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Cirrhosis imaging

Kenneth Eng Ling Kwan, Vishalkumar G Shelat, Cher Heng Tan
Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is an infective process involving the biliary tree typified by pigmented intraductal calculi with dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. Previously endemic to South-east Asia, RPC can now be seen in Western countries with the increasing access to international travel and immigration. Affected patients are often plagued by recurrent bouts of cholangitis, and commonly suffer from complications such as abscess formation and biliary strictures. In severe cases, cirrhosis with portal hypertension may develop...
October 21, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Hwi Young Jang, Joon-Il Choi, Young Joon Lee, Michael Yong Park, Dong Myung Yeo, Sung Eun Rha, Eun Sun Jung, Young Kyoung You, Dong Goo Kim, Jae Young Byun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-MRI) in predicting eligibility for liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on Milan criteria (MC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed Gd-EOB-MRI of 44 patients who underwent liver transplantation for HCC with cirrhosis for the presence/size of HCCs, vascular invasion, and transplant eligibility based on MC. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed based on conventional radiological hallmarks (arterial enhancement and washout) or the modified criteria...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Marta Hernández Conde, Elba Llop Herrera, Juan de la Revilla Negro, Fernando Pons Renedo, Natalia Fernández Puga, José Luis Martínez Porras, María Trapero Marugan, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Víctor Sánchez Turrión, José Luis Calleja Panero
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients that have undergone liver transplantation (LT) is 9.7% (SD 4.5). The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence, assess the factors that are associated with PVT and clarify their association with prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and LT. AIMS AND METHODS: From 2005 to 2014, laboratory, radiological and surgical data were collected from patients with LC in our center who had undergone LT for the first time...
October 19, 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Gavin Low, Harini Dharmana, Samantha Saravana-Bawan, Safwat Girgis
History An asymptomatic 33-year-old woman was referred to the Hepatology Department in 2013 for work-up of indeterminate multifocal liver masses. These lesions were discovered incidentally at multiphase contrast material-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CT) performed in 2004 to investigate right lower quadrant pain. Imaging surveillance at sporadic intervals revealed slow progressive growth of the lesions over time; however, the number of lesions remained constant. There was no history of cancer, nor were there predisposing factors for chronic liver disease or cirrhosis...
November 2016: Radiology
Barbara J Turner, Yuanyuan Liang, Amit Singal
OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive measures are widely used to assess fibrosis and may be used to prioritize hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We examined risks for likely fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection using fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) and imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A HCV screening program diagnosed chronic HCV in patients born from 1945 to 1965 admitted in a safety net hospital. Likely fibrosis was based on FIB-4 (≥1.45) alone or combined with imaging interpreted as fibrosis or cirrhosis...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Chaeyoun Oh, Joong Kee Youn, Ji-Won Han, Gi Beom Kim, Hyun-Young Kim, Sung-Eun Jung
INTRODUCTION: The Fontan procedure (FP) has become the standard operation for patients with single ventricle physiology. However, a long period of elevated systemic venous pressure and low cardiac output after the procedure result in chronic inflammation and liver cirrhosis, which may eventually lead to the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CLINICAL FINDINGS: We described the case of a 16-year-old female who developed HCC after the FP. At 21 months, the patient received a lateral tunnel FP, and 14 years later, she began complaining of abdominal distension, telangiectasia, and fatigue...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Faisal Inayat, Zia Ur Rahman, Abu Hurairah
Our objective was to study nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with and without cirrhosis. HCC is a common cancer worldwide that predominantly involves patients with hepatic cirrhosis. HCC has recently been linked to NAFLD, the hepatic manifestation of obesity and related metabolic disorders. This association is alarming due to the high prevalence of NAFLD globally, which may contribute to the rising incidence of HCC. A 31-year-old female with a history of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus presented with abdominal pain that persisted for six months...
August 29, 2016: Curēus
Yasir Furkan Cagin, Yahya Atayan, Mehmet Ali Erdogan, Firat Dagtekin, Cemil Colak
BACKGROUND: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is due to many risk factors, but its pathogenesis is still not clearly understood. To identify the risk factors for PVT, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and complications associated with PVT in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: We studied patients with liver cirrhosis who were admitted to our unit from April 2009 to December 2014. The patients were divided into the PVT and non-PVT groups, and were compared by variables including gender, age, the etiology of cirrhosis, stage of cirrhosis, complications, imaging, and treatment...
October 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Mustafa Özbayrak, Servet Tatlı
Knowing the normal anatomy, variations, congenital and acquired pathologies of the portal venous system are important, especially when planning liver surgery and percutaneous interventional procedures. The portal venous system pathologies can be congenital such as agenesis of portal vein (PV) or can be involved by other hepatic disorders such as cirrhosis and malignancies. In this article, we present normal anatomy, variations, and acquired pathologies involving the portal venous system as showed on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 12, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
M P Economides, P Mahale, A Kyvernitakis, F Turturo, H Kantarjian, A Naing, J Hosry, T L Shigle, A Kaseb, H A Torres
BACKGROUND: Antiviral therapy improves hepatic outcomes in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cancer patients. However, such patients are not treated simultaneously with antivirals and chemotherapy, owing to overlapping toxicities with previous standard of care treatment of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. AIM: To examine the safety and clinically-significant drug-drug interactions observed in patients who received simultaneous treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and chemotherapy...
October 11, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
M Maida, F S Macaluso, F Salomone, S Petta
NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease) is an increasingly significant public health issue, regarded as the most relevant liver disease of the twenty-first century. Approximately 20%-30% of NAFLD subjects develop a NASH (Non-Alcoholic Steato-Hepatitis), a condition which can potentially evolve to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. For these reasons a proper evaluation of liver damage is a key point for diagnosis and prognosis and liver biopsy still remains the "gold standard" procedure both for discrimination between steatosis and steatohepatitis and assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis...
October 4, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
Xuejuan Dong, Xin Li, Jie Yu, Ming-An Yu, Xiaoling Yu, Ping Liang
PURPOSE: To retrospectively review the complications of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of renal cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 101 patients with 105 tumors seen from April 2006 to Feb 2014 were enrolled retrospectively. The patients were treated with US-guided percutaneous MWA and were followed up with contrast-enhanced US and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 3, and 6 months and every 6 months thereafter...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Konstantinos Filis, George Galyfos, Ioannis Ketikoglou
We present an unusual case of a 40-year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and diffuse abdominal pain. The imaging studies revealed a huge renal vein aneurysm. The patient refused any interventional management, despite the risk of possible rupture, and after a week of mild pain therapy, she was discharged. She was followed up closely, and after one year, she remains asymptomatic. Conservative management of such patients has been described before with success. However, open repair or percutaneous thrombosis of the aneurysm remains the indicated therapy, when vein patency is an issue for organ viability...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Jeong Hee Yoon, Jeong Min Lee, Eunju Kim, Tomoyuki Okuaki, Joon Koo Han
Purpose To determine whether B1 inhomogeneity-corrected volumetric T1 maps of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are able to demonstrate global liver function and functional heterogeneity in patients with cirrhosis and to investigate their relationship with the development of hepatic insufficiency and decompensation. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved retrospective study with waiver of informed consent included 234 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MR imaging, including B1 inhomogeneity-corrected volumetric T1 mapping...
October 3, 2016: Radiology
Mehri Owjimehr, Habibollah Danyali, Mohammad Sadegh Helfroush, Alireza Shakibafard
Fatty liver disease is progressive and may not cause any symptoms at early stages. This disease is potentially fatal and can cause liver cancer in severe stages. Therefore, diagnosing and staging fatty liver disease in early stages is necessary. In this paper, a novel method is presented to classify normal and fatty liver, as well as discriminate three stages of fatty liver in ultrasound images. This study is performed with 129 subjects including 28 normal, 47 steatosis, 42 fibrosis, and 12 cirrhosis images...
June 8, 2016: Ultrasonic Imaging
Steffen Zopf, Lara Rösch, Peter C Konturek, Ruediger S Goertz, Markus F Neurath, Deike Strobel
BACKGROUND Non-invasive procedures such as acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) shear-wave elastography are currently used for the assessment of liver fibrosis. In the course of chronic hepatitis C, significant liver fibrosis or cirrhosis develops in approximately 25% of patients, which is a negative predictor of antiviral treatment response. Cirrhosis can be prevented by successful virus elimination. In this prospective study, a pretreatment ARFI cutoff value of 1.5 m/s was evaluated in relation to sustained virological response to anti-HCV therapy...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Aparna Srinivasa Babu, Michael L Wells, Oleg M Teytelboym, Justin E Mackey, Frank H Miller, Benjamin M Yeh, Richard L Ehman, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
Chronic liver disease has multiple causes, many of which are increasing in prevalence. The final common pathway of chronic liver disease is tissue destruction and attempted regeneration, a pathway that triggers fibrosis and eventual cirrhosis. Assessment of fibrosis is important not only for diagnosis but also for management, prognostic evaluation, and follow-up of patients with chronic liver disease. Although liver biopsy has traditionally been considered the reference standard for assessment of liver fibrosis, noninvasive techniques are the emerging focus in this field...
September 30, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Gary Xia Vern Tan, Rhian Miranda, Tom Sutherland
: Hepatic capsular retraction refers to the loss of the normal convex hepatic contour, with the formation of an area of flattening or concavity. This can result from myriad causes, including intrinsic hepatic conditions such as cirrhosis, biliary obstruction, benign tumours, malignancy and infections, as well as extrahepatic causes such as trauma. This article aims to provide familiarity with this wide spectrum of conditions, including mimics of hepatic capsular retraction, by highlighting the anatomic, pathologic and imaging features that help distinguish these entities from one another...
September 29, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Songul Gokay, Pembe Soylu Ustkoyuncu, Fatih Kardas, Mustafa Kendirci
BACKGROUND: Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare, inborn error of tyrosine metabolism. It is a fatal disorder without treatment. Early treatment may prevent acute liver failure, renal dysfunction, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves survival. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical, biochemical, imaging and follow-up of seven patients with HT1 and to define the consequences of the late and interrupted treatment. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out with seven HT1 patients...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Abdelghany Hassan Abdelghany, Mohammad A BaSalamah, Shakir Idris, Jawwad Ahmad, Bassem Refaat
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (VitD) and thymoquinone (TQ) are nutraceutical agents with well-known immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective properties. This study measured whether VitD and TQ, individually or combined, could have direct fibrolytic activities and/or enhanced performance during remedial treatment of liver fibrosis established by CCl4 in rats. METHODS: Eighty five male Wistar rats were used as 10 negative controls (NC) and the remainders were distributed equally into 5 groups: short (S-PC) and long (L-PC) positive controls, TQ, VitD and VitD/TQ groups...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
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