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Improved insulin sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934434/high-sensitivity-assays-for-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-by-immuno-polymerase-chain-reaction-detection-of-pfideh-and-pfldh-antigens
#1
Jianbing Mu, John F Andersen, Jesus G Valenzuela, Thomas E Wellems
Background: Rapid diagnostic tests based on Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (PfHRP-II) and P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) antigens are widely deployed for detection of P. falciparum infection; however, these tests often miss cases of low-level parasitemia, and PfHRP-II tests can give false-negative results when P. falciparum strains do not express this antigen. Methods: We screened proteomic data for highly expressed P. falciparum proteins and compared their features to those of PfHRP-II and PfLDH biomarkers...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933767/hemin-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-cultured-hepatocytes-and-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#2
Yi Luan, Fang Zhang, Yalan Cheng, Jun Liu, Rui Huang, Menghong Yan, Yuangao Wang, Zhishui He, Hejin Lai, Hui Wang, Hao Ying, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai
Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932870/ablation-of-kallikrein-7-klk7-in-adipose-tissue-ameliorates-metabolic-consequences-of-high%C3%A2-fat-diet-induced-obesity-by-counteracting-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vivo
#3
Konstanze Zieger, Juliane Weiner, Anne Kunath, Martin Gericke, Kerstin Krause, Matthias Kern, Michael Stumvoll, Nora Klöting, Matthias Blüher, John T Heiker
Vaspin is an adipokine which improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is the first known protease target inhibited by vaspin and a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KLK7 in adipose tissue may beneficially affect glucose metabolism and adipose tissue function. Therefore, we have inactivated the Klk7 gene in adipose tissue using conditional gene-targeting strategies in mice. Klk7-deficient mice (ATKlk7 (-/-)) exhibited less weight gain, predominant expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue and improved whole body insulin sensitivity under a high fat diet (HFD)...
September 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931850/effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-gut-permeability-inflammation-markers-and-fecal-microbiota-in-obese-women
#4
Beate Ott, Thomas Skurk, Ljiljana Hastreiter, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Sandra Fischer, Janine Büttner, Teresa Kellerer, Thomas Clavel, Michael Rychlik, Dirk Haller, Hans Hauner
Recent findings suggest an association between obesity, loss of gut barrier function and changes in microbiota profiles. Our primary objective was to examine the effect of caloric restriction and subsequent weight reduction on gut permeability in obese women. The impact on inflammatory markers and fecal microbiota was also investigated. The 4-week very-low calorie diet (VLCD, 800 kcal/day) induced a mean weight loss of 6.9 ± 1.9 kg accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), fasting plasma glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, and leptin gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929602/chromium-supplementation-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Xiao-Lei Tang, Zheng Sun, Lei Gong
AIM: Increasing evidence has suggested that chromium supplementation may improve the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), yet the results have been inconsistent. To derive a more precise estimation of the efficacy of chromium, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Studies published in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to April 2017 were retrieved. Standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95%CI were calculated for net changes using random-effects or fixed-effects models...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928277/jnk-activation-of-bim-promotes-hepatic-oxidative-stress-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#6
Sara A Litwak, Lokman Pang, Sandra Galic, Mariana Igoillo-Esteve, William J Stanley, Jean-Valery Turatsinze, Kim Loh, Helen E Thomas, Arpeeta Sharma, Eric Trepo, Christophe Moreno, Daniel J Gough, Decio L Eizirik, Judy B de Haan, Esteban N Gurzov
The BCL-2 family are crucial regulators of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in normal physiology and disease. Besides their role in cell death, BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular metabolism. It remains unclear, however, whether these proteins have a physiological role in glucose homeostasis and metabolism in vivo Here we report that fat accumulation in the liver increases JNK-dependent BIM expression in hepatocytes. To determine the consequences of hepatic BIM deficiency in diet-induced obesity, we generated liver-specific BIM knockout (BLKO) mice...
September 19, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926842/pharmacotherapy-with-thymoquinone-improved-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-integrity-and-functional-activity-enhanced-islets-revascularization-and-alleviated-metabolic-and-hepato-renal-disturbances-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#7
Adel Galal El-Shemi, Osama Adnan Kensara, Aiman Alsaegh, Mohammed Hasan Mukhtar
AIMS: This study is aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats, and exploring the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared STZ (65 mg/kg). After disease induction, 42 rats were equally assigned to: controls, STZ-diabetic group, and STZ-diabetic group treated with oral TQ (35 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks...
September 20, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926107/fenofibrate-reverses-changes-induced-by-high-fat-diet-on-metabolism-in-mice-muscle-and-visceral-adipocytes
#8
Flávia de Toledo Frias, Karina Cunha E Rocha, Mariana de Mendonça, Gilson Massahiro Murata, Hygor Nunes Araujo, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Érica de Souza, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Nayara de Carvalho Leite, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Rui Curi, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Alice Cristina Rodrigues
The effect of fenofibrate on the metabolism of skeletal muscle and visceral white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice was investigated. C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for eight weeks. Fenofibrate (50 mg/Kg b.w., daily) was administered by oral gavage during the last two weeks of the experimental period. Insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in soleus muscles, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, indirect calorimetry, lipolysis of visceral white adipose tissue, expression of miR-103-3p in adipose tissue and miR-1a, miR-133a/b, miR-206, let7b-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-29-3p, miR-143-3p in soleus muscle, genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and soleus muscle, and proteins (phospho-AMPKα2, Pgc1α, Cpt1b), intramuscular lipid staining, and activities of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle were investigated...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925030/drug-repurposing-may-generate-novel-approaches-to-treating-depression
#9
REVIEW
Mohamed Elsaed Ebada
OBJECTIVES: The breakthrough advancements in scientific medical research have greatly improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, encouraging drug discoverers to take a shorter path than ever through drug repurposing to generate new antidepressant medications. In addition to reduced noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain, other coincidence features such as glutamate neurotoxicity, inflammation and/or cerebrovascular insufficiency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and late-life depression...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921894/macrophage-area-content-and-phenotype-in-hepatic-and-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-obesity-undergoing-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#10
Marianne D Kristensen, Michael T Lund, Merethe Hansen, Steen S Poulsen, Thorkil Ploug, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge, Clara Prats
OBJECTIVE: To investigate hepatic and adipose tissue macrophage content in subjects with obesity and the role of adipose tissue macrophages in weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity (IS). METHODS: A cross-sectional and a longitudinal study were combined to investigate the role of macrophages in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue and the liver in obesity-induced impaired IS and improvements with weight loss. Macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, and CD206) in SAT, VAT, and the liver from patients with obesity were investigated...
September 18, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921841/in-a-randomized-trial-in-prostate-cancer-patients-dietary-protein-restriction-modifies-markers-of-leptin-and-insulin-signaling-in-plasma-extracellular-vesicles
#11
Erez Eitan, Valeria Tosti, Caitlin N Suire, Edda Cava, Sean Berkowitz, Beatrice Bertozzi, Sophia M Raefsky, Nicola Veronese, Ryan Spangler, Francesco Spelta, Maja Mustapic, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Mark P Mattson, Luigi Fontana
Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and hyperleptinemia are associated with aging and age-associated diseases including prostate cancer. One experimental approach to inhibit tumor growth is to reduce dietary protein intake and hence levels of circulating amino acids. Dietary protein restriction (PR) increases insulin sensitivity and suppresses prostate cancer cell tumor growth in animal models, providing a rationale for clinical trials. We sought to demonstrate that biomarkers derived from plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) reflect systemic leptin and insulin signaling and respond to dietary interventions...
September 17, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920502/clinical-and-metabolic-characteristics-of-turkish-adolescents-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Seda Ates, Serdar Aydın, Pinar Ozcan, Zeynep Soyman, Ayse Filiz Gokmen Karasu, Osman Sevket
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, endocrine, metabolic features and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MBS) in Turkish adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the differences in metabolic parameters between adolescent PCOS with or without the presence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) on ultrasound. Subjects (n = 77) were classified into two groups: oligomenorrhea (O) and clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism (HA) (n = 38), without PCO and O + HA with PCO (n = 39)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919422/over-expression-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-obese-mice-adipose-tissue-improves-insulin-sensitivity
#13
Haruya Takahashi, Kohei Sanada, Hiroyuki Nagai, Yongjia Li, Yumeko Aoki, Takeshi Ara, Shigeto Seno, Hideo Matsuda, Rina Yu, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is important in the regulation of lipid metabolism and expressed at high levels in the liver. Although PPARα is also expressed in adipose tissue, little is known about the relationship between its activation and the regulation of glucose metabolism. In this study, we developed adipose tissue specific PPARα over-expression (OE) mice. Metabolomics and insulin tolerance tests showed that OE induces branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) profile and improvement of insulin sensitivity...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918470/assessment-of-glucose-regulation-in-pregnancy-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#14
Christian S Göbl, Latife Bozkurt, Andrea Tura, Michael Leutner, Laura Andrei, Lukas Fahr, Peter Husslein, Wolfgang Eppel, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is characterised by glycaemic variability. Prospective studies of glucose metabolism in pregnancy after RYGB are not available, therefore this study aimed to evaluate physiological alterations in glucose metabolism in pregnancy following RYGB. METHODS: Sixty-three pregnant women (25 who underwent RYGB, 19 non-operated obese control women and 19 normal weight control women) were included. Frequently sampled 3 h OGTTs and 1 h IVGTTs were performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation and, in a subgroup, were repeated at 3-6 months after delivery...
September 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916569/effects-of-anthocyanins-on-cardiometabolic-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
LiPing Yang, WenHua Ling, ZhiCheng Du, YuMing Chen, Dan Li, ShiZhou Deng, ZhaoMin Liu, LiLi Yang
Numerous clinical trials have examined the role of anthocyanins on cardiometabolic health, but their effects have not been quantitatively synthesized and systematically evaluated. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of anthocyanins on glycemic regulation and lipid profiles in both healthy populations and those with cardiometabolic diseases. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane database, OVID EBM Reviews, and clinicaltrials...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915943/derivatization-enhanced-separation-and-sensitivity-of-long-chain-free-fatty-acids-application-to-asthma-using-targeted-and-non-targeted-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-approach
#16
Xiqing Bian, Baoqing Sun, Peiyan Zheng, Na Li, Jian-Lin Wu
Long chain-free fatty acids (LCFFAs) play pivotal roles in various physiological functions, like inflammation, insulin resistance, hypertension, immune cell behavior and other biological activities. However, the detection is obstructed by the low contents, structural diversity, high structural similarity, and matrix interference. Herein, a fast cholamine-derivatization, within 1 min at room temperature, coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach was developed to determine LCFFAs in complex samples...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914811/leptolide-improves-insulin-resistance-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
Pablo Villa-Pérez, Mercedes Cueto, Ana R Díaz-Marrero, Carmen D Lobatón, Alfredo Moreno, Germán Perdomo, Irene Cózar-Castellano
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex disease linked to pancreatic beta-cell failure and insulin resistance. Current antidiabetic treatment regimens for T2DM include insulin sensitizers and insulin secretagogues. We have previously demonstrated that leptolide, a member of the furanocembranolides family, promotes pancreatic beta-cell proliferation in mice. Considering the beneficial effects of leptolide in diabetic mice, in this study, we aimed to address the capability of leptolide to improve insulin resistance associated with the pathology of obesity...
September 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912917/the-low-dose-7-5-mg-day-pioglitazone-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Hidekatsu Yanai, Hiroki Adachi
Pioglitazone is one of thiazolidinedione derivatives, which stimulates nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and improves glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis showed that pioglitazone therapy was associated with a lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes. Further, in a cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes, pioglitazone therapy was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of all-cause mortality...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912305/effects-of-liraglutide-on-weight-loss-fat-distribution-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-obese-subjects-with-prediabetes-or-early-type-2-diabetes
#19
Francesca Santilli, Paola G Simeone, Maria T Guagnano, Marika Leo, Marica T Maccarone, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Cristina Sborgia, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Ermanno Angelucci, Virginia Federico, Stefano Cianfarani, Lamberto Manzoli, Giovanni Davì, Armando Tartaro, Agostino Consoli
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. The risk depends significantly on adipose tissue distribution. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog, is associated with weight loss, improved glycemic control, and reduced cardiovascular risk. We determined whether an equal degree of weight loss by liraglutide or lifestyle changes has a different impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese subjects with prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes...
September 14, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911155/differential-associations-of-inflammatory-markers-with-insulin-sensitivity-and-secretion-the-prospective-metsim-study
#20
Maria Fizelova, Raimo Jauhiainen, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Alena Stancáková
Context: Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, prospective studies evaluating inflammatory markers as predictors of changes in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are lacking. Objective: We investigated the associations of glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, incident type 2 diabetes, hypertension, CVD events, and total mortality in the prospective Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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