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Marie Andersson, Lisa Ersson, Ingvar Brandt, Ulrika Bergström
β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has potential to biomagnify in a terrestrial food chain, and to bioaccumulate in fish and shellfish. We have reported that administration of [(14)C]l-BMAA to lactating mice and rats results in a mother to off-spring transfer via the milk. A preferential enantiomer-specific uptake of [(14)C]l-BMAA has also been demonstrated in differentiated murine mammary epithelium HC11 cells. These findings, together with neurotoxic effects of BMAA demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, highlight the need to determine whether such transfer could also occur in humans...
February 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Estefanía de Munck, Valle Palomo, Emma Muñoz-Sáez, Daniel I Perez, Begoña Gómez-Miguel, M Teresa Solas, Carmen Gil, Ana Martínez, Rosa M Arahuetes
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy...
2016: PloS One
Marie Andersson, Oskar Karlsson, Sandra Anne Banack, Ingvar Brandt
The cyanobacterial non-proteinogenic amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is proposed to be involved in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex. When administered as single doses to neonatal rats, BMAA gives rise to cognitive and neurodegenerative impairments in the adult animal. Here, we employed mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and autoradiographic imaging to examine the mother-to-pup transfer of BMAA in rats. The results show that unchanged BMAA was secreted into the milk and distributed to the suckling pups...
September 6, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Matjaž Novak, Klara Hercog, Bojana Žegura
A neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria ubiquitously present in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Due to its global presence in surface waters, a widespread human exposure is possible and therefore this toxin represents a health risk for humans and animals. L-BMAA has been linked to the development of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Its neurotoxic activity has been extensively studied, while nothing is known on its genotoxic properties...
August 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Paul Alan Cox, David A Davis, Deborah C Mash, James S Metcalf, Sandra Anne Banack
Vervets with chronic dietary exposure to BMAA develop neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and sparse β-amyloid plaque-like deposits in the brain. Macaques dosed via oral gavage with BMAA developed marked neurological signs in the absence of cell death. These differences may result from increased vulnerability of macaques to BMAA, the higher effective dose they received via oral gavage, and the possibility of stable adducts due to the bicarbonate used to neutralize their BMAA dose. Confirmation of chromatolysis and cell death in macaque brains was visualized using toluidine staining...
April 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
P S Spencer, C E Garner, V S Palmer, G E Kisby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Paul Alan Cox, David A Davis, Deborah C Mash, James S Metcalf, Sandra Anne Banack
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and β-amyloid plaques are the neurological hallmarks of both Alzheimer's disease and an unusual paralytic illness suffered by Chamorro villagers on the Pacific island of Guam. Many Chamorros with the disease suffer dementia, and in some villages one-quarter of the adults perished from the disease. Like Alzheimer's, the causal factors of Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) are poorly understood. In replicated experiments, we found that chronic dietary exposure to a cyanobacterial toxin present in the traditional Chamorro diet, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), triggers the formation of both NFT and β-amyloid deposits similar in structure and density to those found in brain tissues of Chamorros who died with ALS/PDC...
January 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak, Douglas G Rogers, Kyle D Hoagland
The cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is considered to be an "excitotoxin," and its suggested mechanism of action is killing neurons. Long-term exposure to L-BMAA is believed to lead to neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). Objectives of this study were to determine the presumptive median lethal dose (LD50), the Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (LOAEL), and histopathologic lesions caused by the naturally occurring BMAA isomer, L-BMAA, in mice...
2015: Journal of Toxicology
Elisabeth J Faassen, María García-Altares, Mariana Mendes e Mello, Miquel Lürling
β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin that is suspected to play a role in the neurological diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. BMAA has been detected in phytoplankton and globally, the main exposure routes for humans to BMAA are through direct contact with phytoplankton-infested waters and consumption of BMAA-contaminated fish and invertebrates. As BMAA can be transferred from mothers to offspring in mammals, BMAA exposure is expected to have transgenerational effects...
November 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Nuria de Pedro, Juan Cantizani, Francisco Javier Ortiz-López, Victor González-Menéndez, Bastien Cautain, Lorena Rodríguez, Gerald F Bills, Fernando Reyes, Olga Genilloud, Francisca Vicente
Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by loss of dopaminergic or motor neurons, respectively. Although understanding of the PD and ALS pathogenesis remains incomplete, increasing evidence from human and animal studies has suggested that aberrant GSK3β, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are involved in their pathogenesis. Using two different molecular models, treatment with L-BMAA for ALS and rotenone for PD the effect of isolecanoric acid, a natural product isolated from a fungal culture, was evaluated...
February 2016: Neuropharmacology
Sandra Lage, Alfred Burian, Ulla Rasmussen, Pedro Reis Costa, Heléne Annadotter, Anna Godhe, Sara Rydberg
β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply...
January 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Damien Réveillon, Eric Abadie, Véronique Séchet, Estelle Masseret, Philipp Hess, Zouher Amzil
The neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-l-alanine) and its isomer DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) have been detected in seafood worldwide, including in Thau lagoon (French Mediterranean Sea). A cluster of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease associated with BMAA, has also been observed in this region. Mussels, periphyton (i.e. biofilms attached to mussels) and plankton were sampled between July 2013 and October 2014, and analyzed using HILIC-MS/MS. BMAA, DAB and AEG (N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine) were found in almost all the samples of the lagoon...
September 2015: Marine Environmental Research
Marie Andersson, Oskar Karlsson, Ulrika Bergström, Eva B Brittebo, Ingvar Brandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: PloS One
Rianita van Onselen, Niall A Cook, Richard R Phelan, Tim G Downing
β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), is commonly found in both a free and proteinassociated form in various organisms exposed to the toxin. The long latency of development of neurodegeneration attributed to BMAA, is hypothesized to be the result of excitotoxicity following slow release of the toxin from protein reservoirs. It was recently suggested that these BMAA-protein associations may reflect misincorporation of BMAA in place of serine, as occurs, for example, when canavanine misincorporates in place of arginine...
August 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Valeska Contardo-Jara, Sandra Kuehn, Stephan Pflugmacher
The filamentous green algae Aegagropila linnaei was tested for its uptake capacity of the cyanobacterial toxins microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in order to approve the suitability of its use in the Green Liver System(®). Uptake into the algae and toxin reduction in the medium were analyzed by LC-MS/MS after static exposure for one week to 20μgL(-1) MC-LR, 80μgL(-1) BMAA, and 20μgL(-1) MC-LR together with 80μgL(-1) BMAA, respectively. BMAA was effectively removed by A. linnaei within 5 days compared to only around 35% removal of the initial exposure concentration in the case of MC-LR, independent of the application mode, in single or in a mixture...
August 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Simoné Downing, Maranda Esterhuizen-Londt, Timothy Grant Downing
The cyanobacterial neurotoxin, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) bioaccumulates and biomagnifies within the environment. However, most reports on the environmental presence of BMAA focus on the presence of BMAA in animals rather than in plants. Various laboratory studies have reported that this neurotoxin, implicated in neurodegenerative disease, is rapidly taken up by various aquatic and terrestrial plants, including crop plants. In this study the metabolism of BMAA in the aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum demersum, was investigated using stable isotopically labelled BMAA...
October 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Estefanía de Munck, Emma Muñoz-Sáez, Begoña G Miguel, M Teresa Solas, Ana Martínez, Rosa M Arahuetes
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle paralysis that reflects the motoneurons' degeneration. Several studies support the relationship between β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (l-BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria and diatoms, and the sporadic occurrence of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the study of its neurotoxicity mechanisms has assumed great relevance in recent years. Recently, our research team has proposed a sporadic ALS animal model by l-BMAA administration in rats, which displays many pathophysiological features of human ALS...
May 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Audrey Roy-Lachapelle, Morgan Solliec, Sébastien Sauvé
A new analytical method was developed for the detection of alkaloid cyanotoxins in harmful algal blooms. The detection of the nonproteinogenic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and two of its conformation isomers, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine (AEG), as well as three alkaloid cyanotoxins, anatoxin-a (ANA-a), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and saxitoxin (STX), is presented. The use of a chemical derivatization with dansyl chloride (DNS) allows easier separation with reversed phase liquid chromatography...
July 2015: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Tania Serrano, Rémi Dupas, Erika Upegui, Camille Buscail, Catherine Grimaldi, Jean François Viel
The cyanobacteria-derived neurotoxin β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) represents a plausible environmental trigger for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a debilitating and fatal neuromuscular disease. With the eutrophication of water bodies, cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins are becoming increasingly prevalent in France, especially in the Brittany region. Cyanobacteria are monitored at only a few recreational sites, preventing an estimation of exposure of the human population. By contrast, phosphorus, a limiting nutrient for cyanobacterial growth and thus considered a good proxy for cyanobacteria exposure, is monitored in many but not all surface water bodies...
August 2015: Environment International
Maranda Esterhuizen-Londt, Claudia Wiegand, Tim G Downing
β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), produced by cyanobacteria, is a neurotoxin implicated in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC). BMAA concentrations in cyanobacteria are lower than those thought to be necessary to result in neurological damage thus bioaccumulation or biomagnification is required to achieve concentrations able to cause neurodegeneration. Many cyanobacteria produce BMAA and uptake routes into the food web require examination. In this study we investigate the uptake of BMAA by adult phytoplanktivorus Daphnia magna via exposure to dissolved pure BMAA and BMAA containing cyanobacteria, as well as the subsequent oxidative stress response in the daphnia...
June 15, 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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