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Improved insulin sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777864/effectiveness-on-maternal-and-offspring-metabolic-control-of-a-home-based-dietary-counseling-intervention-and-dha-supplementation-in-obese-overweight-pregnant-women-might-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study-protocol
#1
María Luisa Garmendia, Camila Corvalán, Paola Casanello, B Marcela Araya, Marcela Flores, Alfredo Bravo, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Pablo Olmos, Ricardo Uauy
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions are the primary prevention strategy for gestational diabetes (GDM) in obese/overweight women; however, these interventions have shown limited effectiveness. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake has shown beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, lipid fractions and inflammatory factors in women who already have GDM. Combining PUFAs supplementation with a lifestyle intervention could achieve lower increase of glucose levels by improving insulin sensitivity...
May 16, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776493/mechanisms-in-bariatric-surgery-gut-hormones-diabetes-resolution-and-weight-loss
#2
Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Maria Saur Svane, Nils Bruun Jørgensen, Carsten Dirksen, Christoffer Martinussen
Gastric bypass surgery leads to profound changes in the secretion of gut hormones with effects on metabolism, appetite, and food intake. Here, we discuss their contributions to the improvement in glucose tolerance and the weight loss that results from the operations. We find that the improved glucose tolerance is due the following events: a negative energy balance and resulting weight loss, which improve first hepatic and later peripheral insulin sensitivity, in combination with increased postprandial insulin secretion elicited particularly by exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 responses...
May 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775936/from-hit-to-lead-structure-based-discovery-of-naphthalene-1-sulfonamide-derivatives-as-potent-and-selective-inhibitors-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4
#3
Ding-Ding Gao, Hui-Xia Dou, Hai-Xia Su, Ming-Ming Zhang, Ting Wang, Qiu-Feng Liu, Hai-Yan Cai, Hai-Peng Ding, Zhuo Yang, Wei-Liang Zhu, Ye-Chun Xu, He-Yao Wang, Ying-Xia Li
Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) plays a critical role in metabolism and inflammatory processes and therefore is a potential therapeutic target for immunometabolic diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. Herein, we reported the identification of naphthalene-1-sulfonamide derivatives as novel, potent and selective FABP4 inhibitors by applying a structure-based design strategy. The binding affinities of compounds 16dk, 16do and 16du to FABP4, at the molecular level, are equivalent to or even better than that of BMS309403...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775644/redox-signal-mediated-trpm2-promotes-ang-ii-induced-adipocyte-insulin-resistance-via-ca-2-dependent-camkii-jnk-cascade
#4
Min Gao, Yu Du, Jing-Wen Xie, Jing Xue, Yi-Ting Wang, Li Qin, Ming-Ming Ma, Yong-Bo Tang, Xiao-Yan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel which plays a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, little is known whether TRPM2 is involved in adipocyte dysfunction during hypertension. In the present study, we determined the role of TRPM2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Ang II-induced adipocyte insulin resistant model was conducted...
May 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775461/effects-of-aerobic-training-with-and-without-weight-loss-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipids
#5
Damon L Swift, Joseph A Houmard, Cris A Slentz, William E Kraus
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise training with modest or greater weight loss (≥3%) or not (<3%) on insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein concentrations, and lipoprotein particle size in overweight and obese participants. METHODS: Adults (N = 163, body mass index: 25-37 [kg/m2]) participated in 8 months of exercise training. Insulin sensitivity, lipid concentrations, lipid particle size and other cardiometabolic variables were measured at baseline and follow-up...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773555/prostaglandin-f-2%C3%AE-facilitates-hepatic-glucose-production-through-camkii%C3%AE-p38-foxo1-signaling-pathway-in-fasting-and-obesity
#6
Yuanyang Wang, Shuai Yan, Bing Xiao, Shengkai Zuo, Qianqian Zhang, Guilin Chen, Yu Yu, Di Chen, Qian Liu, Yi Liu, Yujun Shen, Ying Yu
Gluconeogenesis is drastically increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and accounts for increased fasting plasma glucose concentrations. Circulating prostaglandin (PG) F2α is also markedly elevated in diabetes mellitus; however, whether and how PGF2α regulates hepatic glucose metabolism remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that PGF2α receptor (F-prostanoid receptor; FP) was upregulated in livers of mice upon fasting- and diabetic stress. Hepatic deletion of the FP receptor suppressed fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis, whereas FP overexpression enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice...
May 17, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772784/capsaicin-in-metabolic-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Sunil K Panchal, Edward Bliss, Lindsay Brown
Capsaicin, the major active constituent of chilli, is an agonist on transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is present on many metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have established the effectiveness of low-dose dietary capsaicin in attenuating metabolic disorders...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771124/genistein-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-targeting-thromboxane-a2-pathway
#8
Wenzhe Wang, Junliang Chen, Jinyan Mao, Hongling Li, Mingfu Wang, Hao Zhang, Haitao Li, Wei Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now a public health issue worldwide, but no drug has received approval yet. Genistein, an isoflavonoid derived from soybean, ameliorates high fat diet-induced NAFLD in mice, but the molecular underpinnings remain largely elusive. Arachidonic acid is a major ingredient of animal fats, and arachidonic acid cascade has been implicated in chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether genistein against NAFLD by targeting arachidonic acid cascade. By using a mouse model, we showed that genistein supplementation improved high-fat diet induced NAFLD by normalizing hepatomegaly, liver steatosis, aminotransferase abnormalities and glucose tolerance...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770924/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-induced-weight-loss-and-metabolic-improvements-are-similar-in-tgr5-deficient-and-wildtype-mice
#9
Zheng Hao, R Leigh Townsend, Michael B Mumphrey, Thomas W Gettys, Sangho Yu, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains one of the most effective treatments for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Despite this, the mechanisms through which it acts are still not well understood. Bile acid signaling through the transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5 has been shown to have significant effects on metabolism and has recently been reported to be necessary for the full effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a bariatric surgery with similar effects to RYGB...
May 16, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768729/adaptive-changes-in-pancreas-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-induced-weight-loss
#10
A Lautenbach, M Wernecke, N Riedel, J Veigel, J Yamamura, S Keller, R Jung, P Busch, O Mann, F K Knop, J J Holst, J J Meier, J Aberle
AIMS: Obesity has been shown to trigger adaptive increases in pancreas parenchymal and fat volume. Consecutively, pancreatic steatosis may lead to beta-cell dysfunction. However, it is not known, whether the pancreatic tissue components decrease with weight loss and pancreatic steatosis is reversible following RYGB. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the effects of RYGB-induced weight loss on pancreatic volume and glucose homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 11 patients were recruited in the Obesity Centre of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf...
May 16, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768504/sarcopoterium-spinosum-extract-improved-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice-models-of-glucose-intolerance-and-diabetes
#11
Konstantin Rozenberg, Tovit Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: The glucose lowering properties of Sarcopoterium spinosum, a traditional medicinal plant, were previously validated by us using KK-Ay mice as a genetic model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effects of Sarcopoterium spinosum extract (SSE) on diet-induced glucose intolerance and to investigate SSE effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in target tissues of both high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed and KK-Ay mice. RESULTS: Mice were given SSE (70 mg/day) for 6 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767231/bidirectional-modulation-of-insulin-action-by-reactive-oxygen-species-in-3t3%C3%A2-l1-adipocytes
#12
Mingfeng Ma, Yingyao Quan, Yong Li, Xu He, Jing Xiao, Meixiao Zhan, Wei Zhao, Yongjie Xin, Ligong Lu, Liangping Luo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve an important role in glucose‑lipid metabolic regulation. In the present study, the results demonstrated that there was bidirectional regulation of insulin action in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes treated with ROS. Transient and acute ROS exposure improved insulin‑induced metabolic effects in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as a stable and diffusible ROS, diffused into adipocytes and altered intracellular redox homeostasis, resulting in oxidation and inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766601/functional-high-intensity-exercise-training-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Ciarán E Fealy, Stephan Nieuwoudt, Julie A Foucher, Amanda R Scelsi, Steve K Malin, Mangesh Pagadala, Lauren A Cruz, Miranda Li, Michael Rocco, Bartolome Burguera, John P Kirwan
AIM: Functional high intensity training (F-HIT) is a novel fitness paradigm that integrates simultaneous aerobic and resistance training in sets of constantly varied movements, based on real-world situational exercises, performed at high intensity in workouts that range from ∼8-20 min/session. We hypothesized that F-HIT would be an effective exercise mode for reducing insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: We recruited 13 overweight/obese adults (5 males, 8 females; 53 ± 7 years; BMI 34...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763604/attenuation-of-macrophage-accumulation-and-polarisation-in-obese-diabetic-mice-by-a-small-molecule-significantly-improved-insulin-sensitivity
#14
Sandip Mukherjee, Snehasis Das, Dipanjan Chattopadhyay, Shuvasree Sarkar, Subhendu Kumar Chatterjee, Dhrubajyoti Talukdar, Sutapa Mukherjee, Subeer S Majumder, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Mihir K Chaudhuri, Samir Bhattacharya
Accumulation and polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 to proinflammatory M1 macrophage in the adipose tissue of obese diabetic mice is an important pathogenic signature. It worsens lipid induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that a small molecule, a peroxyvanadate compound i.e. DmpzH [VO(O2 )2 (dmpz)] or dmp, could robustly decrease macrophage infiltration, accumulation and their polarization in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese diabetic mice. In searching the underlying mechanism it was revealed that SIRT1 level was strikingly low in the inflamed adipose tissue of HFD mice as compared to mice fed with standard diet (SD)...
May 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762478/insulin-sensitivity-and-glucose-homeostasis-can-be-influenced-by-metabolic-acid-load
#15
REVIEW
Lucio Della Guardia, Michael Alex Thomas, Hellas Cena
Recent epidemiological findings suggest that high levels of dietary acid load can affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Consumption of high protein diets results in the over-production of metabolic acids which has been associated with the development of chronic metabolic disturbances. Mild metabolic acidosis has been shown to impair peripheral insulin action and several epidemiological findings suggest that metabolic acid load markers are associated with insulin resistance and impaired glycemic control through an interference intracellular insulin signaling pathways and translocation...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760587/the-role-of-adipokines-in-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-insulin-sensitivity
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, David J Baker, Simon W Jones
Background: There is currently an unmet clinical need to develop better pharmacological treatments to improve glucose handling in Type II Diabetes patients with obesity. To this end, determining the effect of obesity-associated adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity has emerged as an important area of drug discovery research. This review draws together the data on the functional role of adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin signalling, highlights several understudied novel adipokines and provides a perspective on the direction of future research...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757190/reversing-the-curse-on-ppar%C3%AE
#17
Mitchell A Lazar
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are the only antidiabetic drugs that reverse insulin resistance. They have been a valuable asset in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but their side effects have curtailed widespread use in the clinic. In this issue of the JCI, Kraakman and colleagues provide evidence that deacetylation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ improves the therapeutic index of TZDs. These findings should revitalize the quest to employ insulin sensitization as a first-line approach to managing type 2 diabetes...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755591/improved-insulin-sensitivity-and-lower-postprandial-triglyceride-concentrations-after-cold-pressed-turnip-rapeseed-oil-compared-to-cream-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Harri Juhani Saarinen, Sari Husgafvel, Hanna Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Marja Wallenius, Ari Palomäki
Background: The aim of this study was to compare acute effects of turnip rapeseed oil rich with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and cream on postprandial triglyceride levels and post-glucose load measures of insulin sensitivity in population of men with metabolic syndrome. Methods: This open-label balanced crossover study included 37 men with metabolic syndrome. They underwent an oral glucose-fat tolerance test where they ingested 75 g of glucose with either 240 mL of cream or 84 mL of turnip rapeseed oil depending on the study arm...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755474/exercise-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-skeletal-muscle-ampk-expression-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Fabiana B Benatti, Cíntia N H Miyake, Wagner S Dantas, Vanessa O Zambelli, Samuel K Shinjo, Rosa M R Pereira, Maria Elizabeth R Silva, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Eduardo Borba, Eloisa Bonfá, Bruno Gualano
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients may show increased insulin resistance (IR) when compared with their healthy peers. Exercise training has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in other insulin-resistant populations, but it has never been tested in SLE. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a moderate-intensity exercise training program on insulin sensitivity and potential underlying mechanisms in SLE patients with mild/inactive disease. A 12-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754952/early-time-restricted-feeding-improves-insulin-sensitivity-blood-pressure-and-oxidative-stress-even-without-weight-loss-in-men-with-prediabetes
#20
Elizabeth F Sutton, Robbie Beyl, Kate S Early, William T Cefalu, Eric Ravussin, Courtney M Peterson
Intermittent fasting (IF) improves cardiometabolic health; however, it is unknown whether these effects are due solely to weight loss. We conducted the first supervised controlled feeding trial to test whether IF has benefits independent of weight loss by feeding participants enough food to maintain their weight. Our proof-of-concept study also constitutes the first trial of early time-restricted feeding (eTRF), a form of IF that involves eating early in the day to be in alignment with circadian rhythms in metabolism...
May 8, 2018: Cell Metabolism
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