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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432734/monogenic-diabetes-syndromes-locus-specific-databases-for-alstr%C3%A3-m-wolfram-and-thiamine-responsive-megaloblastic-anaemia
#1
Dewi Astuti, Ataf Sabir, Piers Fulton, Malgorzata Zatyka, Denise Williams, Carol Hardy, Gabriella Milan, Francesca Favaretto, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Julia Rohayem, Miguel López de Heredia, Tamara Hershey, Lisbeth Tranebjaerg, Jian-Hua Chen, Annabel Chaussenot, Virginia Nunes, Bess Marshall, Susan McAfferty, Vallo Tillmann, Pietro Maffei, Veronique Paquis-Flucklinger, Tarekign Geberhiwot, Wojciech Mlynarski, Kay Parkinson, Virginie Picard, Gema Esteban Bueno, Renuka Dias, Amy Arnold, Caitlin Richens, Richard Paisey, Fumi Urano, Robert Semple, Richard Sinnott, Timothy G Barrett
We developed a variant database for diabetes syndrome genes, using the Leiden Open Variation Database platform, containing observed phenotypes matched to the genetic variations. We populated it with 628 published disease associated variants (December 2016) for: WFS1 (n = 309), CISD2 (n = 3), ALMS1 (n = 268), and SLC19A2 (n = 48) for Wolfram type 1, Wolfram type 2, Alström and Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia syndromes respectively; and included 23 previously unpublished novel germline variants in WFS1 and 17 variants in ALMS1...
April 21, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431377/metabolic-regulation-and-the-anti-obesity-perspectives-of-human-brown-fat
#2
REVIEW
Camilla Scheele, Søren Nielsen
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans increase glucose and fatty acid clearance as well as resting metabolic rate, whereas a prolonged elevation of BAT activity improves insulin sensitivity. However, substantial reductions in body weight following BAT activation has not yet been shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat...
April 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431322/xanthohumol-and-8-prenylnaringenin-ameliorate-diabetic-related-metabolic-dysfunctions-in-mice
#3
Raquel Costa, Ilda Rodrigues, Luísa Guardão, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Carolina Silva, José Magalhães, Manuel Ferreira-de-Almeida, Rita Negrão, Raquel Soares
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disturbances in specific tissues. The present work aimed to analyze the effects of xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), two beer-derived polyphenols, in liver and skeletal muscle lipid and glycolytic metabolism in T2DM mice model. Thirty C57Bl/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: standard diet (control), high-fat diet (DM), high-fat diet plus ethanol (DM-Ethanol), high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L XN (DM-XN) and high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L 8PN (DM-8PN) during 20 weeks...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429286/effects-of-selenium-supplementation-on-the-diabetic-condition-depend-on-the-baseline-selenium-status-in-kkay-mice
#4
Novian Febiyanto, Chiho Yamazaki, Satomi Kameo, Dian K Sari, Irma M Puspitasari, Deni K Sunjaya, Dewi M D Herawati, Gaga I Nugraha, Toshio Fukuda, Hiroshi Koyama
Oxidative stress in obesity leads to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Some selenoproteins possess antioxidant properties, suggesting that selenium (Se) may protect against type 2 diabetes; however, evidence from epidemiological studies is contradictory. We hypothesized that Se status before supplementation (baseline) contributes to the supplementation outcome. This study aimed to clarify the influence of baseline Se status on the effect of Se supplementation on the diabetic condition. Six-week-old KKAy mice were fed a diet without supplemental Se or with 0...
April 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428072/membrane-lipid-alterations-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-the-role-of-dietary-oils
#5
REVIEW
Javier S Perona
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of pathological conditions, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and low HDL levels that is of great concern worldwide, as individuals with metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance, the key feature of the metabolic syndrome, might be at the same time cause and consequence of impaired lipid composition in plasma membranes of insulin-sensitive tissues like liver, muscle and adipose tissue...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427090/the-aldosterone-synthase-inhibitor-fad286-is-suitable-for-lowering-aldosterone-levels-in-zdf-rats-but-not-in-db-db-mice
#6
Anja Hofmann, Coy Brunssen, Mirko Peitzsch, Mariya Balyura, Jennifer Mittag, Annika Frenzel, Anett Jannasch, Nicholas F Brown, Steven M Weldon, Kristina K Gueneva-Boucheva, Graeme Eisenhofer, Stefan R Bornstein, Henning Morawietz
Inhibition of aldosterone synthase is an alternative treatment option to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism to prevent harmful aldosterone actions. FAD286 is one of the best characterized aldosterone synthase inhibitors to date. FAD286 improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in obese and diabetic ZDF rats. However, there is limited knowledge about the dose-dependent effects of FAD286 on plasma aldosterone, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone in ZDF rats and in db/db mice, a second important rodent model of obesity and type 2 diabetes...
April 20, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425576/bone-marrow-adipose-and-lung-tissue-derived-murine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-release-different-mediators-and-differentially-affect-airway-and-lung-parenchyma-in-experimental-asthma
#7
Soraia C Abreu, Mariana A Antunes, Debora G Xisto, Fernanda F Cruz, Vivian C Branco, Elga Bandeira, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Almair F de Araújo, Ludmilla Dellatorre-Texeira, Priscilla C Olsen, Daniel J Weiss, Bruno L Diaz, Marcelo M Morales, Patricia R M Rocco
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from different sources have differential effects on lung injury. To compare the effects of murine MSCs from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AD), and lung tissue (LUNG) on inflammatory and remodeling processes in experimental allergic asthma, female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline (C). Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, mice received either saline (50 µl, SAL), BM-MSCs, AD-MSCs, or LUNG-MSCs (10(5) cells per mouse in 50 µl total volume) intratracheally...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424190/odd-chain-fatty-acids-as-a-biomarker-for-dietary-fiber-intake-a-novel-pathway-for-endogenous-production-from-propionate
#8
Karolin Weitkunat, Sara Schumann, Daniela Nickel, Silke Hornemann, Klaus J Petzke, Matthias B Schulze, Andreas Fh Pfeiffer, Susanne Klaus
Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity.Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416312/periapical-lesions-increase-macrophage-infiltration-and-inflammatory-signaling-in-muscle-tissue-of-rats
#9
Renato Felipe Pereira, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra, Gestter Willian Lattari Tessarin, Fernando Yamamoto Chiba, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho Mattera, Natalia Francisco Scaramele, Thais Verônica Saori Tsosura, Edilson Ervolino, Sandra Helena Penha de Oliveira, Doris Hissako Sumida
INTRODUCTION: Our previous studies have shown that periapical lesions (PLs) in rats cause systemic disorders such as increased tumor necrosis factor-α plasma levels, insulin resistance, and impairment in insulin signal transduction in muscle tissue. However, the mechanisms involved in these alterations are not fully understood. Under chronic inflammatory conditions such as obesity, it has been shown that the skeletal muscle is affected by inflammation, and the number of resident macrophages that are associated with impairments of insulin action and sensitivity is increased...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414064/obesity-in-coronary-heart-disease-an-unaddressed-behavioral-risk-factor
#10
Philip A Ades, Patrick D Savage
Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD). Over 80% of patients with CHD are overweight or obese. While obesity is often considered a relatively "minor" CHD risk factor, weight loss is a broadly effective risk-factor intervention. Weight loss can profoundly influence a number of "major" risk factors including: hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite its prominence as a risk factor most cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs do not have a specific, targeted intervention to assist patients with weight loss...
April 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409821/nano-curcumin-safely-prevents-streptozotocin-induced-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-%C3%A3-cells-for-effective-management-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Raghu Ganugula, Meenakshi Arora, Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee, Heather G Jørgensen, Vinod P Venkatpurwar, Beiyan Zhou, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Rita Basu, Shaodong Guo, Majeti N V Ravi Kumar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Approaches to prevent selective and progressive loss of insulin-producing ß-cells in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) will help conquer this prevalent and devastating disease. Curcumin (CUR), a natural anti-inflammatory, suppresses diabetes associated inflammation and cell death. However, very high doses have been tested owing to poor oral bioavailability, making it difficult to translate to the clinic. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We recently prepared biodegradable nanosystems encapsulating curcumin (nCUR), resulting in at least 9-fold improvement in oral bioavailability...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409320/vitamin-d-sub-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-a-window-on-a-potential-role-for-the-interaction-between-bone-and-glucose-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Stefania Giuliana Garbossa, Franco Folli
Vitamin D is a key hormone involved in the regulation of calcium/phosphorous balance and recently it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sub-inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity. The two main forms of vitamin D are cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2): the active form (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is the result of two hydroxylations that take place in liver, kidney, pancreas and immune cells. Vitamin D increases the production of some anti-inflammatory cytokines and reduces the release of some pro-inflammatory cytokines...
April 13, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407657/the-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-e-co-supplementation-on-indices-of-insulin-resistance-and-hormonal-parameters-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Mansooreh Samimi, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Mehri Jamilian, Hossein Akbari, Elham Rahmani, Shahnaz Ahmadi, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh, Zatollah Asemi
This study was conducted to determine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on indices of insulin resistance and hormonal parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done on 68 women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups to receive either 1 000 mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil containing 400 mg α-Linolenic acid plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n=34) or placebo (n=34) for 12 weeks...
April 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406477/mir-21-ablation-and-obeticholic-acid-ameliorate-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#14
Pedro M Rodrigues, Marta B Afonso, André L Simão, Catarina C Carvalho, Alexandre Trindade, António Duarte, Pedro M Borralho, Mariana V Machado, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Cecília Mp Rodrigues, Rui E Castro
microRNAs were recently suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease lacking specific pharmacological treatments. In that regard, nuclear receptors are arising as key molecular targets for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we show that, in a typical model of NASH-associated liver damage, microRNA-21 (miR-21) ablation results in a progressive decrease in steatosis, inflammation and lipoapoptosis, with impairment of fibrosis. In a complementary fast food (FF) diet NASH model, mimicking features of the metabolic syndrome, miR-21 levels increase in both liver and muscle, concomitantly with decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key miR-21 target...
April 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404627/multiphasic-regulation-of-systemic-and-peripheral-organ-metabolic-responses-to-cardiac-hypertrophy
#15
Chong Wee Liew, Shanshan Xu, Xuerong Wang, Maximilian McCann, Hyerim Whang Kong, Andrew C Carley, Jingbo Pang, Giamila Fantuzzi, J Michael O'Donnell, E Douglas Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Reduced fat oxidation in hypertrophied hearts coincides with a shift of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I from muscle to increased liver isoforms. Acutely increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase I in normal rodent hearts has been shown to recapitulate the reduced fat oxidation and elevated atrial natriuretic peptide message of cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because of the potential for reduced fat oxidation to affect cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide, and thus, induce adipose lipolysis, we studied peripheral and systemic metabolism in male C57BL/6 mice model of transverse aortic constriction in which left ventricular hypertrophy occurred by 2 weeks without functional decline until 16 weeks (ejection fraction, -45...
April 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403936/the-short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-on-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-humans
#16
Derek K Hagman, Ilona Larson, Jessica N Kuzma, Gail Cromer, Karen Makar, Katya B Rubinow, Karen E Foster-Schubert, Brian van Yserloo, Peter S Billing, Robert W Landerholm, Matthew Crouthamel, David R Flum, David E Cummings, Mario Kratz
CONTEXT: The mechanisms mediating the short- and long-term improvements in glucose homeostasis following bariatric/metabolic surgery remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a reduction in adipose tissue inflammation plays a role in the metabolic improvements seen after bariatric/metabolic surgery, both in the short-term and longer-term. DESIGN: Fasting blood and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained before (n=14), at one month (n=9), and 6-12months (n=14) after bariatric/metabolic surgery from individuals with obesity who were not on insulin or anti-diabetes medication...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403933/knocking-down-amygdalar-ptp1b-in-diet-induced-obese-rats-improves-insulin-signaling-action-decreases-adiposity-and-may-alter-anxiety-behavior
#17
Natalia Ferreira Mendes, Gisele Castro, Dioze Guadagnini, Natalia Tobar, Susana Quiros Cognuck, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, Patricia Aline Boer, Patricia Oliveira Prada
OBJECTIVE: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been extensively implicated in the regulation of body weight, food intake, and energy expenditure. The role of PTP1B appears to be cell and brain region dependent. RESULTS: Herein, we demonstrated that chronic high-fat feeding enhanced PTP1B expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of rats compared to rats on chow. Knocking down PTP1B with oligonucleotide antisense (ASO) decreased its expression and was sufficient to improve the anorexigenic effect of insulin through IR/Akt signaling in the CeA...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403686/swimming-training-induces-liver-adaptations-to-oxidative-stress-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-rats-submitted-to-high-fat-diet
#18
Aline Cruz Zacarias, Maria Andrea Barbosa, Renata Guerra-Sá, Uberdan Guilherme Mendes De Castro, Frank Silva Bezerra, Wanderson Geraldo de Lima, Leonardo M Cardoso, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora
Oxidative stress, physical inactivity and high-fat (FAT) diets are associated with hepatic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MS). The therapeutic effects of physical training (PT) were evaluated in rats with MS induced by FAT diet for 13 weeks, on oxidative stress and insulin signaling in the liver, during the last 6 weeks. FAT-sedentary (SED) rats increased body mass, retroperitoneal fat, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), and total cholesterol, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose and insulin...
April 13, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403174/exercise-in-vivo-marks-human-myotubes-in-vitro-training-induced-increase-in-lipid-metabolism
#19
Jenny Lund, Arild C Rustan, Nils G Løvsletten, Jonathan M Mudry, Torgrim M Langleite, Yuan Z Feng, Camilla Stensrud, Mari G Brubak, Christian A Drevon, Kåre I Birkeland, Kristoffer J Kolnes, Egil I Johansen, Daniel S Tangen, Hans K Stadheim, Hanne L Gulseth, Anna Krook, Eili T Kase, Jørgen Jensen, G Hege Thoresen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical activity has preventive as well as therapeutic benefits for overweight subjects. In this study we aimed to examine effects of in vivo exercise on in vitro metabolic adaptations by studying energy metabolism in cultured myotubes isolated from biopsies taken before and after 12 weeks of extensive endurance and strength training, from healthy sedentary normal weight and overweight men. METHODS: Healthy sedentary men, aged 40-62 years, with normal weight (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2) or overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402446/adiponectin-and-its-receptors-in-diabetic-kidney-disease-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-potential
#20
Dongqing Zha, Xiaoyan Wu, Ping Gao
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major complication for diabetic patients. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizer and anti-inflammatory adipokine and is mainly secreted by adipocytes. Two types of adiponectin receptors have been identified, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. In both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with DKD elevated adiponectin serum levels have been observed and adiponectin serum level is a prognostic factor of end stage renal disease. Renal insufficiency and tubular injury possibly play a contributory role in increases in serum and urinary adiponectin levels in diabetic nephropathy by either increasing biodegradation or elimination of adiponectin in the kidneys, or enhancing production of adiponectin in adipose tissue...
April 11, 2017: Endocrinology
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