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Journal of clinical nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628361/lipocalin-2-an-emerging-player-in-iron-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#1
Xia Xiao, Beng San Yeoh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein, has emerged as a critical iron regulatory protein during physiological and inflammatory conditions. As a bacteriostatic factor, Lcn2 obstructs the siderophore iron-acquiring strategy of bacteria and thus inhibits bacterial growth. As part of host nutritional immunity, Lcn2 facilitates systemic, cellular, and mucosal hypoferremia during inflammation, in addition to stabilizing the siderophore-bound labile iron pool. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the interaction between Lcn2 and iron, and its effects in various inflammatory diseases...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613982/dietary-phosphorus-intake-and-the-kidney
#2
Alex R Chang, Cheryl Anderson
Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Small studies in human suggest that high phosphorus intake may result in positive phosphorus balance and correlate with renal calcification and albuminuria...
June 14, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612831/abdominal-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-in-asian-indians-dietary-strategies-including-edible-oils-cooking-practices-and-sugar-intake
#3
REVIEW
S Gulati, A Misra
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in rural and urban regions of South Asia including India. Pattern of fat deposition in abdomen, ectopic fat deposition (liver, pancreas) and also low lean mass are contributory to early-onset insulin resistance, dysmetabolic state and diabetes in Asian Indians. These metabolic perturbations are further exacerbated by changing lifestyle, diet urbanization, and mechanization. Important dietary imbalances include increasing use of oils containing high amount of trans fatty acids and saturated fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, palmolein oil) use of deep frying method and reheating of oils for cooking, high intake of saturated fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates, low intake of protein, fiber and increasing intake of processed foods...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589949/they-say-coconut-oil-can-aid-weight-loss-but-can-it-really
#4
M E Clegg
There has in recent years, been much media speculation and consumer interest in the beneficial satiating properties of consuming coconut oil and its potential to aid weight loss. However, the media has primarily cited studies using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil. The current perspective looks at the research that is available on coconut oil. It examines if and how MCT-related research can be applied to coconut oil and if there is potential for coconut oil to aid weight loss. The current report indicates a lack of consistent evidence on the topic of coconut oil, satiety and weight loss...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589948/associations-between-fatty-acids-and-low-grade-inflammation-in-children-from-the-lisaplus-birth-cohort-study
#5
C Harris, H Demmelmair, A von Berg, I Lehmann, C Flexeder, B Koletzko, J Heinrich, M Standl
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Assessing fatty acid (FA) composition in relation to inflammatory markers can shed light on the role of different FA and their metabolism in low-grade inflammation. Existing exploratory studies in children are scarce, and findings inconsistent. We hence aim to analyse associations of FA with common inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in 10-year-old children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Complete data were available for 958 participants from the 10-year follow-up of the LISAplus (Influence of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Immune System and the Development of Allergies in Childhood plus the Influence of Traffic Emissions and Genetics) birth cohort study...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589947/gut-microbiota-composition-in-relation-to-the-metabolic-response-to-12-week-combined-polyphenol-supplementation-in-overweight-men-and-women
#6
J Most, J Penders, M Lucchesi, G H Goossens, E E Blaak
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intestinal microbiota may have a profound impact on host metabolism. As evidence suggests that polyphenols affect substrate utilization, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of polyphenol supplementation on intestinal microbiota composition in humans. Furthermore, we examined whether (changes in) gut microbiota composition may determine the metabolic response to polyphenol supplementation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled trial, 37 overweight and obese men and women (18 males/19 females, 37...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562490/assessing-nutritional-status-in-cancer-role-of-the-patient-generated-subjective-global-assessment
#7
Harriët Jager-Wittenaar, Faith D Ottery
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is used internationally as the reference method for proactive risk assessment (screening), assessment, monitoring and triaging for interventions in patients with cancer. This review aims to explain the rationale behind and data supporting the PG-SGA, and to provide an overview of recent developments in the utilization of the PG-SGA and the PG-SGA Short Form. RECENT FINDINGS: The PG-SGA was designed in the context of a paradigm known as 'anabolic competence'...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561039/sedentary-behavior-and-compensatory-mechanisms-in-response-to-different-doses-of-exercise-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#8
E A Castro, P B Júdice, A M Silva, P J Teixeira, P J Benito
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To examine compensatory changes in sedentary behavior (SB) and light-intensity physical activities (LIPA) in response to a 22-week exercise training program in overweight/obese adults; and to determine if different forms of exercise training and physical activity recommendations interact with these compensatory changes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty-nine overweight and obese individuals (body mass index (BMI): 25-34.9 kg/m(2), 48% males), aged 18-50 years, were randomized into four intervention groups (strength, endurance, combined strength + endurance and physical activity recommendations) with a 25-30% caloric restriction of total daily energy expenditure for 22 weeks...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561038/the-role-of-energy-intake-and-energy-misreporting-in-the-associations-between-eating-patterns-and-adiposity
#9
R M Leech, A Worsley, A Timperio, S A McNaughton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Research examining associations between eating occasion (EO) frequency and adiposity is inconclusive; studies examining the impact of energy misreporting are rare. This study examined associations between eating patterns and adiposity, with adjustment for energy misreporting, in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed via two 24-h recalls collected during the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n=4050 adults, aged ⩾19 years)...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561037/milk-cereal-and-whole-grain-dietary-patterns-protect-against-low-bone-mineral-density-among-male-adolescents-and-young-adults
#10
S Shin, S-H Kim, H Joung, M J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence supporting the possible effect of dietary factors on adult bone health has emerged in recent decades. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of different dietary patterns on bone mineral density (BMD) among Korean male youth. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were extracted from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) during 2008-2011. The subjects included 1351 male aged 10-25 years. We defined 'low BMD group' as subjects with a BMD Z-score of -2...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537583/impact-of-the-n-6-n-3-long-chain-pufa-ratio-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-offspring-neurodevelopment-5-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
C Brei, L Stecher, S Brunner, R Ensenauer, F Heinen, P D Wagner, J Hermsdörfer, H Hauner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence regarding the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy on offspring's neurodevelopment is not conclusive. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this analysis, the effect of a reduced n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio in the diet of pregnant/lactating women (1.2 g n-3 LCPUFA together with an arachidonic acid (AA)-balanced diet between 15th wk of gestation-4 months postpartum vs control diet) on child neurodevelopment at 4 and 5 years of age was assessed...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537582/thyroid-homeostasis-in-mother-child-pairs-in-relation-to-maternal-iodine-status-the-misa-study
#12
V Berg, T H Nøst, G Skeie, Y Thomassen, B Berlinger, A S Veyhe, R Jorde, J Ø Odland, S Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may influence maternal and foetal thyroid function with the risk of causing neurocognitive and psychomotor deficits in the offspring. The objective of this study was to assess iodine status in pregnant women from Northern Norway and to investigate the influence of iodine status on maternal and infant thyroid function. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Women from the Northern Norway Mother-and-Child contaminant Cohort Study (MISA) donated a blood and urine sample at three visits during their pregnancy and postpartum period (in second trimester, 3 days and 6 weeks after delivery...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537581/the-effects-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-on-migraine-and-markers-of-intestinal-permeability-results-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#13
N M de Roos, S van Hemert, J M P Rovers, M G Smits, B J M Witteman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Migraine, associated with several gastrointestinal disorders, may result from increased intestinal permeability, allowing endotoxins to enter the bloodstream. We tested whether probiotics could reduce migraine through an effect on intestinal permeability and inflammation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total, 63 patients were randomly allocated to the probiotic (n=31) or the placebo group (n=32). Participants ingested a multispecies probiotic (5x10(9) colony-forming units) or placebo daily for 12 weeks...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537580/effects-of-supplementation-with-quercetin-on-plasma-c-reactive-protein-concentrations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
REVIEW
M Mohammadi-Sartang, Z Mazloom, S Sherafatmanesh, M Ghorbani, Donya Firoozi
Promising experimental studies suggest that quercetin has potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the results of current clinical trials on quercetin's effects on the C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive inflammatory biomarker, are ambiguous. We conducted a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to resolve this inconsistency and quantify the net effect of quercetin on circulating CRP concentrations. A systematic search was performed in several databases including SCOPUS, PubMed-Medline and Google Scholar until 16 June 2016...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537579/developmental-origins-of-diabetes-an-indian-perspective
#15
REVIEW
G V Krishnaveni, C S Yajnik
The developmental origins of health disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that altered environmental influences (nutrition, metabolism, pollutants, stress and so on) during critical stages of fetal growth predisposes individuals to diabetes and other non-communicable disease in later life. This phenomenon is thought to reflect permanent effects ('programming') of unbalanced fetal development on physiological systems. Intrauterine programming may underlie the characteristic Indian 'thin-fat' phenotype and the current unprecedented epidemic of diabetes on the backdrop of multigenerational maternal undernutrition in the country...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537578/relation-between-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-and-micronutrient-intake-in-a-prospective-study
#16
P Mullie, E Mertens, R Charlier, S S Knaeps, J Lefevre, P Clarys
Micronutrient dilution following sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can lead to a qualitative impoverishment of a dietary pattern. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the relation between SSB consumption and micronutrients. A total 562 adults were tested in 2002 and 2012 for the same anthropometric, lifestyle and nutritional intake activity parameters. Calcium, iron and magnesium intake decreased with increasing baseline SSB intake, and with increasing SSB consumption during the 10 years...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537577/c-reactive-protein-in-brazilian-adolescents-distribution-and-association-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-erica-survey
#17
D T Giannini, M C C Kuschnir, C L de Oliveira, K V Bloch, B D Schaan, F V Cureau, K M B de Carvalho, G M Dias, M Szklo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation that has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular diseases in adults. To evaluate the distribution of CRP as well as its association with metabolic syndrome and its components. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 12-17, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (ERICA). Anthropometric, biochemical and blood pressure data were collected from 6316 adolescents, selected from a random sample of students in the cities of Brasilia, Fortaleza, João Pessoa, Manaus, Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537576/an-infant-and-mother-with-severe-b12-deficiency-vitamin-b12-status-assessment-should-be-determined-in-pregnant-women-with-anaemia
#18
A Sobczyńska-Malefora, R Ramachandran, D Cregeen, E Green, P Bennett, D J Harrington, H A Lemonde
The vitamin B12 status of infants depends on maternal B12 status during pregnancy, and during lactation if breastfed. We present a 9-month-old girl who was admitted to the metabolic unit for assessment of developmental delay. She was exclusively breastfed and the introduction of solids at 5 months was unsuccessful. Investigations revealed pancytopenia, undetectable B12 and highly elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine normalised following B12 injections. Marked catch-up of developmental milestones was noted after treatment with B12...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535154/randomised-controlled-trial-of-early-prophylactic-feeding-vs-standard-care-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
Teresa E Brown, Merrilyn D Banks, Brett G M Hughes, Charles Y Lin, Lizbeth M Kenny, Judith D Bauer
BACKGROUND: Weight loss remains significant in patients with head and neck cancer, despite prophylactic gastrostomy and intensive dietary counseling. The aim of this study was to improve outcomes utilising an early nutrition intervention. METHODS: Patients with head and neck cancer at a tertiary hospital in Australia referred for prophylactic gastrostomy prior to curative intent treatment were eligible for this single centre randomised controlled trial. Exclusions included severe malnutrition or dysphagia...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513624/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-malaysia-current-trends-and-risk-factors
#20
REVIEW
E-S Tee, R W K Yap
This review discussed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Malaysia and the associated major risk factors, namely overweight/obesity, dietary practices and physical activity in both adults and school children. Detailed analyses of such information will provide crucial information for the formulation and implementation of programmes for the control and prevention of T2DM in the country. National studies from 1996-2015, and other recent nation-wide studies were referred to. The current prevalence of DM in 2015 is 17...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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