal
OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical, balance, and radiological profile of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) of Richardson type (PSP-R) and Parkinsonian type (PSP-P). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with PSP (PSP-R: 17, PSP-P: 12) satisfying the probable/possible National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-PSP criteria were recruited and assessed with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III, PSP rating scale (PSPRS), Berg balance scale (BBS), Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment gait and total (TPG and TPT) score, dynamic posturography (DP), and magnetic resonance imaging...
July 2016: Neurology India
Ya-Ting Chang, Chi-Wei Huang, Nai-Ching Chen, Kun-Ju Lin, Shu-Hua Huang, Wen-Neng Chang, Shih-Wei Hsu, Che-Wei Hsu, Hsiu-Hui Chen, Chiung-Chih Chang
PURPOSE: Neuronal activity during face matching shows co-activation of the fusiform gyrus (FG) and areas along the ventral visual network. To elucidate the mechanisms related to the facial discrimination deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the study evaluates the relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ) load and gray matter (GM) atrophy within the ventral visual network. METHODS: Comprehensive cognitive assessments and GM volumetry using 3-dimentional T1-weighted images and AV-45 positron emission tomography (PET) were studied in 44 patients with AD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Guoping Peng, Jianqin Wang, Zhan Feng, Ping Liu, Yafei Zhang, Fangping He, Zhongqin Chen, Kui Zhao, Benyan Luo
To identify clinical and neuroimaging characteristics between posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients at an early disease stage, 16 PCA and 13 age-matched tAD patients were enrolled. Compared with tAD patients, PCA patients showed higher mean recognition and recall test scores, and lower mean calculation, spatial attention, shape discrimination, and writing test scores. Mean right hippocampal volume was larger in PCA patients compared with tAD patients, while cortical gray matter (GM) volume of bilateral parietal and occipital lobes was smaller in PCA patients...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"