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Posterior cortical atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512507/homonymous-hemianopsia-due-to-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#1
Francesco Pellegrini, Andrew G Lee, Pietro Zucchetta
A 63-year-old woman presented to her ophthalmologist complaining of reading difficulties for two years. Ophthalmological examination revealed a homonymous hemianopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was interpreted as normal, but positron emission tomography (PET) showed areas of posterior brain hypometabolism. This case highlights the high diagnostic suspicion that ophthalmologists should have regarding posterior cortical atrophy (including the visual variant of Alzheimer disease) in patients complaining of reading difficulties in the setting of a normal ophthalmic examination...
June 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484383/when-playing-is-a-problem-an-atypical-case-of-alien-hand-syndrome-in-a-professional-pianist
#2
Arantxa Alfaro, Ángela Bernabeu, Francisco J Badesa, Nicolas García, Eduardo Fernández
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a neurological illness characterized by limb movements which are carried out without being aware of it. Many patients describe these movements as aggressive and some perceive a strong feeling of estrangement and go so far as to deny ownership. The sense of body ownership is the perception that parts of one's body pertain to oneself, despite it is moving or not and if movement is intentional or unintentional. These anomalous self-experiences may arise in patients with focal brain lesions and provide unique opportunities to disclose the neural components underlying self-body perception...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459123/segmental-sandwich-osteotomy-and-tunnel-technique-for-three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-the-jaw-atrophy-a-case-report
#3
Mario Santagata, Nicola Sgaramella, Ivo Ferrieri, Giovanni Corvo, Gianpaolo Tartaro, Salvatore D'Amato
BACKGROUND: A three-dimensionally favourable mandibular bone crest is desirable to be able to successfully implant placement to meet the aesthetic and functional criteria in the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Several surgical procedures have been advocated for bone augmentation of the atrophic mandible, and the sandwich osteotomy is one of these techniques. The aim of the present case report was to assess the suitability of segmental mandibular sandwich osteotomy combined with a tunnel technique of soft tissue...
December 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427989/egocentric-and-allocentric-visuospatial-working-memory-in-premotor-huntington-s-disease-a-double-dissociation-with-caudate-and-hippocampal-volumes
#4
Katherine L Possin, Hosung Kim, Michael D Geschwind, Tacie Moskowitz, Erica T Johnson, Sharon J Sha, Alexandra Apple, Duan Xu, Bruce L Miller, Steven Finkbeiner, Christopher P Hess, Joel H Kramer
Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417965/distinct-subtypes-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-patterns-of-brain-atrophy-longitudinal-trajectories-and-clinical-applications
#5
Daniel Ferreira, Chloë Verhagen, Juan Andrés Hernández-Cabrera, Lena Cavallin, Chun-Jie Guo, Urban Ekman, J-Sebastian Muehlboeck, Andrew Simmons, José Barroso, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman
Atrophy patterns on MRI can reliably predict three neuropathological subtypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD): typical, limbic-predominant, or hippocampal-sparing. A method to enable their investigation in the clinical routine is still lacking. We aimed to (1) validate the combined use of visual rating scales for identification of AD subtypes; (2) characterise these subtypes at baseline and over two years; and (3) investigate how atrophy patterns and non-memory cognitive domains contribute to memory impairment...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397182/evaluation-and-clinical-correlation-of-practical-cut-offs-for-visual-rating-scales-of-atrophy-normal-aging-versus-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Anne-Sophie Vanhoenacker, Bernard Sneyers, Frederik De Keyzer, Sam Heye, Philippe Demaerel
Age-related brain atrophy is a common finding, but neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are associated with accelerated atrophy of the medial temporal lobe. In current practice for brain atrophy evaluation, several rating scales are being used such as the medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy-frontal subscale (GCA-F) and posterior atrophy (PA) scales. Practical cut-offs to differentiate between normal and advanced brain atrophy are needed, because of their possible usefulness as a biomarker...
April 10, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394771/tau-pet-binding-distinguishes-patients-with-early-stage-posterior-cortical-atrophy-from-amnestic-alzheimer-disease-dementia
#7
Gregory S Day, Brian A Gordon, Kelley Jackson, Jon J Christensen, Maria Rosana Ponisio, Yi Su, Beau M Ances, Tammie L S Benzinger, John C Morris
BACKGROUND: Flortaucipir (tau) positron emission tomography (PET) binding distinguishes individuals with clinically well-established posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) due to Alzheimer disease (AD) from cognitively normal (CN) controls. However, it is not known whether tau-PET binding patterns differentiate individuals with PCA from those with amnestic AD, particularly early in the symptomatic stages of disease. METHODS: Flortaucipir and florbetapir (β-amyloid) PET imaging were performed in individuals with early-stage PCA (N=5), amnestic AD dementia (N=22), and CN controls (N=47)...
April 7, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388398/transalveolar-osteotomy-of-the-mandibular-canal-wall-for-the-treatment-of-severely-atrophied-posterior-mandible
#8
Eduardo Anitua, Sabino Padilla, Mohammad H Alkhraisat
PURPOSE: Treatment of severe bone atrophy of the posterior mandible requires an advanced surgical bone augmentation technique. This report describes a minimally invasive approach for a residual alveolar height less than 5 mm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective case series was conducted in a single private dental clinic. Outcome variables were dental implant survival rate, intraoperative complications, occurrence of neurosensory disturbances, and marginal bone loss...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387593/a-case-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-with-vertical-neglect
#9
Hilary Glazer, Leila Saadatpour, Leilani Doty, Kenneth M Heilman
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndrome caused by a neurodegenerative disease that often presents with visuospatial deficits, and can be debilitating. PCA is often characterized by elements of Balint's syndrome and dyslexia. The most common underlying pathology has been found to be Alzheimer's disease. Signs of horizontal neglect are frequently associated with PCA, but the presence of vertical (or altitudinal) neglect has not yet been reported in a patient with PCA or other forms of neurodegenerative dementia...
April 7, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288787/evolution-of-autobiographical-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#10
Muireann Irish, Ramon Landin-Romero, Annu Mothakunnel, Siddharth Ramanan, Sharpley Hsieh, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
Compromised autobiographical memory (ABM) retrieval is well established in dementia, attributable to degeneration of a core memory brain network. It remains unclear, however, how the progressive spread of atrophy with advancing disease severity impacts ABM retrieval across life epochs. To this end, we conducted a longitudinal study of recent and remote ABM in Alzheimer's disease (AD, n =11), and a frontotemporal lobar degeneration group (FTD, n =13) comprising 7 behavioral variant FTD and 6 semantic dementia patients, in comparison with 23 healthy older Controls...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284488/agnosic-vision-is-like-peripheral-vision-which-is-limited-by-crowding
#11
Francesca Strappini, Denis G Pelli, Enrico Di Pace, Marialuisa Martelli
Visual agnosia is a neuropsychological impairment of visual object recognition despite near-normal acuity and visual fields. A century of research has provided only a rudimentary account of the functional damage underlying this deficit. We find that the object-recognition ability of agnosic patients viewing an object directly is like that of normally-sighted observers viewing it indirectly, with peripheral vision. Thus, agnosic vision is like peripheral vision. We obtained 14 visual-object-recognition tests that are commonly used for diagnosis of visual agnosia...
February 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273767/impairment-of-social-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis-amygdala-atrophy-is-the-main-predictor
#12
Sonia Batista, Otília C d'Almeida, Ana Afonso, Sandra Freitas, Carmo Macário, Lívia Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Isabel Santana, Luís Cunha
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently reveal social behavior disturbance. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the impact of MS on social cognition, particularly theory of mind (ToM), and its neural basis. OBJECTIVES: To explore how ToM is affected in MS and its neural correlates. METHODS: Enrolled 60 consecutive MS patients and 60 healthy controls (HC) matched on age, sex, and education. Participants underwent ToM testing (Eyes Test, Videos Test) and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272153/brain-gray-matter-mri-morphometry-for-neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest
#13
Stein Silva, Patrice Peran, Lionel Kerhuel, Briguita Malagurski, Nicolas Chauveau, Benoit Bataille, Jean Albert Lotterie, Pierre Celsis, Florent Aubry, Giuseppe Citerio, Betty Jean, Russel Chabanne, Vincent Perlbarg, Lionel Velly, Damien Galanaud, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Olivier Fourcade, Steven Laureys, Louis Puybasset
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that the combined use of MRI cortical thickness measurement and subcortical gray matter volumetry could provide an early and accurate in vivo assessment of the structural impact of cardiac arrest and therefore could be used for long-term neuroprognostication in this setting. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Five Intensive Critical Care Units affiliated to the University in Toulouse (France), Paris (France), Clermont-Ferrand (France), Liège (Belgium), and Monza (Italy)...
March 7, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259709/consensus-classification-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#14
Sebastian J Crutch, Jonathan M Schott, Gil D Rabinovici, Melissa Murray, Julie S Snowden, Wiesje M van der Flier, Bradford C Dickerson, Rik Vandenberghe, Samrah Ahmed, Thomas H Bak, Bradley F Boeve, Christopher Butler, Stefano F Cappa, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Bruno Dubois, Olivier Felician, Douglas Galasko, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Neill R Graff-Radford, Patrick R Hof, Pierre Krolak-Salmon, Manja Lehmann, Eloi Magnin, Mario F Mendez, Peter J Nestor, Chiadi U Onyike, Victoria S Pelak, Yolande Pijnenburg, Silvia Primativo, Martin N Rossor, Natalie S Ryan, Philip Scheltens, Timothy J Shakespeare, Aida Suárez González, David F Tang-Wai, Keir X X Yong, Maria Carrillo, Nick C Fox
INTRODUCTION: A classification framework for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is proposed to improve the uniformity of definition of the syndrome in a variety of research settings. METHODS: Consensus statements about PCA were developed through a detailed literature review, the formation of an international multidisciplinary working party which convened on four occasions, and a Web-based quantitative survey regarding symptom frequency and the conceptualization of PCA...
March 2, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241163/association-of-in-vivo-18f-av-1451-tau-pet-imaging-results-with-cortical-atrophy-and-symptoms-in-typical-and-atypical-alzheimer-disease
#15
Chenjie Xia, Sara J Makaretz, Christina Caso, Scott McGinnis, Stephen N Gomperts, Jorge Sepulcre, Teresa Gomez-Isla, Bradley T Hyman, Aaron Schultz, Neil Vasdev, Keith A Johnson, Bradford C Dickerson
Importance: Previous postmortem studies have long demonstrated that neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are closely associated with Alzheimer disease clinical phenotype and neurodegeneration pattern. Validating these associations in vivo will lead to new diagnostic tools for Alzheimer disease and better understanding of its neurobiology. Objective: To examine whether topographical distribution and severity of hyperphosphorylated tau pathologic findings measured by fluorine 18-labeled AV-1451 ([18F]AV-1451) positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging are linked with clinical phenotype and cortical atrophy in patients with Alzheimer disease...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239637/alzheimer-s-disease-the-influence-of-age-on-clinical-heterogeneity-through-the-human-brain-connectome
#16
Bradford C Dickerson, Michael Brickhouse, Scott McGinnis, David A Wolk
INTRODUCTION: One major factor that influences the heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is age: younger AD patients more frequently exhibit atypical forms of AD. We propose that this age-related heterogeneity can be understood better by considering age-related differences in atrophy in the context of large-scale brain networks subserving cognitive functions that contribute to memory. METHODS: We examined data from 75 patients with mild AD dementia from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222300/free-and-cued-selective-reminding-test-accuracy-for-the-differential-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-large-scale-biomarker-characterized-monocenter-cohort-study-clinad
#17
Marc Teichmann, Stéphane Epelbaum, Dalila Samri, Marcel Levy Nogueira, Agnès Michon, Harald Hampel, Foudil Lamari, Bruno Dubois
INTRODUCTION: The International Working Group recommended the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) as a sensitive detector of the amnesic syndrome of the hippocampal type in typical Alzheimer's disease (AD). But does it differentiate AD from other neurodegenerative diseases? METHODS: We assessed the FCSRT and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers in 992 cases. Experts, blinded to biomarker data, attributed in 650 cases a diagnosis of typical AD, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, Lewy body disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, primary progressive aphasias, "subjective cognitive decline," or depression...
February 21, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217759/frontal-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-concentrations-are-associated-with-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#18
Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Richard A E Edden, Nicolaas A J Puts, Ashley D Harris, Huaihou Chen, Amanda M Garcia, Talia R Seider, Damon G Lamb, John B Williamson, Ronald A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain's principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with perceptual and attentional functioning. Recent application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides in vivo evidence for decreasing GABA concentrations during adulthood. It is unclear, however, how age-related decrements in cerebral GABA concentrations contribute to cognitive decline, or whether previously reported declines in cerebral GABA concentrations persist during healthy aging...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192686/the-down-syndrome-brain-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-fibrillar-%C3%AE-amyloidosis
#19
Tiina Annus, Liam R Wilson, Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Arturo Cardenas-Blanco, Young T Hong, Tim D Fryer, Jonathan P Coles, David K Menon, Shahid H Zaman, Anthony J Holland, Peter J Nestor
People with Down syndrome (DS) have a neurodevelopmentally distinct brain and invariably developed amyloid neuropathology by age 50. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a detailed account of DS brain morphology and the changes occuring with amyloid neuropathology. Forty-six adults with DS underwent structural and amyloid imaging-the latter using Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) to stratify the cohort into PIB-positive (n = 19) and PIB-negative (n = 27). Age-matched controls (n = 30) underwent structural imaging...
May 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183367/selective-functional-disconnection-of-the-orbitofrontal-subregions-in-schizophrenia
#20
Y Xu, W Qin, C Zhuo, L Xu, J Zhu, X Liu, C Yu
BACKGROUND: As a disconnection syndrome, schizophrenia has shown impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); however, the OFC is a rather heterogeneous region and the rsFC changes in the OFC subregions remain unknown. METHOD: A total of 98 schizophrenia patients and 102 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence (SENSE-SPIRAL) to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion...
February 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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