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Cirrhosis imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225291/-a-contribution-to-the-differential-diagnostics-of-sclerosing-cholangitides
#1
Martin Blaho, Petr Dítě, Martina Bojková, Martin Rydlo, Tomáš Kupka, Pavel Svoboda, Pavel Klvaňa, Arnošt Martínek
Sclerosing cholangitides represent a group of chronic biliary obstructive diseases which include primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), IgG4 associated sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC). The manifestations of the diseases are similar, but their asymptomatic course is also frequent. IgG4-SC belongs to the group of IgG4 associated diseases and it is the most frequently related to type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. Diagnosing of IgG4-SC is based on typical histopathological images, shape changes revealed by diagnostic imaging, serological tests, concurrent impairment of other organs and response to therapy, where IgG4-SC responds well to treatment with corticoids, whereas the only possibility for the remaining units is endoscopic intervention or liver transplantation...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223730/magnetic-resonance-elastography-is-accurate-in-detecting-advanced-fibrosis-in-autoimmune-hepatitis
#2
Jin Wang, Neera Malik, Meng Yin, Thomas C Smyrk, Albert J Czaja, Richard L Ehman, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
AIM: To assess the value of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in detecting advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients (19 treated and 17 untreated) with histologically confirmed AIH and liver biopsy performed within 3 mo of MRE were identified at a tertiary care referral center. Liver stiffness (LS) with MRE was calculated by a radiologist, and inflammation grade and fibrosis stage in liver biopsy was assessed by a pathologist in a blinded fashion...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215516/aisf-position-paper-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-updates-and-future-directions
#3
Amedeo Lonardo, Fabio Nascimbeni, Giovanni Targher, Mauro Bernardi, Ferruccio Bonino, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Alessandro Casini, Amalia Gastaldelli, Giulio Marchesini, Fabio Marra, Luca Miele, Filomena Morisco, Salvatore Petta, Fabio Piscaglia, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Luca Valenti, Stefano Bellentani
This review summarizes our current understanding of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a multi-factorial systemic disease resulting from a complex interaction between a specific genetic background and multiple environmental/metabolic "hits". The role of gut microbiota, lipotoxicity, inflammation and their molecular pathways is reviewed in-depth. We also discuss the epidemiology and natural history of NAFLD by pinpointing the remarkably high prevalence of NAFLD worldwide and its inherent systemic complications: hepatic (steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis), cardio-metabolic (cardiovascular disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and type 2 diabetes) and neoplastic (primary liver cancers and extra-hepatic cancers)...
January 23, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213044/hepatocellular-carcinoma-screening-associated-with-early-tumor-detection-and-improved-survival-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-in-the-united-states
#4
Amit G Singal, Sahil Mittal, Olutola A Yerokun, Chul Ahn, Jorge Marrero, Adam Yopp, Neehar D Parikh, Steve J Scaglione
BACKGROUND: Professional societies recommend hepatocellular carcinoma screening in patients with cirrhosis but high-quality data evaluating its effectiveness to improve early tumor detection and survival in "real world" clinical practice are needed. AIMS: Characterize the association between hepatocellular carcinoma screening and early tumor detection, curative treatment, and overall survival among patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between June 2012 and May 2013 at four health systems in the United States...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210086/prognostic-factors-associated-with-mortality-in-patients-with-gastric-fundal-variceal-bleeding
#5
Keishi Komori, Masaru Kubokawa, Eikichi Ihara, Kazuya Akahoshi, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Kenta Motomura, Akihide Masumoto
AIM: To determine the prognostic factors associated with mortality in patients with gastric fundal variceal (GFV) bleeding. METHODS: In total, 42 patients were endoscopically diagnosed with GFV bleeding from January 2000 to March 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the patients' medical records and assessed their history, etiology of liver cirrhosis, disease conditions, treatment options for GFV bleeding, medications administered before and after onset of GFV bleeding, blood test results (hemoglobin, albumin, and bilirubin concentrations), and imaging results (including computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography)...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183144/rapid-deterioration-of-latent-hbv-hepatitis-during-cushing-disease-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-earthquake
#6
Ryosuke Tashiro, Yoshikazu Ogawa, Teiji Tominaga
Reactivation of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk in the 350 million HBV carriers worldwide. HBV reactivation may cause hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, and fulminant hepatitis, and HBV reactivation accompanied with malignant tumor and/or chemotherapy is a critical problem for patients with chronic HBV infection. Multiple risk factors causing an immunosuppressive state can also induce HBV reactivation.We present a case of HBV reactivation during an immunosuppressive state caused by Cushing disease and physical and psychological stress after a disaster...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174669/cell-therapy-for-liver-disease-using-bioimaging-rats
#7
REVIEW
Junko Haga, Shin Enosawa, Eiji Kobayashi
Advances in stem cell research suggest that cell therapy is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. The use of individualized and minimally invasive cell therapy is desirable to avoid rejection and reduce patient burden. While allo-hepatocyte transplantation has been performed for metabolic hepatic disease, auto-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has shifted toward mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation for liver cirrhosis. In this article, an overview of cell transplantation research for liver disease is provided through our recent rat studies...
January 8, 2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166821/deb-tace-for-intermediate-and-advanced-hcc-initial-experience-in-a-brazilian-cancer-center
#8
Jose Hugo Mendes Luz, Paula M Luz, Henrique S Martin, Hugo R Gouveia, Raphal Braz Levigard, Felipe Diniz Nogueira, Bernardo Caetano Rodrigues, Tiago Nepomuceno de Miranda, Marcelo Henrique Mamede
BACKGROUND: According to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification transarterial chemoembolization is indicated in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the intermediate stage. Drug-eluting microspheres can absorb and release the chemotherapeutic agent slowly for 14 days after its intra-arterial administration. This type of transarterial chemoembolization approach appears to provide at least equivalent effectiveness with less toxicity. METHODS: This is a prospective, single-center study, which evaluated 21 patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting microspheres...
February 6, 2017: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154018/hepatic-lesions-in-a-cirrhotic-liver-primary-or-metastases
#9
Lorenzo Mannelli, Serena Monti, Verena Grieco, Manuela Matesan
Although prior studies showed that patients with cirrhosis have a lower risk of developing liver metastases, appropriate work-up of incidental liver masses in cirrhotic liver is important for a correct diagnosis. Here we present a case of newly diagnosed liver cirrhosis with multifocal hepatic lesions which was initially categorized as LI-RADS 5 lesions. Scintigraphy with Octreoscan indicate a suspicious thyroid nodule, later confirmed to represent a medullary thyroid carcinoma lesion. The most relevant imaging finding of this rare form of thyroid malignancy, are reviewed in this presentation...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143798/diagnostic-histopathology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-based-review
#10
Rashmi M Agni
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic malignant neoplasm in adults. Clinically, it tends to present late, and its prognosis historically has been poor, due to limited treatment options at the more advanced stage. A multidisciplinary approach for surveillance and early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk populations, combined with advances in surgical and other forms of ablative or chemotherapy, has greatly improved outcomes for patients with this tumor. Liver biopsies for HCC are becoming rare, being performed only for lesions that are atypical on imaging, to avoid the risk of bleeding or of inadvertently seeding the needle tract with HCC...
December 21, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123975/utility-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-in-the-assessment-of-the-porto-spleno-mesenteric-venous-system
#11
REVIEW
Karunakaravel Karuppasamy
The common diagnostic tools available to evaluate the porto-spleno-mesenteric venous (PSMV) system provide either good hemodynamic information with limited morphological details [e.g., ultrasonography (US)] or excellent tomographic display of the anatomy with limited information about flow patterns [e.g., multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging]. Although catheter-directed selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can provide excellent information about flow at a high temporal resolution and can generate images at a high spatial resolution, this technique is often limited by a lack of cross-sectional detail...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108838/clinical-impact-of-preoperative-brain-mr-angiography-and-mr-imaging-in-candidates-for-liver-transplantation-a-propensity-score-matching-study-in-a-single-institution
#12
Mi Sun Chung, Ho Sung Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Sang-Beom Jeon, Seon-Ok Kim, Hwa Jung Kim, Shin Hwang, Seung Chai Jung, Choong Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of cerebrovascular stenosis and white matter lesions on preoperative magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in liver transplantation candidates. METHODS: This retrospective study included 1,460 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) who underwent MRA with/without brain MRI for pretransplantation evaluation. These patients were matched with 5,331 controls using propensity scores, and the prevalences of significant cerebrovascular stenosis and white matter lesions were compared...
January 20, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103626/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-the-next-frontier-in-the-epidemic
#13
REVIEW
Iliana Doycheva, Kymberly D Watt, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant health burden in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. This parallels high rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome in this age group, with unhealthy lifestyle also playing an independent role. Genetic factors, gender, and ethnicity should be considered in a risk stratification model. NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in AYAs often go unrecognized and if untreated, can progress eventually to cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation before the age of 40...
January 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098774/learning-to-diagnose-cirrhosis-with-liver-capsule-guided-ultrasound-image-classification
#14
Xiang Liu, Jia Lin Song, Shuo Hong Wang, Jing Wen Zhao, Yan Qiu Chen
This paper proposes a computer-aided cirrhosis diagnosis system to diagnose cirrhosis based on ultrasound images. We first propose a method to extract a liver capsule on an ultrasound image, then, based on the extracted liver capsule, we fine-tune a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to extract features from the image patches cropped around the liver capsules. Finally, a trained support vector machine (SVM) classifier is applied to classify the sample into normal or abnormal cases. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately classify the ultrasound images...
January 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092939/for-better-or-worse-iron-overload-by-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-a-mri-contrast-agent-for-chronic-liver-diseases
#15
Qibing Zhou, Yushuang Wei
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have recently been used as an effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for the noninvasive diagnosis of chronic liver diseases including nonalcohol fatty liver diseases, nonalcohol steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis as well as liver tumors. However, the potential risk of the iron overload by SPIONs has been highly underestimated in chronic liver diseases. While most of SPIONs have been shown safe in the healthy group, significant toxicity potential by the iron overload has been revealed through immunotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism in cirrhosis as a high risk factor...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078380/imaging-features-of-hepatic-sarcomatous-carcinoma-on-computed-tomography-and-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Kyo-Won Gu, Young Kon Kim, Ji Hye Min, Sang Yun Ha, Woo Kyoung Jeong
PURPOSE: To determine the imaging features of hepatic sarcomatous carcinoma including sarcomatous intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (S-ICC) and sarcomatous hepatocellular carcinoma (S-HCC) on computed tomography (CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with pathologically confirmed S-ICCs (n = 13), S-HCCs (n = 7), sarcomatous carcinoma (n = 2), carcinosarcoma (n = 1), and sarcomatous combined HCC-CC (n = 1) (size range 2...
January 12, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076629/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography-compared-with-biopsy-for-evaluating-hepatic-fibrosis-after-liver-transplantation-a-cross-sectional-diagnostic-study
#17
Joel Schmillevitch, Maria Cristina Chammas, Vincenzo Pugliese, Edson Abdala, Adriana Cortez Rizzon, Venâncio Alves, Luiz Augusto Carneiro, Giovanni Cerri
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Biopsies are used after liver transplantation to evaluate fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the elasticity of transplanted livers by means of a non-invasive examination, acoustic radiation force imaging (ARFI) elastography, correlating the results with the histological analysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital. METHODS: All patients consecutively operated between 2002 and 2010 with an indication for biopsy were evaluated by means of elastography...
November 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069527/liver-transplantation-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-downstaging-without-up-front-stage-restrictions
#18
William C Chapman, Sandra Garcia-Aroz, Neeta Vachharajani, Kathryn Fowler, Nael Saad, Yiing Lin, Jason Wellen, Benjamin Tan, Adeel S Khan, M B Majella Doyle
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to increase dramatically worldwide. Liver transplantation (LT) is now the standard and optimal treatment for patients with HCC in the setting of cirrhosis, but only for tumors within Milan criteria. In patients presenting beyond Milan criteria, locoregional therapy (LRT) can downstage to within Milan criteria for consideration for LT. Although controversial, the current study aims to evaluate the outcomes of LT in patients presenting with advanced-stage HCC who underwent downstaging and compare these outcomes with those of patients who met Milan criteria at presentation...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068755/systematic-quantitation-of-histologic-patterns-shows-accuracy-in-reflecting-cirrhotic-remodeling
#19
Yan Wang, Wei Huang, Ruhua Li, Zhaoqiang Yun, Youfu Zhu, Jinlian Yang, Hailin Liu, Zhipeng Liu, Qianjin Feng, Jinlin Hou
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There still lacks a tool for precisely evaluating cirrhotic remodeling. Histologic distortion characterized in cirrhosis (i.e. cirrhotic patterns) has a validated pathophysiological meaning and the potential relevance to clinical complications. We aimed to establish a new tool for quantify the cirrhotic patterns and test it for reflecting the cirrhotic remodeling. METHODS: We designed a computerized algorithm (qCP) dedicated for the analysis of liver images acquired by second harmonic microscopy...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065374/predictive-value-of-ct-for-first-esophageal-variceal-bleeding-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-value-of-para-umbilical-vein-patency
#20
Paul Calame, Maxime Ronot, Sébastien Bouveresse, Jean-Paul Cervoni, Valérie Vilgrain, Éric Delabrousse
PURPOSE: To evaluate if the presence/size of a para-umbilical vein (PUV) on computed tomography (CT) are associated with a first esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH) in patients with cirrhosis and whether imaging features can help identify patients at increased risk of EVH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2010 to June 2012 patients with cirrhosis who underwent CT and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within six months were included. The presence/size of PUV was noted...
February 2017: European Journal of Radiology
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